NotaBene .

Journal NotaBene Issue 41 (2018). Editor: Kamen Lozev

Topic of the issue: ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY 170 YEARS SINCE THE BIRTH OF GOTTLOB FREGE (1848-1925) 100 YEARS SINCE THE CREATION OF TRACTATUS LOGICO-PHILOSOPHICUS

Frege for Validation

Summary: What distinguishes Freges approach to logic from the traditional ways of developing logical theory are its semantic features:logical phenomena are investigated against the background of our speaking about the world. This is manifested in the Fregean terminology in which concepts like those of sense and reference that describe the relations between the language and the world, and thereby the meanings of linguistic expressions, play central role. Freges semantic approach ensues from his orientation towards the notion of truth. According to him, the notion of truth is supremely fundamental and cannot be reduced to simpler notions. That is why, in order to elucidate it, Frege appeals to our practice of speaking and, more concretely, to the practice of making assertions. This gives an intriguing pragmatic nuance to his logical enterprise. After analyzing the relevant texts, we can say that by discussing the notion of truth in the context of the topic of assertion, Frege anticipates some important ideas that have been developed as late as in the middle of the 20th century by J. Austin and J. Searle within the framework of the speech act theory.
Keywords: Frege, assertion, speech act theory

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The Role of the Tractatus for the separation of Logic from Mathematics

Summary: The paper is concerned with the reasons (such as certain ideas and theories) leading in the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century to the emergence of logicism the doctrine that mathematics is part of logic, as well as with the reasons for its subsequent overcoming (after the 20s of the 20th century). The conception of logic in Wittgensteins Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus plays an important philosophical role in the overcoming of this doctrine and the re-separation of logic and mathematics.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Frege, logicism, logic, mathematics

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The Theory of Descriptions and Its Influence on the Tractatus

Summary:
The article discusses the issue raised by Russell concerning the essence of the descriptive phrases and specifically the definite descriptions. Russells views of the period of his Platonic atomism related to the nature and the logical form of propositions and their components is briefly stated. Russells theory of descriptions and some ontological views of the earlier Wittgenstein are also commented.
Key words: Russell, Frege, Wittgenstein, description, reductionism

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Some sayings on silence (and on the talking that says nothing)

Summary:The paper sketches a peculiar view of Wittgenstein's philosophical legacy after the publication of the Tractatus as an (inescapably doomed) attempt to construct some form of philosophical grammar which complements the purely negative doctrine of the early Wittgenstein.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Tractatus, silence, grammer

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On Inflating Frege on Thinking

Abstract: The text considers a recent suggestion for re-interpreting Freges conception of the activity of thinkingand the latters epistemic role in his theoretical project. The suggestion is dismissed as both conceptually confused and interpretatively untenable given the available textual evidence.
Key words: Frege, G.; thinking; epistemology; anti-psychologism

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On the Title of Freges First Book

Summary: The paper seeks to answer the question why, in his later years, Frege explicitly expressed regrets over his choice of the term Begriffsschrift as the title of his first book. It is well known that Ernst Schroeder, the most important reviewer of Begriffsschrift, was very critical of the work and its title. Comparing the reasons for Freges and Schroeders dissatisfaction with the title of the book the paper reveals the essence of the main principle which Frege closely and unwaveringly followed throughout the years in his work. It was due to this principle, the Principle of priority, that the Aristotelian tradition in logic was overthrown and the new paradigm of mathematical logic was established.
Keywords: Begriffsschrift, Frege, Schroeder, Principle of priority, modern logic

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A Post-bellum Tractatus?

Abstract: The paper discusses some recent attempts to go beyond the interpretative Tractatus wars, finds them over-optimistic, unrealistic or flatly inconsistent, and suggests reasons to consider any imminent cessation of interpretative hostilities unlikely.

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On the Distinction Between Formal and Material Implication

Abstract: Russell's understanding of implication in The Principles of Mathematics (1903) is dual. At the heart of this understanding we find two concepts: material and formal implication. In the paper I give the reasons why Russell had to introduce the distinction between formal and material implications. I then draw the consequences of the distinction with special attention to their direct effect on logical affirmation and logical conclusion.
Key words: proposition, propositional function, material implication, formal implication, logical conclusion.

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Podium

Classification of visual tropics in the visual semioticsof Group

Summary: The article presents the taxonomy of visual rhetorical figures proposed by the Belgian Group in their study titled Traité du signe visuel: Pour une rhétorique de l'image where the visual rhetorical act is consider as an extension of the possibilities of the semiotic world. The visual figures typology of the Liege school is described based on images used by the Belgian semioticians and applied to contemporary visual data. The classification proposed by the scholars from Liege is introduced in comparative prospective considering another visual figures typologiy ,representative for the structuralist version of visual semiotics in francophone semiotic studies, proposed by Jacques Durand as a member of the Paris School of Semiotics.
Key words: Visual rhetorical figures, taxonomy, Group , visual semiotics, structuralism

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Subjective Justification And Distributed Cognitive System

Summary:
In this article I discuss the problem of subjective justification in cases of distributed agency according externalist criteria of subjective justification presented by John Greco (1999).
Distributed cognition hypothesis is concerning cases of group agent consisting of more than one individuals and external vehicles, artifacts and tools. They form united system which characteristics are different than the sum of the characteristics of its parts.In this article I suggest normative system for group agents similar Grecos theory of individual agent. ach one of the social interactions is governed by the rule of mutual nonlinear interaction. This interaction governs also the language and communication games between the members of the distributed system. It is similar the idea of Wittgenstein about the language games.
Keywords: cognitive integration, externalism, epistemology, distributed cognition, group agent, subjective justification

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Post-Truth Politics and Refugees (Case Study: The Bulgarian Media Image of Refugees)

Abstract: The era of the social media, information abundance and fake news raises the post-truth politics - a combination between emotional argumentation, lies, bullshits, sensations and silence about the important topics. The study will tries to trace the mechanism of post-truth politics through the media image of the refugees in Bulgarian context.
Key words: post-truth, fake news, refugees, media, popular culture

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Minima moralia

Avenue Foch in Philosophical-Aesthetic and Axiological Touches

Abstract:
This paper gives a close reading of Dr. PetarKonstantinovs fiction novel Avenue Foch (1993) a chronicleofthelifesuccessesandadversitiesof a youngpainterinSofiainthe 1980s, throughtheprismoftheaestheticandvalueaspectsoftheprotagonistsworldview. Theexpositionconsecutivelyfixeson AvenueFoschasanallegoryofthe peaksinhumancultureintheiraxiologicalambivalence; onportrayingthepersonalityoftheyoungpainterthroughhisrelationshipswiththeclosestones inhisenvironment; ononesoriginalmotivesto choose or,ratherrealizeandacceptonesfateas a creatorbybirth; ontheinsuperabilityinthischoiceandthisfate.
: Avenue Foch, PetarKonstantinov, art, creation, artistic worldview, expectation, insuperability

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Babylon

Announcement

Is Love Disease According to Ortega y Gasset?

Summary: The article is focused on José Ortega-y-Gassets work, "Studies on Love," in which the Spanish thinker outlines two types of feelings that could be conditionally called: love-passion and love-affirmation. In the first one a pathogenic character can be found, but in the second one - a conscious choice of creation and preservation of the loved one is realized.
Keywords: Love, Disease, José Ortega-y-Gasset, drive, choice of giving

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Poiesis