NotaBene .

Journal NotaBene Issue 60 (2023) Editor: Gergana Popova

Topic of the issue: Political collisions

A History of the Uses of the Photographic Image in Wartime

The article examines the uses of the photographic image in the wars of the 20th century. It comes from the generally accepted claim in the social sciences and humanities that modern culture is dominated not by the word but by the image, and in this context it hypothesizes that the visual image, dominating word and reason, is a means of power whose earliest uses can to be found in the use of photography in wartime. On the one hand, visual images distort reality or directly change it. On the other hand, one believes the image, that he/she sees with his/her own eyes reflects the reality. It is a trap, two aspects of the same presence, a reality but false. In this "hyperreality" wrong patterns of thinking and behavior can easily be imposed, new ideologies can prevail. In a similar vein, the text examines precisely these thought and behavioral patterns imposed by photographic images during wartime.

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The Failed Attempt at Existential Communication between Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers as a Genuine Loss to Political Philosophy: Part II

In times of global boundary situations we look backward towards our predecessors and traditions. Politics and political philosophy today are subjected to a multitude of perturbations, which involve basic notions, such as freedom and democracy. In this vein, Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers, the two fathers of German existentialism, have a peculiar relation to the history of political philosophy. Both thinkers tried to adjust their philosophies to the ever-changing realities. After a relatively long friendship, a breach occurred in their communication and interrelation, which is suspected to have been caused by the difference in their opinions not so much on philosophy, but on politics. Heidegger gave up any involvement with politics, after his involvement with Nazism, whereas after the Second World War Jaspers tried to put in order the political thought of the present-day, in which endeavor he succeeded partially, but his ideas were never practically implemented. Thus, the potential possibility for cooperation between Heidegger and Jaspers for an eventual common politico-philosophical project was never realized. In the first part of my inquiry, I exposed the history of the friendship of the two thinkers and their academic interrelation, as well as the involvement of both of them in the political thought and the politics of the day. In this second part, I will present the rest of my historico-philosophical analysis by focusing on the interpretations of both Germans on the philosophy of their opponent, which did challenge both not for good, but for bad. At the end, I will present a general conclusion on the encounter Heidegger-Jaspers, which had begun with inspiration for high hopes and big successes, but in reality ended with the silence of Heidegger and Jaspers attempts for communication renewal and understanding even through pathobiographical analysis.
Key words: Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, communicative breach, comparative historico-philosophical analysis, (patho)biographical analysis, political philosophy, German existential philosophy, academic collaboration.

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The Photographic Imagination in the Gaps of East German Visual Culture (The Curious Case of Evelyn Richter)

The article examines the ideologically dominated and repressive nature of East German visual culture in the period from the 1950s to 1989. Examples are given of the official discourse of photography in the GDR - images should not just be realistic - they should say what the reality is. (For the purposes of the regime and to substitute it if necessary.) As a counterpoint, the photographic effort of Evelyn Richter is presented, which manages to break the official visual culture through the authenticity of everyday life. This photography of the ordinary, or "exact seeing", is the demarcation line between officially produced reality and everyday social reality. It articulates photographically the complexity of reality by delineating the relationship between what is seen and how it is seen.
Key words: GDR, Visual Culture, Exact Vision, Decisive Moment, Evelyn Richter

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The Photographic Imagination in the Gaps of East German Visual Culture (The Curious Case of Evelyn Richter). Part 2.

The article examines the ideologically dominated and repressive nature of East German visual culture in the period from the 1950s to 1989. Examples are given of the official discourse of photography in the GDR - images should not just be realistic - they should say what the reality is. (For the purposes of the regime and to substitute it if necessary.) As a counterpoint, the photographic effort of Evelyn Richter is presented, which manages to break the official visual culture through the authenticity of everyday life. This photography of the ordinary, or "exact seeing", is the demarcation line between officially produced reality and everyday social reality. It articulates photographically the complexity of reality by delineating the relationship between what is seen and how it is seen.
Key words: GDR, Visual Culture, Exact Vision, Decisive Moment, Evelyn Richter

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The invisible limits of film industry quota policies and attempts to "standardize" the art and creative process in cinema

In the last two decades, with the development of technology, communications and the growth of production and distribution of audiovisual production, the attempts to find a productive balance between moral and ethical principles, human rights, creative freedom and business interests in the new frontier field of culture, the arts and the media have definitely intensified. One of the most popular forms of normative regulation are the so-called quotas that relate primarily to the representation or equality of certain groups in creative guilds, teams or in front of the camera. Another approach is related to the introduction of certain professional and social standards in the creative and cultural industries. But culture and the arts are special spheres, and their excessive institutionalization and instrumentalization through normative regulations, ready-made formulas and prescriptions can build invisible walls precisely in front of the free creative impulse, the original author's approach, difference and diversity.
Keywords: culture, standards, cinema, representation, diversity

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Kantian Perspective on the Role of Moral Progress in the Realization of the Cosmopolitan Ideal

This paper outlines the three-stage progress of societies toward the cosmopolitan ideal in Kant's political thought, namely republican constitutionalism, federalism, and cosmopolitanism. It is proposed that societies can form national, international, and cosmopolitan federations under the common ideals of justice, equality, and freedom through this three-stage process. This idea is based primarily on Kant's purposive ideal of perpetual peace and freedom as a possible goal for humanity. It is therefore argued that perpetual peace and freedom on a cosmopolitan scale is a realizable goal if individuals and societies unite under universal principles rather than divide and fragment. Moreover, this paper aims to explain the method of realizing the cosmopolitan ideal of peace and freedom in Kant's political theory by pointing out that Kant rejects top-down methods such as war, political overthrow or revolution, etc., but believes that it can only be achieved through gradual reform and progress. In this context, the paper relates the Kantian idea of gradual reform and progress to the moral improvement of individuals/citizens, asserting that societies can only progress toward the cosmopolitan ideal by enabling the moral growth and progress of their individuals in relation to the universal concepts of justice, equality, and freedom.
Key Words: moral, progress, cosmopolitan ideal, peace, Kant, freedom.

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Podium

Philosophical education: approaches to learning and innovation

The relationship to existing pedagogical practices (traditional ones, developing ones, religious ones, humanitarian ones, etc.) is important in the design of educational strategies, as well as analyzing their effectiveness, the difficulties they face and the methods and means which they use. A global trend is changing the basic paradigm of education: crisis in the classical model and system of education, development of new pedagogical ideas in the philosophy and sociology of education; and for the humanities - creation of experimental and alternative schools. The key to their consolidation and mutual understanding is a broad discussion and awareness of the need the world to be thought outside the box, to take into consideration its right and reasons for all of its form to be a manifestation of the unique mission of education.
Keywords: mission of education, pedagogical ideas, paradigm of education

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Phenomenon of foreign lobbyism in the international activities of the United States of America



Abstract: Foreign lobbyism is sufficiently traditional occurrence purposeful to achieve definite objects. All states during realization of its foreign-policy activity tru to create nondiplomatic centers of influence, which promote the carrying out of its policy, and at present this process is going on and become deeper. For the space of long time in the USA under the name foreign lobbyism in the first place implicated support certain outside political interests. There is indisputable fact, that after II World War, the role of the USA in world policy increased and this country changed in one of the leading world power center. In a number of foreign states this circumstances necessitated to lean to USA potential, including the aim of using its financial possibilities. In this direction was adopted the Foreign Agents Registrations Act. In the article, this Act is analyzing comprehensively.
In the article, this Act is estimating as legal basis for the currying out of foreign lobbyism in the USA. According this legal Act, for the purpose of lobbyist activities foreign state and hired by this state organizations must be registered in the Minister of Justice. The main aim of this legal Act was most likely the determination of responsibility of lobbyists, then control on lobbyist activities. In the article, also give considerable attention to the problems of researching of responsibility of lobbyists for its activities according legislation of USA.
Keywords: Foreign lobbyism, Foreign Agents Registrations Act, USA, legislation, foreign state , Minister of Justice

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THE FUNCTIONING OF THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION AND TURKEYS ROLE IN THE CONFLICT ENVIRONMENT

The Eurasian Economic Union - EAEU is a project of socio - economic partnership of five countries of the former Soviet Union, led by the Russian Federation. This concept is to some extent inspired by the positive values of modern world integration, with the threads of enlargement to the environment, the rest of Asia and the Balkans. This has resulted in the recent inclusion of Vietnam and the Republic of Serbia. The effects of the entry of these countries into the EAEU are evident, given that this market includes 183 million people with huge resources. In addition to the above, the paper analyzes the role of Turkey as a traditional regional power in the South Caucasus, Central Asia and Southeast Europe. Its strategy of action was especially manifested during the long war between Armenia and friendly Azerbaijan in the province of Nagorno-Karabakh. This situation and relations with the Russian Federation further complicate the conflict situation in that part of the world.
Keywords: European Economic Union, economy, war, security, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Nagorno - Karabakh, Serbia

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Minima moralia

Insights and Delusions

The role of one-to-one and invertible correspondence between the elements of two sets in finding their cardinalities for both finite and infinite sets have analyzed. Incomparable with each other units for cardinality of a set have defined.
Keywords: Units of measurement for the cardinality of a set

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Announcement

Social and moral aspects of justice

The idea of justice, retribution, law and morality have always been at the basis of the functioning of the public apparatus. They are problematic and fundamental questions. Justice is the result of clarifying problematic human relationships. The need for order and norms in relationships is undeniable. Morality and morality, based on understandings of good and evil, categories not unwritten law, are no less significant and necessary. We can never be sure that an evil done or an injury done will be erased or fully repaired, but we can strive to regulate our actions by common sense, public duty, and a sense of the necessity of doing good to others. No society could exist if it did not establish a harmless relationship between its members. Our views and feelings about justice, responsibility, and duty underlie our perceptions of law-abiding and breaking, morality, and crime rates (Michael, 2016).
Keywords: law, morality, justice

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The language of philosophy

This text examines the subject and aims of metapragmatics. It is based on the thesis of language, understood not only as a functional unity, but also as a system for the exchange of knowledge, views, feelings and emotions, which makes it closely dependent on the users of the language. Initially, the development of semiotics and discourse analysis as disciplines dealing with language and its uses is traced in order to clarify the term "metapragmatics". In a similar connection, the related concepts "intertextuality" and "interdiscursiveness" are analyzed.
Keywords: metapragmatics, interdiscursiveness, intertextuality

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Poiesis