NotaBene е електронно списание за философски и политически науки. Повече за нас
This article is devoted to the radical turn accomplished by L. Feuerbach into German classical philosophy. The philosopher breaks with the principles of idealism by introduction of new anthropological approach. Putting emphasis on human body and emphasizing the dialogical nature of consciousness allows him to express a number of ideas that begin to develop in different disciplines - philosophy, personal, social psychology, etc. - in the twentieth century. Feuerbach points out the inhomogeneous character of the human "Self," which is always sexually defined. It depends both on the connection with the particular, sensible Other, as well as on the emotions and needs that the person experiences. Human "Self" is inhomogeneous also because it changes over time. The dialogical nature of consciousness allows Feuerbach to offer a new understanding of conscience. There is nothing supernatural in the latter, because its voice always represents the protest of the injured or offended Other.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explain Nietzsche's reflections on the human body and to relate these reflections to the other key themes in his philosophy.
Keywords: Nietzsche, body, geobiography
Abstract: The paper analyzes some anthropological aspects of love and love-related relationships in the famous novel The Idiot, by Fyodor Dostoevsky. The love in the love quartet, experienced by Prince Lef Nicolaievitch Muishkin, Nastasia Philipovna, Parfen Rogojin and Aglaya Epanchina is stamped by passions and paroxysms: sufferance, compassion, adoration, pride, joy, self-umiliation, self-destruction, happiness. Here the love is split between body and soul, sufferance and happiness, subjection and freedom, life and death. The body-soul relation and split is especially emphasized. The soul sufferance is analyzed as influencing the body sufferance and the self-destruction. The passionate love is seen as an expression of vitality, of deep and magic relation between man and women, oscillating between freedom and subjugation, joy and sadness. Those aspects of human essence, interpreted in the novel, are put in anthropological perspective.
Keywords: love, love quartet, passions, body, soul, sufferance, compassion, happiness, freedom.
Abstract: The article examines the human sensorium as historically and culturally bound. Special attention is paid to the functioning of the basic senses of the soldiers in the trenches of the First World War. An emphasis is placed on the touch. Two factors are analyzed that cause the high activity of this sense in the front-life conditions - the new body experience and the acute thirst for consolation and human proximity.
Key words: history of the senses, smell, touch, sight, hearing, taste, the senses in the war
Abstract: In the twentieth century, body research stopped being extremely biological-medical alone. The employment and representations of the body became a subject of new approaches, originally from anthropology and history. These approaches have taken in the body as a social and civilization product, a bearer and generator of meanings and therefore not of a general and neutral nature. The contemporary French historians were inspired by the work of Nobert El., The Civilizing Process, pointing out to the gradual self-discipline of the body by imposing the rules of good behaviour as well as by the work of M. Foucault who demonstrated the body's interference with power and domination, exploring the techniques of control and oversight in modern Western societies. Within these limits, the sick body, the body that hurts, the gestures, all the care and sprucing up, the pleasure and delight, sexuality, the body that is disciplined and obeys rules, the body that is being exercised, became various views of the history of the body that have given rise to scientific research. The History of the Body is a history of the material spontaneity and civilization diversity. A primary element of identity, the embodiment of the ego, the deceptive immediacy and "naturalness", our body is the ground of history, its blood and flesh. In other words, the body is our prison, but at the same time the body is our world. The body is us.In the work here presented, the author observes the history of the body - how the body has created the world we are living in.
Keywords: body, anima, lie, language, civilization
Abstract: The article analyses the pro natal policies of late socialism in Bulgaria. It compares the early communist practices and ideology focused on the ideal figure of woman shock worker with those of the late communist regime oriented towards the favoring of maternity. This accent on the role of woman as a mother changes the emancipatory politics of the regime and ultimately leads to recapturing of femininity of socialist women.
Keywords: reproduction, womanhood, bio politics, pro natal policies
Abstract: The present paper will expose Cantor's Theory of transfinite numbers, and more specific his Continuum Hypothesis, on transfinite grounding - upon the constructing of the linear continuum c as "the pure continuous number-domain", with the words of Dedekind. For this purpose, we will unfold Cantor's grounding that cardinality of the continuum c is equal to the cardinality of the sets of natural numbers - N and the rational numbers - Q as basic dimensions in n-dimensionality of the continuum. This is a construction, which poses the known number sets as basic and initial dimensions of the continuum c. These sets are also taken in their inclusion to one another as proper subsets to each other and to the set of real numbers - R. From here, we can deduce the Continuum Hypothesis formula with producing the next Aleph-numbers and to propose a new version of generalized Continuum Hypothesis. Also this will provide the solution and interpretation of Aleph-0 as a number - with its own number value upon the continuum c and as a number of the complex processes and entities in reality.
Going even more further, we can postulate the intensity of an infinite set: as its own ability to be raised to power, or covered, with transfinite cardinal number, in particular to the least transfinite number Aleph-0. So, namely on the intensity of the infinite sets, continuity can be defined and connected with the dimensionality of the continuum. And from here we can formulate the Aleph-enumerability and omega-enumerability of infinite sets as the suggestion of grounding the enumerability of the infinite sets.
All this leads also to the construction of transfinite numbers orders, in this construction we can develop them as higher and higher number classes with increasing cardinalities. These transfinite numbers orders can provide the density of "the whole absolutely infinite aggregate of numbers", with Cantor's formulation. With all this, the new transfinite numbers, introduced by Cantor, are demonstrated as powerful instrument for describing and investigating the reality to the very boundaries of its physical and conceptual comprehension.
Key words: Continuum Hypothesis, Cantor, transfinite numbers, Aleph-0, Theory of numbers, logic of infinity.
Summary:The paper seeks to investigate some of the sources which contributed to the specifically constructivist character of the earlier philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as we find it developed in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Three main sources are briefly overviewed: Russell's constructivist analysis and logical atomism, Hertz's 'Mechanics' and the in-born engineering talents of young Wittgenstein. A general view underlies the whole paper, namely that the atomistic picture of the world displayed by Wittgenstein at the beginning of the Tractatus was most congenial and consistent with the 'constructivist' view of language and propositions.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Hertz, objects, Hertz's 'Mechanics'
Abstract: This article discusses the influence of Aristotelian philosophy both on the Austrian School of Economics and on the German Historical School, as well the battle between these two German-language schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It examines the formation and development of methodological views of Carl Menger, the founder of Austrian School, in clash with this competitive group and under the influence of Austrian philosopher Franz Brentano, who continues the dissemination of Aristotle's ideas in late nineteenth century catholic Austria. Then it briefly explores the demand of Eugen Bоhm-Bawerk, the second great name of the Austrian School, on conceptual purity. Finally, it presents the argument of Ludwig von Mises, the most prominent twentieth-century Austrian economist, whit philosophers of the Vienna Circle, and his clearly Aristotelian understanding of human action and praxeology.
Key words: Aristotle, Austrian School of Economics, German Historical School, Karl Menger, Franz Brentano, Eugen Boem-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, Vienna Circle
Abstract. The following text presents the personality and philosophy of Stepan Popov, Bulgarian emigre (1906-1989). The first comment is on his Bulgarian period when he was one of the leaders of the rightist socio-political movement "The Third Generation". More attention is paid on his philosophy of history expressed mainly in his book „Der Wille zur Gestalt", 1970. The article analyzes some of the basic philosophical-historical concepts such as nation, national character, people, state, etc. The stress is put on the author's concept of the Bulgarian idea as the essence of his philosophy of native land.
Keywords: Stephan Popov, philosophy of history, philosophy of native land, the Third Generation, the Bulgarian idea
Abstract: In this article, I'm trying to draw a line of continuity between the metaphysics of Friedrich Nietzsche and his Greek disciple - the famous author Nikos Kazantzakis. The main quest is centred in the character of Alexis Zorbas and the philosophical novel "Askitiki", which in my opinion brings this metaphysical core to its limits.
Key words: Nikos Kazantzakis, Friedrich Nietzsche, Zorba the Greek, Ascesis
Това е първият от три тома ръкописи, представящи Веберовия принос от 1909-1914 г. към замисления от него мащабен проект Основи на социалната икономика. Следващите два тома ще бъдат посветени на социология на правото и на т.нар. социална икономика.
Достигали до нас през годините като принадлежащи към композирания и озаглавен от Веберовите издатели корпус на Стопанство и общество, днес тези ръкописи се публикуват като автономни книги в рамките на Пълни събрани съчинения. В съгласие с тази политика издаваме настоящия том, в който се обсъждат отношенията между видовете общности, стопанството и правото през формиращата сила на политическите общности и през посредническата работа на „културния елит".
Този том е ценен източник за социолози и социални философи, икономисти, юристи, политолози и историци, важно помагало в курсовете по социология на социалните общности и по други социални и хуманитарни дисциплини.
С текста си „Сън и екзистенция" Лудвиг Бинсвангер, потомствен швейцарски психиатър, приятел на Фройд и последовател на Хайдегер, поставя началото на екзистенциалната психоанализа: направление, което днес печели все повече внимание сред привържениците на историзирането и контекстуализирането на рефлексията над човека и на работата с него.
„Въведението" на Мишел Фуко към текста на Бинсвангер е първият му влиятелен теоретичен текст, в който той набелязва пътя към една антропология на въображението чрез изследване на съня като негово условие за възможност и сблъсква въображение и въображаемо в опит да стигне до конституиращия смисъла и субекта момент, до момента на абсолютната свобода.
Тази книга събира двата текста с убеждението, че пробивите им ще послужат на психолози, психиатри, психотерапевти, философи, антрополози, рефлексивни социолози, културни теоретици, историци и литературоведи. Но преди всичко ще послужат на онзи, който се вълнува от своето „себе си". Както и на обичащите красиви текстове, които правят границата между теория и фикция невидима, а на човешкото съществуване придават неочаквани измерения.
Abstract: Modernity and Postmodernity have witnessed secularization of the Western world and ultimate rationalization of thought. However, the rationalistic approach towards epistemological and ethical questions that characterizes Modernity has proven insufficient. Modern artists and philosophers directly or indirectly oppose the one-sided rationalistic view of the world and claim that the main subject and purpose of art is revelation of spiritual essences, connection with metaphysical reality. Eternal truths, Rothko claims, are the subject matter of all good art. This texts considers the modern tendency to associate art with spirituality in terms of themes, purpose and the role of the artist. I refer to contemporary philosophers and artists to elucidate the complex relationship between religion, art and spirituality today. I also explore the view that art is a kind of spiritual practice that can be compared to religious commitments. At the same time, art does not fully substitute religion. A crucial distinction is that art is inclusive, allowing agnostics and atheists to have spiritual experiences, while religion is exclusive. This however doesn't mean that art has priority in facilitating one's spiritual growth. Along with that, the paper aims at elucidating the role of art in individual and social life.
Keywords: modernity, artists, art, religion, secularization
Abstract: The article follows the tendency to very critical and sometimes illegitimate attitude towards art, reaching its natural ending in Benjamin's „The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". The paper compares his view with the positions of some of his contemporaries, who also work on the problems of art. The aim is to demonstrate the ambiguity of Benamin's conclusions and to show that the lethal diagnosis is overstated and the final decision is inappropriate because, as it is known, " Ars longa, vita brevis."
Kеy words: Benjamin, art, original, reproduction, Ortega y Gasset, mass.
Abstract: The study proposes an analysis of two different views on justice in the social space. One shows the importance and place of identity as well as its relation to "recognition policy", and the other is related to socio-economic space and the concept of justice as impartiality in the distribution of basic goods.
Keywords: John Rawls, Charles Taylor, justice, recognition policy, identity
Резюме: Темата предлага анализ на два различни възгледа за справедливостта в социалното пространство. Единият показва важността и мястото на идентичността, както и връзката й с „политиката на признаване, а другият е свързан със социално-икономическото пространство и концепцията за справедливостта като безпристрастност при разпределението на основни блага.
Ключови думи: Джон Ролс, Чарлз Тейлър, справедливост, политика на признаване, идентичност
Summary:The aim of the article is to present an overview of the changes in women's status in Chinese society throughout the years. The method implemented is historico-analytic with emphasis on the reasons for undertaking necessary changes concerning the place of women in economic and social life. Special attention is paid to the changes in marital relations, especially under the reign of the Chinese Communist Party, and the liberty gained by Chinese women which contributed to their heightened position in society and stronger self-esteem.
Keywords: Chinese women, women's status, women's submission, marital relations in China