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Russell’s Theory of Types as Solution to the Semantical and Theory of Sets Paradoxes
The paper represents Russell’s Type theory as a way to solve semantic and set theoretic paradoxes. A remarkable feature of this theory is that it is proposed as a resolution of both of these groups of paradoxes – the other popular proposals are directed only to one of these groups: either to the semanticparadoxes or to the paradoxes of set theoretic. It is contended that for this to be possible a price has to be paid which is both ontological (the acceptance of the existence of the abstract entities of propositional functions and propositions) and methodological (setting this ontology as a basis of logic).
Keywords: Russell, Type theory, semantic paradoxes, paradoxes in set theory
Logical Fictions and Constructions: Russell and the Relational View of Objective Time
The paper present the chronology of Russell's attempts to develop a method for treating the moments of time as logical constructions, derived from the temporal relations of precedence and simultaneity between sets of events. It is organized as follows: (§1) introduces the key terminological distinctions between objective and subjective time, correspondingly between absolute and relational theories of time, (§2) discusses the relation between these two pairs of terms, along with the merits of the opposed conceptions of time; (§3) presents the various reasons, motivating Russell's suspicions that these are in fact the absolute and the relational conception of time are alternative, and that it is possible to formulate a consistent and internally coherent relational theory of time which differs essentially from the absolute conception, (§4) juxtaposes the different approaches to the formal deduction of the properties of the temporal series, which Russell has developed in the period 1913-1948 and concludes with some brief remarks on the inter-relations between logic, ontology and epistemology, as Russell has conceived them in his works.
Keywords: Bertrand Russell, time order, relational theory of time
Bertrand Russell and the Logical Construction of Physical Objects (1911 - 1914)
The paper discusses Russell’s method of ‘logical construction’ of physical objects (matter) tracing its origin to the years 1911 – 1914. The influence upon Russell on the part of Whitehead and his invention of a method to represent points and moments and Wittgenstein’s skepticism is revealed. The influence of the British classical empiricists upon Russell’s thought is also discussed in both contexts: (1) of the view of the inferred physical objects from sense data, and (2) of a ‘threat’ to the way common sense and physical science conceives matter and material objects.
Key words: Russell, Whitehead, sense data, acquaintance, logical construction,
The Concept of ‘Logical Space’ in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
The current paper presents an attempt at clarifying the meaning of the words ‘logical space’ in the Tractatus 1.13 ‘The facts in logical space are the world’. This is achieved though exploring the concepts of ‘state of affairs’, ‘possible state of affairs’, ‘existing state of affairs’, ‘the existence and non-existence of states of affairs’, ‘fact’, ‘positive fact’, ‘negative fact’.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Tractatus, logical space, state of affairs, possible world, truth-maker, reality.
The Relation Between Reference and Existence in Russell’s Theory of Denoting
In this article, we will look at Russell's theory of descriptions and Strawson‘s critics on it. The main accent is on utterances that include certain definite descriptions that do not referrer to anything. The analysis requires us to focus our attention to the distinction between denotation and meaning because it is a key part of Russell’s and Strawson's arguments. We will put this problem in the context of other authors who share opinions on the matter: Geach, Austin, Donnellan, and Searle. The purpose of this text is to show that Russell has made an error analyzing these statements in saying that the use of definite descriptions implies existence.
Key words: Russell, reference, existence, denotation, Strawson,
Platonic Realism and the Project of Philosophical Logic
The article is based on the main problems that the Russel's onthology (platonic realism) generates. The extreme realism that the philosopher allows is a fundament of his philosophical logic. From another point of view, persisting on this kind of realism leads to unsolvable problems on the field of philosophical logic.
Key words: Russell, philosophical logic, Platonic realism, logical form, Wittgenstein
This essay introduces and strives to show the untenability of the (somewhat unjustly named) “dogma of Aristotelianism”. (§1) lists the principal tenets of the Aristotelian dogma and examines to what extent they are attributable to Aristotle, (§2) analyzes the first part of the dogma – the claim that mathematics is the study if quantity and hence is irrelevant to the study of qualitative structures, (§3) reviews briefly the concept of semiorder and discusses the possibility to interpret it as the foundation of the mathematical treatment of qualities, (§4) traces the genetic links between the algebraic theory of semiorders and the formal elaboration of the so-called preference logic, while (§5) develops on this basis a somewhat controversial claim, relating to the last part of the Aristotelian dogma – (ir)rationality of desire.
Keywords: philosophy of mathematics, semiorders, logic of preference, rationality.
Postfeminism in the Age of Web 2.0
The text focuses on the public manifestations of female gender identity in the context of social network Facebook. The new myth of femininity in social networks includes mixture of new stereotypes about housework, “new age” practices, healthy life, technology and aesthetics of everyday life. The paper investigates the new meaning of gender roles and their levels of use in the public sphere.
Key words: media, social media, gender, postfeminism, popular culture
Gnoseological Discourse on the Modern Notion of Man
The paper is developing the thesis that the contemporary philosophical situation can be characterized by an enhanced interest in anthropological issues. The text therefore proceeds to place under analysis various gnoseological discourses on man. The views of Paul Ricoeur and Evandro Aggazzi on man as subject of philosophy are considered in detail.
Key wods: anthropology, Riceour, Aggazzi, concepts on man
INTERPRETATIONS OF DAODEJING
The paper aims to reveal the reasons for different perceptions of one of the fundamental texts of Daoism, Daodejing. It points out that fluidity and relativity are essential characteristics of the Chinese vision of reality and that this vision requires a corresponding language. Daodejing is a text, which simultaneously presents both the theoretical background of this vision and its practical application in language. Therefore its linear interpretation is not only impossible, it is incorrect.
Key words: Chinese philosophy, Daoism, dao, comparative thinking
Philosophical Àpotheosis of Groundlessness
This philosophical work presents an aphoristic approach towards the sublime amplitude of philosopher’s task in life. The author gives his own view of the various labors needed to be undertaken for the sake of the philosophical goal.
Key words: apotheosis, groundlessness, philosophy.
Confucianism – Tradition in the Change of China
The paper discusses the role of Confucianism in today’s development of China. The influence of the teaching of ‘Master Kun’ is sought both on the level of the individual and the society as a whole. Emphasis is put on the changes which China is undergoing and the perspectives for the near future.
Key words: Confucius, China, the East, rituals
The Paradoxical Aesthetics of Denis Diderot: Is There Any Objective ‘Essence’ of Art? Realism in Enlightenment
The purpose of this article is to go deeper into Diderot's studies of the origin of beauty. The very word "aesthetics" – derived from the Greek word “αίσθησης” and means sensation, perception or sense experience — concerns itself with the study of art and beauty. As a philosopher Diderot seeks to understand the principles that underlie our value judgments: What is beauty? Is it objective in any way? How is aesthetic pleasure related to perception? What is an artist? What is called talent or genius? What makes something be art? And isn’t it beauty just a perception of relations? Nevertheless this article has as its purpose to reveal part of the French aesthetics of the eighteenth century. Therefore, it passes through a number of philosophers who are deal themselves with the nature of beauty às Plato, Augustine, Christian Wolf, Jean-Pierre Cruze, Fr. Hutchison.
Key words: history of philosophy, history of arts, realism, Diderot, àesthetic beauty, essence of the genius.
National Sovereignty in the Era of Globalization
The report studies the transformation and the collapse of national sovereignty in the era of globalization. An essential attention is paid to the current foreign policy that the national states take and the position the political elite takes. Mentioned are the most significant problems that are caused by the lack of autonomous foreign policy.
The proposals made by the main theoretical perspectives on globalization are reviewed.
Keywords: Globalization, national sovereignty, foreign policy, elite, national states, society.
DIGITAL CHALLENGES OF THE POLITICAL ELITE IN USA DURING THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN IN 2016
The article examines the presence of Presidential Candidates on the Internet space during the US 2016 Presidential Campaign. The Internet is becoming an important tool for communication between ordinary people and between politicians. It is increasingly used as a field for political races and ''struggles''. Attention is given to different challenges faced by politicians and their teams as a result of using the opportunities of the digital technologies. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are being used not only to present candidates, their vision of developing the US society over the next 5 years, but are also being used to criticize, attack and even insult towards their political opponent. In this context, it is important for politicians to have the necessary digital competence and relevant online behavior.
Key words: political elite, presidential campaign, presidential candidate, Internet, social network, Facebook, Twitter, cyber-attack.