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Yohai Kamissa, Varna Free University "CHERNORIZETS HRABAR",
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Yohai Kamissa, Ph.D. Student,

Department of Educational and Developmental Psychology.

Varna Free University "CHERNORIZETS HRABAR", Bulgaria



In the current era, due to rapid advancement and development, education has become one of the necessities of life because it helps individuals keep pace with the world. Education is considered as the source to gain and acquire knowledge regarding different subjects and fields that can contribute greatly to attaining the numerous achievements in a professional career (see Janks, 2014). Education is referred to as the most powerful driver of development and success that plays an imperative role in reducing poverty and opening the path of success for the educated individuals (see McCallumore & Sparapani, 2010). However, despite education being a powerful tool for attaining success and prosperity, drop out of students from high schools is one of the crucial issues in current society (Jackson, 2013; (see Heublein, 2014). The adverse effects of dropout from high school are not limited to the sustainability and success of individuals. It possesses the potential to negatively impact the economy of the country, employment rate, and state industry (see Mac Iver, 2011). Furthermore, increase in dropout rate from high school can fuel the hazardous habits among youngsters, such as addiction to drugs and violence (see Featherston, 2010); (see Hjalmarsson & Lochner, 2012). The concept of high school dropouts refers to the students that leave or quit the more top educational institute in the middle without completing their academic period properly (see Wilkin & Bost, 2016). 

There are numerous reasons and factors that trigger the decision to drop out of high school among students, and they can differ for each student (see Shahidul & Karim, 2015). Quality of education, teachers' attitude towards a student, classroom engagement, financial constraints, social pressures, and family background can become the reason for dropout among high school students (see Fall & Roberts, 2012); (see Lemon & Watson, 2011). Similarly, Burrus and Roberts (2012) highlighted that the students at risk of dropping out the schools demonstrate the multiple identifiable characteristics that include some demographics concerns such as low family income, social prospects and some reasons related to academic of students such as poor performance in class, low attendance, high failure rate, ethical behavior issues and disengagement in class. The study accumulated by Christenson, Reschly, and Wylie (2012) implies that there is no such phenomenon called as a sudden dropout because it is the process that triggers by the various external and internal factors and exhibits the multiple warning signs of dropping out in future. This particular study aims to cover the in-depth discussion regarding how the quality of education and sense of belonging impacts the dropping of students at-risk from high school. Dropout rates in high schools of Israel are rapidly increasing and have become the primary concern for the people, government, educational system, and economic conditions of Israel (see Razer et al., 2015). 


2. Quality of education and sense of belonging

According to the article published by Lazi (2017) highlights that quality of education in Israel is low, resulting in lower productivity and higher poverty rate. While investigating the reasons and consequences of the high school dropout rate in Israel study accumulated by Isralowitz et al. (2013) implied that social pressures and discrimination among students fuelling the drop rate in high schools of Israel significantly. Dropping from high school in Israel leads the youth to be involved in unethical activities such as Alcohol and drug addiction (see Murad, 2015), (see Galily, Schwartz & Gurstein, 2019). This kind of pressure caused by the internal and external environment demotivates the students to continue their academic careers smoothly due to the fear of being discriminated against and bullied (see O'Keeffe, 2013). Discrimination among students based on skills, expertise, intelligence, and background is one of the leading issues in current society that fails to provide the student sense of belonging in educational institutes because they feel devalued. In this regard, the study accumulated by Wang and Eccles (2012) implied that to create a sense of belonging among students, it is essential to value every student equally and appreciate the feedback and responses given by them rather than discouraging them comparing with the other students.

Quality of education and sense of belonging are the essential factors that possess the potential to affects the dropping out rate among high school students in Israel. Receiving the education is not sufficient for attaining the sustainable development and success quality of education is a crucial source that helps students in future to retain what they have learned and implement all the acquired knowledge and concepts practically in their professional career see (see O'Neill et al., 2011); (see Deschacht & Goeman, 2015). The dissatisfaction of students and parents with the standards of education can result in dropping out of student from high schools (see Benos & Karagiannis, 2016). Poor quality of education fails the students to achieve career success and increases the difficulties in job hunting process that declines the importance of education among people and urges parents to drop their student from high school because they were unable to observe the practical benefits of education in their children career. A sense of belonging is another factor or reason that influences students' dropout rate and this factor has been frequently examined by previous researchers (see Lee, 2012). 

          It is the essential responsibility of educational institutes to provide a sense of security and engagement to students that can work as a motivation factor for students to regularly attend the school and ensure active participation in academics, resulting in a low dropout rate ( see Cemalcilar, 2010). Furthermore, according to the study conducted by Elffers, Oort & Karsten (2012) stated that frequent involvement of students in extracurricular activities could develop their interest in school, evolve their sense of identity, and significantly contribute to creating a sense of satisfaction and accomplishments among them. In providing a sense of belonging to high school student quality of teaching plays an imperative role in engaging the students in the class and refrain from doing any kind of discrimination among students. Every teacher possesses a different teaching style and approach depending upon their skills, experience, and background; these attributes reflect how the teacher handles the students. Estell & Perdue (2012) stated that in educational institutes, many students at-risk intend to drop the school on an immediate basis before their graduation without completing the specified academic period. However, some students in a similar school exist that want to complete their graduation correctly might be the sense of belonging work as the source of motivation for them. Various studies conducted over dropout rate in high schools tried to unveil the different factors that put the students at risk of dropping out such as attendance, frequent absenteeism, social pressures, poor academic achievements, discrimination, quality of teaching and reluctance towards education (see Falls & Roberts, 2012); (see McCallumore & Sparapani, 2010). However, this particular study researcher has adopted the two prospects: quality of education and a sense of belonging from a diversified range of factors to investigate their impact over dropping out of students at-risk studying in high school.


3. Concept of student dropout

         Dropout of youth in compulsory education age from the formal education system is a concept that involves and occurs in the education system within the region of Israel and every other region across the globe. The idea of student dropout has existed since the inception of this system. Recognition, classification, and evolution of student dropout concepts are sophisticated, which needs to be focused by every educational institution, particularly high school institution. The common perception regarding this concept is that students who officially withdraw the school at the high school age and do not pursue further education are considered dropouts. Although this is the most common view of most people across the people, this does not involve every case and reason why the student has left the education. For instance, no relevant information is available to those students who have suddenly stopped coming to school without prior education (see Paura, Arhipova, 2014). With the time, generally, the system of education and school specifically have become center to process for preparing the child for a life of an adult and is also considered the condition of the students' ability to integrate as the citizen who can contribute to the society. Similarly, the state took responsibility for the implementation of education as well as knowledge. This right consists of the fundamental rights of several countries in which Israel is at the top. This inviolable, as well as the inalienable right, grants the means and the possibility for every child living in Israel to gain fundamental knowledge and education. Instead of the socially and politically principled decisions to take responsibility for the education, which is compulsory, there are still several people who have been dropped out of the courses and did not realize the right towards education (see Bradley & Renzulli, 2011). 

          Dropout rate is the percentage of students failing to complete the education or leaving their schools/colleges without acquiring the complete education. Currently, the dropout rate among the students is one in three. As per the analysis of the statistics of data, over the past five years, two-thirds of the universities have recognized and noted that there is has been a continuous rise in dropout among students for the past five years (see Rosemary Bennett, 2020). The official data shows the percentage of young people leaving the universities or high schools has increased by five percent. According to The Times report, the rising number of high school dropouts highlights that the universities are admitting too many students who lack the skills and academic behavior required to obtain and acquire a relevant degree (see Rosemary Bennett, 2020). It has been suggested that some students require additional time and support to do the transition from primary and secondary school to high school and universities. 

It has been analyzed and observed that out of 150 universities in UK, 100 universities encountered and increasing rate in student's dropout, which comprises of overall 67% (see Rosemary Bennett, 2020). According to the report of Weale (2020), dropout rates among the university dropout rate have gone up for three consecutive years among the students of UK. Statics revealed that around 26,000 did not make it to the degree completion in England that enrolled in 2015 after the first year of university education. Rates of students dropping out vary across the sector of education widely. It has been analyzed that around five undergraduate tends to quit their education on the very first year of their university program. According to the most recent figures of 2016, around 6.4% of university students left their undergraduate education before getting enrolled in the second year. 

          The high school dropout rate of Israel has dropped mainly from the previous decade, yet there are significant disparities among various social groups. As per the data gathered in 2008, the rate of overall dropout students was 10.1%, whereas, in the year of 2017, it was 7.6%, which has decreased 25% from previous years. Excluding figures present in the ultra-Orthodox community, the picture is considered more positive, which shows a decrement of an 8 percent in a decade ago to 4.5% in the year of 2017. In Bedouin, the rate of drop out is 9.6, whereas, in the Arab community, it is regarded to be 8 percent. In addition to this, the Jewish state and state religious school systems, the rate of dropping out of students is 4 % (see Sahin, Arseven, and Kiliç, 2016). However, there is a notable improvement observed in the Bedouin and Arab communities from a decade ago when the rate of dropping out was more than 15%. 


4. Reasons for the dropout in high school - Academic Failure

          One of the most important reasons for school dropout is the academic pressure students of high school cannot cope with. Studies under this domain prove that those who cannot study proficiently are more like to drop out of school. Struggling and striving hard on regularly is considered one of the biggest reasons for the students to drop out of school. To get a high school degree, it is essential for the students to be academically efficient and effectively cope-up with their academics. In case of failure, students get discouraged, which ultimately results in high school dropout (Bradley and Renzulli, 2011).


5. Education Expense

          According to the study conducted by the National Center of Education Statistics, students who suffer from financial problems or have low family income are more likely to be dropout from school. The school dropout rate due to low family income or economic issues is 9.4%, as per the National Center of Education Statistics study. Most commonly, students with financial problems are likely to do a job rather than continuing their studies to support their needs and their families. In many cases, poor students' earnings families are mostly below their poverty line (see Bureau, 2020). Moreover, education has become expensive these days. Expensive institutes and unaffordable schools make it difficult for earning students or financially unstable students to cope with their basic needs and education simultaneously (see Sahin, Arseven and Kiliç, 2016).


6. The discouraging environment of the school

          School climate and school environment are some of the most significant aspects of education, which creates and impacts student retention. The school environment includes the quality of teaching, rules, and regulations, relationships of students with teachers and co-students, and the emotional and physical safety and well-being of the students. According to the author's study, the favorable climate and environment of the school promote the student's retention, which ultimately reduces the student's dropout. The association of a positive school environment deals with less bullying and higher encouragement from the teachers and leaders of the school. The students' physical and emotional well-being is another factor that encourages them towards the studies and helps them learn more quickly, which results in student retention (see Sahin, Arseven & Kiliç, 2016). 

          According to the survey conducted by Bradley and Renzulli (2011). if the environment of the school is negative and discouraging, more students tend to dropout of school. Moreover, it has been analyzed that bullying and peer relationships in school are among the most leading factors for student's dropout, which negatively impacts the school's environment. Teachers and leaders within the school are mostly responsible for creating a positive environment in the school, which ultimately helps retain the students for a more extended period. 


7. Mental Illness

          Another major factor of school dropout of high school students is the ill mental health of the students. As per the study of Sahin, Arseven, and Kiliç (2016), there is a direct and proportional relationship between the students' mental illness and the performance within the school. Mental illness is one of the reasons students of high school cannot perform well in their studies, which ultimately results in the school dropout among the students. Overload and robust academic studies are among the reasons which contribute to developing depression and mental illness in school students. According to the author's study, depression and mental health illness cause anxiety and low self-esteem due to which students make decisions regarding the school dropout. It has been analyzed in the study that mental illness likely to interfere with the ability of a student to cope-up with academics and creates a negative impact on overall educational performance. 


8. Youth at Risk

          Youth at risk are used for those young individuals surrounded by a range of circumstances and have numerous social problems. According to the study conducted by Artuch-Garde et al. (2017), these problems could be mental illness, depression, and anxiety related to job opportunities and not being able to get a quality education. In the educational context, this term is described as the risk or a threat to a child or a young individual who faces great problems in having a successful transition into adulthood (see Brashear and Riddle, 2018). Furthermore, youth at risk can also be considered to be the increasing number of dropout students who drop their education in between due to increased mental pressure and due to other factors leading them towards quitting education. 


9. Youth at Risk in Israel

          Youth at Risk in Israel is based on the early childhood development expenditures that are observed to be low in terms of their education and development. According to the study conducted by Arkin and Cojocaru (2018), youth at risk is also an outcome of not giving education and exceptional care to children from their childhood to their adulthood. Moreover, this shows that the youth in Israel is at high risk of their unfamiliarity with the technological trends and technical education and also through psychological issues that these children face on their daily basis that impact their active growth and development (see Brookdale.jdc, 2020). 


10. Factors Influencing Dropout In School - Individual related factors Gender

          The evident reason for dropout for every individual can vary for every person depending on the way they triggered by the specific issue (see Rumberger and Rotermund, 2012). In this concern, Prince and Hadwin (2013) advocated that some students intend to dropout of high school due to the pressure from society or discrimination. Whereas some individuals quit school due to the lack of motivation and sense of belonging (see Dwyer et al., 2013). However, McCallumore and Sparapani (2010) argued that the student's gender plays a vital role in influencing the way they perceive the things and pressures to drop out of high school. The study accumulated by Stewart, Lim, and Kim (2015) highlights that in girls, school security is one of the imperative reasons that urge them to quit school due to the lack of safety measures. However, according to Statista (2017) highlighted that 20.2% of females drop out of the school because they were bullied by their mates in the school, whereas the dropout rate among males due to bullying is 16.7%. Bullying has become a severe issue in high school. The consequences are not limited to the dropout from school; it also urges them to quiet their lives. Moreover, in male-dominant societies, families prefer to educate the male child and invest the money in their education, which often results in quitting girls from schools (see Oelsner, Lippold & Greenberg, 2011), (see Galily, Schwartz & Gurstein, 2019). Paura and Arhipova (2014) asserted that males tend to dropout of school due to their resilient attitude towards gaining education and conflicts with fellow students.

          Generally, in high school, most of the students belong to the mature age 17 and above; therefore, responsibilities over them increase with time (see Fall & Roberts, 2012). Janks (2014) asserted that most students are expected to pay their academic fees or earn their expenses at a high school level. These responsibilities cause extensive pressure over the students and make it difficult for them to manage their education and part-time jobs. Furthermore, Jackson (2013) advocated that it has been observed in the educational institute that students doing part-time jobs lose their focus over their education and possess the poor academic results that demotivate them to continue their education further. Similarly, in this concern, Siddhu (2011) asserted that responsibilities at the individuals in the early stages of professional education distort their concentration level and affect their academic career negatively. The study assembled by Dunne and Ananga (2013) highlighted that responsibilities towards families at an early stage are the significant reason for the girls to dropout of the school at the initial step.

          The individual's behavior and attitude play a dominant role in fuelling the reasons to drop out of school (see Bayer et al., 2012). Freeman et al. (2015) stated that different types of students in a school possess different kinds of attitudes towards gaining an education. Some students take it as the formality to acquire the degree by passing the courses through any means (see Fan and Wolters, 2014). Casillas et al. (2012), students who are resilient to education tend to quit at an early stage or switch schools according to their interests. These types of students are more prone to indulge in risk activities that often enforce the school's management terminate them from school due to their unethical and non-serious behavior (see Heublein, 2014), (see Galily, Schwartz & Gurstein, 2019).

          In the learning environment and educational institutes, students are required to work and learn in teams. Socializing is the most common aspect in the education institutes where students tend to meet with the new people who are their fellow students and competitors in the classroom (see Neely and Griffin-Williams, 2013). However, an unhealthy relationship between the students leads to severe conflicts and fuels the issue like bullying, threatening, and arguments (see Li, Zang, and An, 2013). In this regard, the study assembled by Bongani (2014) asserted that the students' social environment has the great potential to influence the dropout rate because it sometimes makes the learning environment unbearable for the students. The study conducted by Chinyoka (2014) highlights that peer pressure can be negatively linked with the dropout rate. A lack of understanding and conflicts with the fellow students drags the individuals into depression and anxiety that influences the dropout from the school.


11. Low self-Esteem and Low Occupational Aspirations

          Self-esteem refers to the degree to which specific individuals value themselves and respect their abilities (see Khalkhali et al., 2013). Individuals' self-esteem can be low or high; it solely depends on the perception of individuals about themselves and the amount of confidence they possess in their abilities (see Mzuza et al., 2014). Schoeneberger (2012) advocated that the person experiencing low self-esteem tend to feel less critical and capable than their colleagues. Further, Tavakolian and Howell (2012) asserted that low self-esteem is the driver of depression, loneliness, and vulnerability among the students. They feel less valued and less capable, which causes them to quit education. Moreover, Featherston (2010) advocated that students with low self-esteem are afraid of indulging in any constructive activities in the school due to the lack of confidence over themselves that negatively affects their academic results.

          The term aspirations refer to individuals' beliefs and hope regarding prospects' growth (see Rojewski et al., 2012). Generally, in high schools, students are trained to work in a professional environment, and professional skills are developed to help them in their academic career (see Lee and Rojewsk, 2012). However, some student takes this phase as the formality to complete the education. Whereas some students intend to attain high career achievements by focusing on the education properly (see Chesters, 2015). Career or occupational aspiration works as the motivation for some students to continue their education by standing firm against all barriers rather than quitting in between. However, individuals that are hopeless about their future goals and do not possess sufficient confidence about it are less motivated to continue their education (see Porowski & Passa, 2011). Low Occupational aspirations demotivate the individual and distract them from the right path to bring career achievements to them. However, Hopson and Lee (2011) argued that unrealistic policies and regulations have made the student less motivated towards their career achievements because a rise in standards and benchmarks has increased the number of failures.

          Ethnicity divides the individuals in the set of groups based on their cultural background, race, and national identity (see Booker & Mitchell, 2011). Generally, all students belong to different environments and ethnic groups in schools because curriculum and professional education are the same for all (see Losen & Gillespie, 2012). However, ethnicity plays a central role in high school when most of the population belongs to similar ethnic groups, and minority feels ignored or left out. Huang et al. (2014) asserted that ethnicity incorporates the ingredient of racism and discrimination among people in the educational and work environment. Dee (2017), teachers and management of the institutes often discriminate among the students based on their background and ethnic groups. These practices lessen the sense of belonging among students and inspires them to drop out of school due to being treated differently and with constant favoritism. 


12. Locus of Control

          Locus of control can be defined as the psychological process that concerns people's beliefs regarding the extent to which they have control over certain situations and outcomes (see Yukselturk et al., 2014). However, internal and external two different types of locus of control that differs according to the belief of the people. The individual having the internal locus of control follows the pursuit that their activities are responsible for their success and failure (see Schall, Wallace & Chhuon, 2015). 

          However, a follower of external locus of control beliefs that external factors such as destiny and luck affect their success or failure, and they do not have any control over it (see Drost, 2012). Internal locus of control is more preferable and beneficial for the students because it helps them invest their maximum efforts in educational careers to achieve success in the future rather than external locus of control that can demotivate them with the assumption that to pour efforts in education is useless. The outcome cannot be controlled by them (Aspelmeier et al., 2012). This attitude often leads to an increase in the dropout rate in high school, where students think that their academic career's success is not in their control.

          Poor academic performance has always remained the significant reason that influences the dropout rate more frequently (see McKee et al., 2016). Poor academic performance can be considered as the imperative factor that demotivates the students to continue their education and lower downs their self-esteem as well (see Fall & Robert, 2012). The system of defining the capabilities and performance of every student based on grading and marks has been criticized greatly because drops the interest of students towards learning. It makes them feel inferior when compared with other students based on grades (see Mo et al., 2013). In this regard, the study accumulated by Wilkin and Bost (2016) emphasizes that poor performance in school creates the perception among students that academic education is not beneficial for them. It is not worthy of continuing it further and investing the financial resources over it.

          Rumberger and Rotermund (2012) advocated that disengaged students are most vulnerable to the adverse effects of social and academic outcomes. Frequent absence from the school, poor academic performance, unhealthy social circle, lack of belonging, disruptive behavior, and lower self-confidence are significant reasons that lead to the disengagement of students from the school (see Fall & Roberts, 2012). Withdrawal from the school lowers down the students' interest from their academics that substantially increases their rate of absenteeism from the school that furthers affect their academic performance in a negative (see Wang & Fredricks, 2014). Hirschfield and Gasper (2011) asserted that a social and constructive learning environment plays an imperative role in regularly motivating students to visit their educational institutes. Besides engaging a hectic learning routine, they can relax with their class fellows and learn new concepts. Bilge (2014) advocated that students disengaged from their educational institute tend to drop out at an early stage and face severe consequences such as unemployment, social exclusion, and low income.

          Student retention reflects the educational institute's capabilities and potential to ensure the successful completion of the academic career of students successfully (see Simpson, 2013). Services, benefits, learning environment, and expertise provided to the students play a vital role in achieving the high student retention rate (see Marchbanks et al., 2015). Less competent and technical expert teaching staff that do not possess the ability to manage and deal with the students properly leads the student to drawback from the educational institute due to contradicting relations with teachers (see Aulck et al., 2016). Financial assistance is another important measure that offers numerous opportunities to the institute to retain the students with their school by providing them multiple scholarship opportunities. 


13. Family-related factors - Background Characteristics

          Students' family background holds a significant position in fostering and hindering their educational career (see Lamb, 2011). Some families significantly emphasize earning an education and higher degrees while some families expect their children to drop out of school and continue with their family business. In this regard, Hovdhaugen (2015) asserted that family background plays a crucial role in motivating the students to diligently pursue their higher education by considering their ancestors and elders' example. Moreover, Hopson and Lee (2011) argued that the family's financial position holds great importance in influencing the student's education. Lack of financial resources forces the students to quit education in the middle and continue earning for their family rather than paying high fees in high schools (see Lassibille, 2011).

          Current existing human society is divided into three different categories named as the upper level, middle level, and lower level depending on the financial positioning and background (see Jerrim, 2013). Most of the families belonging from the upper or middle-level society possess a sufficient amount of financial resources that can help them to continue their education smoothly (Song et al., 2012). Whereas, De Witte and Csillag (2014) advocated that most students belonging to middle-level families get financial assistance from their relative communities that foster their education. Most of the people belonging to these two levels of society are well educated and employed, which creates pressure for the students to stand at the same pace as them in the community (see Porowski and Passa, 2011). However, students belonging to a low level of society lack financial assistance, and all people in their society are less educated due to a similar reason. The scarcity of financial resources and lack of motivation from society urges the students belonging to low levels to drop out of the educational institute and support their family financially.


14. Level of home stress

          The unhealthy and stressful environment at home acts as the source of distraction for the student. It drags them into the depression that negatively affects academic performance (see Eicher et al., 2014). Some parents tend to severely pressure their kids to acquire the results and high academic grades that drags them into haphazard and severe pressure that makes the whole process of gaining education stressful to them (see Rosemary Bennett, 2020). Furthermore, conflicts and arguments at home daily distract the students from their career path, and they quickly lose their attention in class affecting their academic performance. Students are not mature and capable of differentiating the personal from professional life easily like an adult. O'Keeffe (2013) asserted that a stressful home environment affects the psychological well-being of the students and affects their social, academic, and professional life as well. 


15. Values and beliefs about education

          The families' perception and belief regarding knowledge play a significant role in allowing and restricting their children from gaining higher education. Families motivate their children to acquire higher degrees and build their professional careers (Bergeron et al., 2011). However, in some countries concept of education is different for males and females (see McWhirter, Garcia and Bines, 2018). In the dominant male society, families prefer that males acquire a higher level of education and attain growth in a professional career. However, females are expected to fulfill their responsibilities at home and not indulge in the professional world. The people's cultural background and values play an imperative role in developing their perception regarding the acquisition of education (see Fan & Wolters, 2014).


16. Conclusion. School-related factors

           The school structure is also one of the reasons behind the high risk of students dropping out. According to the study conducted by McNeil (2013), lack of efficient school structure in terms of having effective school management and administration leads towards a higher risk of students being dropped out. Weak school structure also impacts students' academic performance as they do not get to learn in a friendly environment that evolves a negative feeling within these students. This can be considered the lack of teaching capabilities and lack of cooperative behaviour by the school staff towards the students that do not focus on students' constructive learning. Therefore, the significance of having a reliable and effective school structure is high that plays a vital role in enhancing the learning capabilities of students and minimize the risks associated with the high ratio of students dropping out from high schools. 

           School resources include the resources provided to students, including facilities that have become essential within the contemporary educational setting. Based on the study conducted by Rumberger (2020), these resources include proper classrooms and the distribution of resources according to the capabilities of students. Moreover, providing labs and libraries are also included in these resources. Schools where these resources are not available that persuade students towards learning. As a result, more and more students drop out of these schools. Similarly, providing quality education and focusing on useful academic resources are also counted in these resources that are essential to use for better behavior opportunities for students. Primary resources include equipment, curriculum materials, technology, manipulative, and textbooks that make students study within the school environment (see Rodriguez et al., 2020). However, the unavailability of these resources could lead to a high ratio of students dropping out. 

Based on the study conducted by Jia, Konold, and Cornell (2016), there are some characteristics associated with the school body that includes a clear vision and focus towards educating students, high effectiveness within the leadership, and focusing on the state standards while using the academic materials. Most students drop out of schools as they do not find such characteristics within the school body as they promise to them before taking admissions. However, many schools globally do not possess these characteristics in terms of providing quality education to students and focusing on the constructive learning of students that could help them achieve something big in their lives. According to the study conducted by Kennedy (2017), today's schooling environment and culture do not possess these characteristics to make students innovative. Still, they are focused on putting academic pressure on students that lead to an increasing number of students dropping out of high schools.



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