NotaBene .

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The Architecture of Collective Housing after the Second World War: Conceptual Prerequisites and Development Trends. Part 1

The text is dedicated to the concepts and trends of modern architecture after the Second World War. In its first part, it analyzes the theoretical and practical works of Corbusier, focusing in detail on his one-block residential complexes built in Marseilles and Berlin. The projects in the field of collective housing construction in the Eastern bloc are also traced, with special attention paid to the processes in the USSR, which dictate the architectural tendencies in the other socialist countries as well. In this context, the barracks and Stalin houses from the Stalinist period, replaced by the so-called Khrushchevs and Brezhnevs houses, are considered. The article also focuses on collective housing in the United States, developed as a result of Harry Truman's social program. In its second part, the text put an accent on the changes in architecture in the 1970s and the emergence and development of postmodern architecture. Its conceptual preconditions are analyzed, as well as its various stylistic tendencies.

Keywords: Corbusier, One-block residential complexes, postmodern architecture, International architectural style

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Translation of Culture and the Culture of Translation

This paper analyses two methods of literary translations. The first method tries to carry away one cultural reality into another and here the paraphrase is inevitable. In this respect the article considers St. Jeromes, St. Cyrils and Martin Luthers translations of the Bible which broaden the borders of translation as a cultural phenomenon and gives a beginning of new cultural realities and processes. The second method aims to achieve literal transferring of the original text. The most famous examples illustrating this mode of translation are Nabokovs translation of Eugene Onegin and Francis William Newmans translation of the Iliad which are very skeptically accepted by the readers. The paper states the hypothesis that the translation has to adapt one cultural reality into another and sometimes the translation is better than the original.

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