NotaBene .

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About Marx and Marxism according to Karl Popper

The paper is focused mainly on the key criticism of Sir Karl Popper leveled against Marxism, that is its historicist nature. According to Popper Marxs attempt to transform socialism from utopia to science led to the formation of a deterministic view of history as governed by inexorable laws on the basis of which the future can be predicted. The paper offers a brief survey of Poppers critical arguments against Marx developed in the second volume of his Open Society and Its Enemies.
Keywords: Marx, Popper, Marxism, determinism, historicism

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he Influence of Herman Lotze on Gottlob Frege

Annotation

The paper reveals in broader lines the influence which Herman Lotze had on young Frege. Several ideas propounded by Lotze and later defended and developed by Frege are into focus: namely, the anti-psychologism, or objectivism, in logic; the context principle; and the broader view of logicism which Lotze maintained in a somewhat weaker version.

Key words: Lotze, Frege, objective content of ideas, logicism

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Wittgenstein's Tractatus as a Constructivist Work

Summary:The paper seeks to investigate some of the sources which contributed to the specifically constructivist character of the earlier philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as we find it developed in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Three main sources are briefly overviewed: Russell's constructivist analysis and logical atomism, Hertz's 'Mechanics' and the in-born engineering talents of young Wittgenstein. A general view underlies the whole paper, namely that the atomistic picture of the world displayed by Wittgenstein at the beginning of the Tractatus was most congenial and consistent with the 'constructivist' view of language and propositions.

Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Hertz, objects, Hertz's 'Mechanics'

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BURTRAND ROSSEL AND LOGICAL CONSTRUCTION THE PHYSICAL SITES (1911-1914)

Bertrand Russell and the Logical Construction of Physical Objects (1911 - 1914)

Abstract:
The paper discusses Russells method of logical construction of physical objects (matter) tracing its origin to the years 1911 1914. The influence upon Russell on the part of Whitehead and his invention of a method to represent points and moments and Wittgensteins skepticism is revealed. The influence of the British classical empiricists upon Russells thought is also discussed in both contexts: (1) of the view of the inferred physical objects from sense data, and (2) of a threat to the way common sense and physical science conceives matter and material objects.
Key words: Russell, Whitehead, sense data, acquaintance, logical construction,

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The Universal Language: Descartes's Skepticism and Leibniz's Optimism

Abstract: The paper is a commentary to the translation of the famous letter of 20th November 1629 written by Descartes to Father Mersenne on the possibility, or rather impossibility, for universal language to be constructed. Descartes states his sceptic position that without the 'true philosophy' which should provide the primitive ideas out of which all thoughts can be constructed, and without firm knowledge of the order in which our thoughts go through the mind he has no hope to ever see such language in use. Leibniz, on the contrary, optimistically invents his theory of 'blind thought' (cognitatio caeca) believing that it removes the difficulties raised by Descartes. Lastly, the paper surveys in brief the influence of Leibniz's Characteristica universalis on Frege and the production of his first masterpiece Concept-script (Begriffsschrift), 1879.

Key words: Characteristica universalis, blind thought, Descartes, Leibniz, Hobbes

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Frege: Life - Creativity - Age (Part One)

ABSTRACT

This is the first chapter of the book on Frege's philosophy of language. The chapter reveals the private and university life of Frege, his ups and downs as a thinker and inventor of the first version of modern logic. Special emphasis is put on the episode related to the famous Russell's paradox which ended for considerable time Frege's work on logic and philosophy of arithmetic. The chapter ends with discussing the political and moral convictions and views of Frege expounded in his fam ous Diary of 1925.

Key words: Frege, Russell paradox, modern logic, logical notation, Frege's diary

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E MEETING OF EAST AND WEST IN THE ETHICS OF REFERENCE FOR LIFE (To the 140th Anniversary of Albert Schweitzer)

The paper is dedicated to the 140th Anniversary of Albert Schweitzer. The main thesis is that the fundamental principle of Schweitzers ethics Reverence to Life symbolizes the meeting between Western (European) and Eastern (Indian) thinking. Specific emphasis is put on the image of Schweitzer as the European mind influenced by the Indian norm of Ahimsa.
Key words: Albert Schweitzer, Reverence for life, Ahimsa

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Wittgenstein's Tractatus as a Constructivist Work

Summary:The paper seeks to investigate some of the sources which contributed to the specifically constructivist character of the earlier philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as we find it developed in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Three main sources are briefly overviewed: Russell's constructivist analysis and logical atomism, Hertz's 'Mechanics' and the in-born engineering talents of young Wittgenstein. A general view underlies the whole paper, namely that the atomistic picture of the world displayed by Wittgenstein at the beginning of the Tractatus was most congenial and consistent with the 'constructivist' view of language and propositions.

Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Hertz, objects, Hertz's 'Mechanics'

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