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This paper outlines the three-stage progress of societies toward the cosmopolitan ideal in Kant's political thought, namely republican constitutionalism, federalism, and cosmopolitanism. It is proposed that societies can form national, international, and cosmopolitan federations under the common ideals of justice, equality, and freedom through this three-stage process. This idea is based primarily on Kant's purposive ideal of perpetual peace and freedom as a possible goal for humanity. It is therefore argued that perpetual peace and freedom on a cosmopolitan scale is a realizable goal if individuals and societies unite under universal principles rather than divide and fragment. Moreover, this paper aims to explain the method of realizing the cosmopolitan ideal of peace and freedom in Kant's political theory by pointing out that Kant rejects top-down methods such as war, political overthrow or revolution, etc., but believes that it can only be achieved through gradual reform and progress. In this context, the paper relates the Kantian idea of gradual reform and progress to the moral improvement of individuals/citizens, asserting that societies can only progress toward the cosmopolitan ideal by enabling the moral growth and progress of their individuals in relation to the universal concepts of justice, equality, and freedom.
Key Words: moral, progress, cosmopolitan ideal, peace, Kant, freedom.