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В настоящия брой предлагаме два интересни философски текста на съвременни философи - Дейвид Луис и Джон Остин. Преводът е дело на доц. д-р Анна Бешкова от кат. „Логика, етика и естетика”, Философски факултет, СУ „Св. Климент Охридски”, София

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ЕЗИЦИ И ЕЗИК

ПРЕВОДИ

В настоящия брой предлагаме два интересни философски текста на съвременни философи - Дейвид Луис и Джон Остин. Преводът е дело на доц. д-р Анна Бешкова от кат. „Логика, етика и естетика”, Философски факултет, СУ „Св. Климент Охридски”, София

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Mathematics of Quality, Preference Logic and the Rationality of Desire

Abstract:
This essay introduces and strives to show the untenability of the (somewhat unjustly named) “dogma of Aristotelianism”. (§1) lists the principal tenets of the Aristotelian dogma and examines to what extent they are attributable to Aristotle, (§2) analyzes the first part of the dogma – the claim that mathematics is the study if quantity and hence is irrelevant to the study of qualitative structures, (§3) reviews briefly the concept of semiorder and discusses the possibility to interpret it as the foundation of the mathematical treatment of qualities, (§4) traces the genetic links between the algebraic theory of semiorders and the formal elaboration of the so-called preference logic, while (§5) develops on this basis a somewhat controversial claim, relating to the last part of the Aristotelian dogma – (ir)rationality of desire.
Keywords: philosophy of mathematics, semiorders, logic of preference, rationality.

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„Платоническият реализъм“ и проектът за философска логика

Platonic Realism and the Project of Philosophical Logic
Abstract:
The article is based on the main problems that the Russel's onthology (platonic realism) generates. The extreme realism that the philosopher allows is a fundament of his philosophical logic. From another point of view, persisting on this kind of realism leads to unsolvable problems on the field of philosophical logic.
Key words: Russell, philosophical logic, Platonic realism, logical form, Wittgenstein

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Връзката между референция и съществуване в рамките на Ръселовата теория за обозначаването

The Relation Between Reference and Existence in Russell’s Theory of Denoting
Abstract:
In this article, we will look at Russell's theory of descriptions and Strawson‘s critics on it. The main accent is on utterances that include certain definite descriptions that do not referrer to anything. The analysis requires us to focus our attention to the distinction between denotation and meaning because it is a key part of Russell’s and Strawson's arguments. We will put this problem in the context of other authors who share opinions on the matter: Geach, Austin, Donnellan, and Searle. The purpose of this text is to show that Russell has made an error analyzing these statements in saying that the use of definite descriptions implies existence.
Key words: Russell, reference, existence, denotation, Strawson,

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Понятието за „логическо пространство“ в Логико-философския трактат на Витгенщайн

The Concept of ‘Logical Space’ in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Abstract:
The current paper presents an attempt at clarifying the meaning of the words ‘logical space’ in the Tractatus 1.13 ‘The facts in logical space are the world’. This is achieved though exploring the concepts of ‘state of affairs’, ‘possible state of affairs’, ‘existing state of affairs’, ‘the existence and non-existence of states of affairs’, ‘fact’, ‘positive fact’, ‘negative fact’.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Tractatus, logical space, state of affairs, possible world, truth-maker, reality.

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Бъртранд Ръсел и логическото конструиране на физическите обекти (1911 - 1914)

Bertrand Russell and the Logical Construction of Physical Objects (1911 - 1914)

Abstract:
The paper discusses Russell’s method of ‘logical construction’ of physical objects (matter) tracing its origin to the years 1911 – 1914. The influence upon Russell on the part of Whitehead and his invention of a method to represent points and moments and Wittgenstein’s skepticism is revealed. The influence of the British classical empiricists upon Russell’s thought is also discussed in both contexts: (1) of the view of the inferred physical objects from sense data, and (2) of a ‘threat’ to the way common sense and physical science conceives matter and material objects.
Key words: Russell, Whitehead, sense data, acquaintance, logical construction,

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Логически фикции и конструкции: Ръсел и релационното схващане за обективното време

Logical Fictions and Constructions: Russell and the Relational View of Objective Time

Abstract:
The paper present the chronology of Russell's attempts to develop a method for treating the moments of time as logical constructions, derived from the temporal relations of precedence and simultaneity between sets of events. It is organized as follows: (§1) introduces the key terminological distinctions between objective and subjective time, correspondingly between absolute and relational theories of time, (§2) discusses the relation between these two pairs of terms, along with the merits of the opposed conceptions of time; (§3) presents the various reasons, motivating Russell's suspicions that these are in fact the absolute and the relational conception of time are alternative, and that it is possible to formulate a consistent and internally coherent relational theory of time which differs essentially from the absolute conception, (§4) juxtaposes the different approaches to the formal deduction of the properties of the temporal series, which Russell has developed in the period 1913-1948 and concludes with some brief remarks on the inter-relations between logic, ontology and epistemology, as Russell has conceived them in his works.
Keywords: Bertrand Russell, time order, relational theory of time

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Ръселовата теория на типовете като решение на семантичните и теоретико-множествените парадокси

Russell’s Theory of Types as Solution to the Semantical and Theory of Sets Paradoxes

Abstract:

The paper represents Russell’s Type theory as a way to solve semantic and set theoretic paradoxes. A remarkable feature of this theory is that it is proposed as a resolution of both of these groups of paradoxes – the other popular proposals are directed only to one of these groups: either to the semanticparadoxes or to the paradoxes of set theoretic. It is contended that for this to be possible a price has to be paid which is both ontological (the acceptance of the existence of the abstract entities of propositional functions and propositions) and methodological (setting this ontology as a basis of logic).

Keywords: Russell, Type theory, semantic paradoxes, paradoxes in set theory

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За Лъжците и Лъжите

Abstract: Some notable views on lies, deceptions and related paradoxes are briefly considered. Lying is seen to be a combination of intention and untruth, embodied in liars and lies.
Keywords: truth, paradox, semiotics

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Философията като двойно, тройно и N-брой подражания +-2500-годишно подражание

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present philosophy as an imitation of reality and to consider it as a "mimesis" of the existing. This way of thinking oviesly opposes to the opinion that philosophy is pure science and, as an alternative, it treats it as a unity of science and art - science as far as it explores things and art so much that it interprets them subjectively. As a result of that the article ends with another definition of man. Man as a subjectively-interpreting reality being, man as the constant imitator – of the nature, of the world itselfs, of God, of the language, of the other imitators.
Keywords: imitation, mimesis, philosophy and science, existing, being

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Музей на гадостта. Из романа на Светислав Басара "Ангелът на атентата".

Предложеният текст е откъс от романа на Светислав Басара „Ангелът на атентата“, публикуван през 2015 г. от издателство „Лагуна“. Романът е посветен на атентата в Сараево през 1914 г., послужил за повод за избухването на Първата световна война. Духът на австро-унгарския ерцхерцог Франц Фердинанд диктува спомените си на своя посмъртен и също безтелесен секретар Фердинанд Бертолд. В този невъзможен диалог Франц Фердинанд споделя размишленията си за атентата в Сараево, неговите причини и последици. Чрез духа на мъртвия ерцхерцог, Светислав Басара не прощава на никого – от иронията му не могат да се изплъзнат император Франц Йосиф, Фройд, Гьоте, Вагнер, Хитлер и други колоси на своето време.

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Херменевтиката на Гадамер и християнският догмат за Троицата и Въплъщението

Abstract: The paper studies some key concepts of Gadamer’s hermeneutics which have a religious origin. It tries to show that the postmetaphisical thinking – before its reflections on religion – is determined by the religious tradition in which its main representatives grew up. In the case of Gadamer this tradition is protestant Christianity. In postmetaphisical perspective the thinking couldn’t be detached from the tradition and the language wherein it was formed and accomplished.
Keywords: hermeneutics, interpretation, postmetaphisical thinking, protestant Christianity

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Медиите в тоталитарното общество

This article explores one of the most powerful methods, used by totalitarian regimes to control the population. This often involves large-scale of lies, manipulation of the opinion, censorship and various techniques of propaganda. The current text also refers to the modern media tools such as the internet to show ways to counteract manipulation and the fabrication of opinions. As the third level of these reflections is the question of the opposition nature-nurture, nature-law and nevertheless - the difference between human interests and human rights.

Key words: Communication, manipulation of the opinion, social media, propaganda, mindcontrol, censorship, nature, nurture, law, human rights, interests.

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Език, мислене, образование

Abstract: The text consists of 27 fragments written between 2014 and 2017. These are reflections devoted to the principles of humanities and humanitarian education and the necessary conditions for the development of the scholar. To the end, the focus is particularly on the study of Antiquity and classical education.

The fragments are grouped thematically in seven sections, with the following headings: "Language", "The Gift and Its Enhancement", "The University and Humanities", "The Method", "Free Thought", "Intellectuality and Virtue", "Antiquity and Education".

Key words: humanities, language, education, Antiquity

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История на хайку поезията в Италия

Abstract: The paper examines the history of Italian haiku. It is emphasizes that we live in the era of media, where the uppermost value is communication, and poetry is bound to lose ground and relevance. However the interest in haiku has been increasing recently. Some organizations and projects related to haiku are discussed. A gallery of portraits of Italian haiku poets is presented, including biographies and samples of haiku poems.

Key words: Italian poetry, Italian haiku, Haiku organizations.

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Капки дъжд в чаша вино - Кратко изложение на развитието на модерното хайку

Abstract: The article is a compendium of the development of modern Haiku. The Shomon School and the Nippon-ha (Japanese School) have been briefly analysed. The paper surveys two lines in the development of haiku after World War II: the Kyoshi-Line, in which the beauty of Nature is described and the Hekigoto-Line, which has added to perception also knowledge. In conclusion it is formulated that a universal nexus between traditional and modern Haiku is the aesthetic category “yugen” – the pure life beyond comprehension, the elegant and timeless beauty, the “ingeniously created ambiguity”.

Key words: history of haiku, traditional haiku (dento), modern haiku (gendai), perception, knowledge

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Исса и проститутките: хайку портрети от ранна модерна Япония

Abstract: Japanese haiku master Kobayashi Issa (1763-1828) considered beggars, peasants, orphans, and even ethnic minority outcastes, the Ainu, to be worthy subjects in his one-breath sketches: not looked down upon but rather appreciated as human beings. As a male poet acculturated in the male-dominant Japan of his era, did Issa’s penetrating sympathy for fellow creatures extend also to the economically, socially, and—in some cases—physically enslaved women of his time? An examination of his haiku about prostitutes—from the highest class courtesans of the Yoshiwara down to the lowest grade of streetwalker—reveals that, while there are exceptions, for the most part his haiku portraits of prostitutes coax readers toward deeper understanding and compassion.

Key words: poetry, haiku, Kobayashi Issa, haiku portraits of prostitutes.

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Водопади и фонтани в хайку и в западната поезия

Abstract: This article tries to answer two questions: first, why are civilization and its main symbol “the city” opposed to Nature in the West, while they are not confronted in the East; and second, in what way does this divergence between the Eastern and the Western cultures develop corresponding to different levels of Western poetry and haiku. The investigation proves that the primary contradiction – anthropocentrism versus cosmocentrism – reveals itself at different levels and raises other contradictions, such as: linguistic code versus pictorial code; metaphor understood in a narrow literary sense versus kigo; personification versus animism.

Key words: poetry, haiku, nature, city, Western culture, Eastern culture.

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ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЯТ ПРОЕКТ НА ГОТФРИД ЛАЙБНИЦ

Abstract: The article tries to present almost unexplored in the Bulgarian philosophical and political science literature views of one of the most prominent representatives of the early Enlightenment - German philosopher, scientist, encyclopedist, politician and diplomat Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

It is formulated and argued that Leibniz creates a political proyect which keeps the spirit of his time, but is considerably ahead of that time wich outlines possible ways to build fairer and perfect political structure of society, and so - for the continuous progress of the mankind.

Key words: Political project, sovereign, state, union, progress

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Универсалният език: скептицизмът на Декарт и оптимизмът на Лайбниц

Abstract: The paper is a commentary to the translation of the famous letter of 20th November 1629 written by Descartes to Father Mersenne on the possibility, or rather impossibility, for universal language to be constructed. Descartes states his sceptic position that without the 'true philosophy' which should provide the primitive ideas out of which all thoughts can be constructed, and without firm knowledge of the order in which our thoughts go through the mind he has no hope to ever see such language in use. Leibniz, on the contrary, optimistically invents his theory of 'blind thought' (cognitatio caeca) believing that it removes the difficulties raised by Descartes. Lastly, the paper surveys in brief the influence of Leibniz's Characteristica universalis on Frege and the production of his first masterpiece Concept-script (Begriffsschrift), 1879.

Key words: Characteristica universalis, blind thought, Descartes, Leibniz, Hobbes

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Парадокси на реализма в аналитичната онтология на изкуството

Abstract: This article addresses some of the core problems related of realism about art objects. The discussion is limited to the two most general forms of fictional realism: the physical objects hypothesis, and the platonic abstractionism. I contend that while being objects (and not universals), artworks are neither just physical nor they are abstract. In the first part of the article, I outline the most prominent arguments against the physical objects hypothesis without ruling the hypothesis completely out. In the second part of the article, I discuss the two basic paradoxes related to abstractionism about art objects: the paradox of creation and the paradox of standards. The article aims at preparing the ground for a nominalist mixed theory of art objects with both physical and mental components in which the precise kind of ontological dependence of artworks upon concrete objects and events will have the final word.

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What is „this"?

Astract

The paper addresses the question of whether Strawson’s claim that ordinary language has no exact logic entails a view according to which it is in ordinary language’s nature to be ‘illogical’. It is first explained where the traditional idea of an exact, language-independent logic comes from, i.e. the idea of a logic which underlies ordinary languages and governs their logical use and which lack – if Strawson’s assumption is right – would leave ordinary languages being ‘illogical’ insofar as there would be nothing to eliminate their logical imperfections. Secondly, it is shown that it is inherent to language – to human language in contrast to animal ones – to be ‘logical’, because language games are typically introduced, explained, learned, and played out in a practice of giving and asking for reasons , which means, so to speak, in a ‘logical space’. Thus the fact that ordinary language has no exact logic – in the sense that there is no one-to-one correspondence between its (grammatico-)syntactic and its (logico-)semantic sentence forms – does not exclude the possibilities for it to be used in a logical manner.


Key words: metaphisics, thinking, framed feature model

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Нелогични ли са естествените езици?

ABSTRACT:

The paper addresses the question of whether Strawson’s claim that ordinary language has no exact logic entails a view according to which it is in ordinary language’s nature to be ‘illogical’. It is first explained where the traditional idea of an exact, language-independent logic comes from, i.e. the idea of a logic which underlies ordinary languages and governs their logical use and which lack – if Strawson’s assumption is right – would leave ordinary languages being ‘illogical’ insofar as there would be nothing to eliminate their logical imperfections. Secondly, it is shown that it is inherent to language – to human language in contrast to animal ones – to be ‘logical’, because language games are typically introduced, explained, learned, and played out in a practice of giving and asking for reasons , which means, so to speak, in a ‘logical space’. Thus the fact that ordinary language has no exact logic – in the sense that there is no one-to-one correspondence between its (grammatico-)syntactic and its (logico-)semantic sentence forms – does not exclude the possibilities for it to be used in a logical manner.

Key words: Strawson, ordinary language, logicality, logical space of reasons.

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Предикат ли e съществуването?: Дж. Е. Мур и Д. Пеърс

ABSTRACT:

My goal in this article is to present and compare two articles, written respectively by G. E. Moore and D. Pears, with identical name ‘Is Existence a Predicate?". First, I will try to trace the connection between the main ideas and to show whether there is continuity between them, and then to point out certain confusions and uncertainties. In conclusion, I would like to say that I think Pears was unable to refine the idea that "exists" is not the predicate, and that his thesis at best is only applicable to referential use of indexical singular terms.

Key words: Pears, Moore, predicate, referent, indexical

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Парадоксът на осъдения на смърт

ABSTRACT

After presenting a possible classification of paradoxes in general, a particular paradox is considered in the paper. It is maintained that there are no logical fallacies in the argumentation of the paradox but rather that there is a mistake of not taking into account all possible consequences of the premises. Nonetheless the conclusion is that the problem presented by the paradox is not resolved by showing that mistake, and it is suggested that because of this the paradox should be considered very seriously and its importance is comparable with the liar paradox.

Key words: paradox, liar paradox, logical fallacy, argumentation

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Фреге: живот - творчество - епоха (част първа)

ABSTRACT

This is the first chapter of the book on Frege's philosophy of language. The chapter reveals the private and university life of Frege, his ups and downs as a thinker and inventor of the first version of modern logic. Special emphasis is put on the episode related to the famous Russell's paradox which ended for considerable time Frege's work on logic and philosophy of arithmetic. The chapter ends with discussing the political and moral convictions and views of Frege expounded in his fam ous Diary of 1925.

Key words: Frege, Russell paradox, modern logic, logical notation, Frege's diary

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Разпадане на универсалното в глобалната епоха

Abstract: This paper raises questions about an invisible characteristic of the globalization – the lack of universality. There is a deep crisis in the very heart of human rationality -- crisis both ontological and epistemological: crisis of conceptuality. The contemporary individual has lost his in-dividable essence because now he is incapable of making identification and self-identification. The crisis is deeper than the crises of postmodern thinking, because it is a crisis in a crisis.

Key words: globalization, identification, self-identification, postmodern, concept

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Сексуалността в социалистическите дискурси в България: мълчанието и болестта

Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to analyse the presence and absence of sex and erotica in the public discourses in Bulgaria in the socialist period. First part of the paper reflects on the censorship of sexuality as a mean of its subjection. In its second part the article studies the usage of the metaphor of illness from the communist regime. The metaphor of illness is showed as an important element of the communist disciplinary practices. The article focuses on its importance for the communist constructions of the ideal human body.

Keywords: metaphor of illness, body-machine, body-organism, censorship of sexuality

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Деконструкцията на Дерида и юдейският Бог, който пише сам

Abstract: The paper reflects on Derrida's views on deconstruction in the context of Judaic tradition. It focuses on the Jewish relation to the Holy Scripture and Judaic emphasis on the written words. In this sense some ideas of Cabala are analysed. The article puts accent on the idea of infinite interpretation of Holy words in Cabala and lays stress on its influence upon Derrida.

Keywords: deconstruction, cabala, infinite interpretation

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MЛАДATA ПОЕЗИЯ НA 80-ТЕ МЕЖДУ ЗАПАДА И ИЗТОКА

The paper considers a specific aspect of young/new poetry of 1980s, especially typical of its collective language – its situated between and in both disparate poetical-philosophical Weltanschauungs – in course of western Anglo-Saxon “high” Modernism and the eastern zen sensitiveness. Despite of its opposite, both enters into the Bulgarian poetry simultaneously just during the 1980s… But all this is only the big subject matter. The situation in its details is more dynamical and relative. And just this dynamic is object of research study. The problem is examined both in diachronous literary-historical and synchronous poetical aspects. From the other hand – both in universal socio-cultural, philosophical, and cultural historical context and in the context of the Bulgarian poetic tradition.
Key words: young/new poetry of 1980s; late socialism; Anglo-Saxon Modernism; Zen; „deep figurativeness”; counterculture of the 1950-60s; the Аpril Poetry and Quiet Lyric.

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ПАРАЛЕЛИ НА КОНЦЕПЦИЯТА ЗА ‘ИН-ЯН’ В ЕВРОПЕЙСКАТА КУЛТУРА (Западната рецепция на древнокитайския символизъм)

This paper explores some Western receptions of the Chinese concepts ‘yin – yang’ and their philosophical reflection as а primordial symbolic system. The assumption of the underlying homology in the Universe as a whole suggests that there are related orders of events, analyzed in the so called ‘correlative thinking’ in Early China. The holistic view draws systematic correspondences between various levels of reality, e.g. the human, the world of nature and the cosmic unity. According to the theorists of quantum mechanics Heisenberg and Bohr there can be found striking analogies between Ancient Daoist thought and the principle of complementarity, concerning fundamental subatomic relatedness. C.G. Jung calls the Daoist approach the ‘synchronistic way’ – Yijing (the cosmological Book of Changes) involves the study and classification of events wherein meaningful interdependence transcends space, time and causality as a determining factor. Very close to the model of The Great Ultimate, representative for the yin - yang relationship, virtual particles in atomic physics correspond with one another in some basic aspect, even in some cases their identities are contained one within the other.
Key words: Eastern philosophy, modern science, synchrony, yin, yang, Dao, taiji

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БУРКАТА: ЗАПАДНИЯТ ПОГЛЕД

The article examines the reasons for the political, cultural and anthropological confrontations in the West on the occasion of the Islamic dress code.
Key words: burqa, veil, dress code, fashion, body

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СРЕЩАТА НА ИЗТОКА И ЗАПАДА В ЕТИКАТА НА ПРЕКЛОНЕНИЕ ПРЕД ЖИВОТА (към 140-годишнината от рождението на Алберт Швайцер)

The paper is dedicated to the 140th Anniversary of Albert Schweitzer. The main thesis is that the fundamental principle of Schweitzer’s ethics – Reverence to Life – symbolizes the ‘meeting’ between Western (European) and Eastern (Indian) thinking. Specific emphasis is put on the image of Schweitzer as the European mind influenced by the Indian norm of Ahimsa.
Key words: Albert Schweitzer, Reverence for life, Ahimsa

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„ЗАПАДЪТ“ ВЪВ ФИЛОСОФСКО-ИСТОРИЧЕСКА ПЕРСПЕКТИВА

The paper describes and analyzes some philosophical-historical approaches toward West as type of civilization, regional culture, cultural areal, that possesses a universal historical perspective. The critical and analytical approaches of M. Weber, A. Toynbee and Assen Ignatov are described. The “capitalist spirit”, the western rationalism, militarism, secularism are emphasized and criticized. The capacity of the West to be open, dynamic, to self-transform itself is analyzed within the framework of its potential historical universality.
Key words: philosophy of history, West, civilizations, religions, regional history, universal history

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През очите на дете: поетическото съзнание на Исса1

Abstract: The Japanese poet Kobayashi Issa (1763 - 1828) advocated a childlike state of consciousness for composers of haiku. This essay firstly examines Issa's aesthetic approach in the context of cultural antecedents, including Chinese Taoism and Japanese Pure Land Buddhism; and secondly it relates the approach to recent research in neuroscience concerning the development of the Default Mode Network (DMN). Issa's desire, expressed in one of his early poems, to become a child on New Year's Day can be understood as an attempt to return to a primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of the DMN or adult ego. The essay argues that this state of primary consciousness continues to be an important prerequisite for excellent haiku.

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Западни интерпретации на източния феномен хайку

Abstract: The different perception and reflection of the world have deep roots in the cultural heritage of Eastern and Western philosophy. Considering the differences between haiku and Western poetry we have to specify that Western poets use mainly metaphoric imagery while haiku poets use concrete imagery, expressed in simple language, and specific artistic devices which originate from Japanese language and culture. There are, however, three exceptions, which bring Eastern and Western poetry closer. They are:
- Surrealistic images
- Synesthesia
- Personification
They all are variants of metaphor understood in a narrow literary sense in view of the fact that there is transference of meanings. However they are used in different way in the East and in the West.
Key words: poetry, haiku, surrealistic images, synesthesia; personification

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Политико-философският дискурс на границата между Халифата и тероризма - ИДИЛ

Abstract: On the 30th June 2014 the extremist organization "The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) has announced the establishment of a caliphate. With this act its the leaders not only has shooked the region and the world, but also they threw a strong challenge to the contemporary Islamic theologians. They formed the dogmatic case which brought to the surface the group as a real entity which has long struggled leadership among the other terrorist formations. After the announcement of the caliphate ISIL, it abolished "Iraq and the Levant" from its the name and became the only "The Islamic state", it does claiming their uniqueness to their competitors. This the terrorist organization has been a long history in Iraq. It has appeared on the map of extremist actors still living the former dictator Saddam Hussein. Its “birth date” is about 2000 and its the creator is the Jordanian Abu Musaab Zarqawi.

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Конфликтът между дигитална и реална демокрация (да помислим за делиберативната демокрация)

Abstract: To think about the DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY. The conflict between digital and real democracy - for thirty years now the digital-virtual public space is the undeniable and the influential factor which influences the human behavior and thinking. The digital democracy is part of this the digital-virtual space. This form of direct democracy has got itself the different dimensions: on the one hand, the representatives of a direct and a representative democracy are seek to influence through the electronic media and the digital channels of the representative and the direct democracy, which are a different, as well as the actual policy instruments to try to implement the specific applications of the digital media in a politics and for the government activities; on the other hand, the digital democracy has got twenty years of experience in the implementation of a digital democracy in the provision of information, of the online discussions and of to giving decision; furthermore, the digital-electronic democracy participates in the real politics. The digital democracy is being considered by the governments and the way to their orientation to the modern and the digital active of the civil society. The digital democracy is a kind of form theregulator of the real social democracy - eg. the issue of media freedom.

Keywords: deliberative democracy, digital-virtual public space, digital democracy, form of the direct democracy

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Политическа култура и социален ред

Abstract: The eternal problems of politics are what kind of institutions should be established,
i.e. what kind of social order should there be, and what is the permissible coercive power
of institutions that would ensure society will not break down, and hence human life become
impossible, how should institutions be changed, how can it be brought about that social
order should be perceived as a common good, by what means and in what way should social
order be maintained in society, etc. The problem of order in society is a fundamental political
one. Social action aimed at establishing or changing social order is political in nature.
Political action is public and its agents are institutional to some degree or other, whether
they be political parties, civic movements or groups of people claiming to express certain
values and/or interests. Political action is socio-normative not only because it is aimed at the creation, preservation or change of norms valid for society, but likewise because this action is itself dependent on norms and values.

Key words: values, socialization, social order, political culture, ideal type

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Поперианските начала на философската култура (70 години от създаването на „Отвореното общество и неговите врагове” и 20 години след Попър)

Abstract: The article attempts to reveal Popper’s views on philosophical culture. It is emphasized that according to Popper philosophy is a rational endeavour which came about with the first Milesian school of Thales and his pupils when they invented the critical discussion as a method to develop their theories. Therefore rationality seems to be the most essential attribute of philosophical culture apprehended as a specific attitude of mind and ability to reflect upon the world and man’s place in it. The consequences of adopting Popper’s critical rationalism are discussed with an emphasis on toleration and intellectual responsibility.

Key words: Popper, rationality, criticism, philosophical culture, Thales, Benda

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За пластическите достижения на художника Рабиндранат Тагор

Abstract: Rabindranath Tagore is one of the most remarkable and multifaceted personalities of India – a talented writer, poet, play-writer and musician. He was the first Nobel Laureate, both from India and Asia. In the last decade of his long and fulfilled life he was devoted to painting. It is not a hobby for him, but a natural continuation of his literary and spiritual interests. Tagore has penetrating eyes and flaming imagination. With true and genuine dedication he painted portraits, still lifes, landscapes, fantastic birds. As a highly concentrated and focused man, he walks the path from accidental scratching lines and spots on his manuscripts to realized high-impact compositions constructed with compelling sincerity and emotion. Even nowadays his paintings have modern look and impress with his brilliant performance. In the process of drawing Rabindranath Tagore was very vital. He created over 2500 paintings that are the pride of many galleries and museums not only in India but also around the world. In this study I analyze the achievements of Rabindranath Tagore as a painter which is a less known side of his life.

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Безглаголните хайку на Битието

Abstract: Non-verb haiku are studied on the base of 6 books of haiku poetry translated into Bulgarian. Some original Bulgarian haiku poems are also studied. Although non-verb haiku are a relatively small group as compared to verb-containing haiku, they reveal a rich semantic content. Interesting cases, such as haiku expressing movement and feelings, are analyzed together with the usual beingness and identification which non-verb sentences presuppose.

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Шок за Башьо: (някои) съвременни американски „хайку”

Abstract: Recent publications of experimental English-language haiku have raised a hotly debated question: Do such poems represent the avant-garde of 21st century haiku, or are they "haiku" only because a poet or editor claims that they are? This essay explores this question, beginning with a 17th-century haiku written by the Japanese master Matsuo Basho. An examination of Basho's poem shows that haiku has been an experimental genre since its inception that has required readers to fill in gaps by using their imaginations. However, when we compare Basho's poem with some recent postmodern English-language haiku, it soon becomes clear that poets are leaving so much to the reader's interpretation that their verses have ceased to function as haiku in the traditional sense. Whether these experiments represent the future of haiku or not haiku at all must be decided by poets, readers, editors, and critics. This essay attempts to begin this important inquiry.

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За някои особености на далекоизточната поезия и мисловност

Abstract: In the article the question of why in Far East shorts forms of poetry are developed is discussed. It analyses such specific for the Eastern thought concepts as response, synchronicity, dynamism, unity, naturalness and the way they are coded in the traditional poetry. The conclusion is that it is the three-lines form of haiku and the four-lines form of traditional Chinese verses that are the simplest and most efficient way for expression of Reality as it is revealed by the Eastern thought.

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Защо отворената врата изглежда затворена – един възможен отговор

Abstract:The theme of the unsaid in the poetic text has numerous projections in different plains of philosophy and literature. The aim of the present work is to study the unsaid from a viewpoint connected to the shortest poetic form, haiku, in which the unsaid develops its full potential. A dialogue between East and West is in focus in this research, searching for commonalities in the act of creation, regardless of the differences between Eastern and Western culture.
Key words: haiku, the unsaid, Eastern and Western philosophy

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Реално и трансцедентално в учението на толтеките

Abstact: The article illuminates the philosophy of the Toltecs, based on the evolving human consciousness. The ancient practices allowed for the warrior-Toltec to expand his consciousness. Then he could “see” and realize the transcendental realities, thus they cease to be illusions, unreal and fantasies. The author puts an accent in the article on the “flying creatures” (voladores) that are described by the Nagual-mystics as beings feeding on human consciousness; that is accordingly the reason why the human mind could comprehend only the 3D reality. The human population has forgotten its spiritual nature due to the lack of energy and consciousness and developed an aggressive way of living. The cosmic energies emanating after 2012 will influence the human consciousness by allowing it to change its perceptions and remember its cosmic origin.

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Относителността въображаемо-реално в религиите

Abstract: The main thesis of the article is that in the fundament of the religion lays a specific kind of experience within which the believers claim to experience the Ultimate Reality. The presumptions of this thesis are based on the conclusions of transpersonal psychology. Here we may distinguish at least three disputable points: 1) although the religion is a complex phenomenon, its distinctive feature is a special kind of experience; 2) this experience can be explained as a transpersonal experience; 3) transpersonal experiences imply a different perceiving of the reality. This reality can receive different names, including “God” in terms of apophatics. The common conclusion of this kind of experience is that it is the Reality as it is while the reality perceived in daily experience is its illusive interpretation. In such a way the relation imaginative-real is reversed: the reality achieved through transpersonal experience is the Ultimate Reality, while the world of common experience is an illusion.
Key words: transpersonal experience, Ultimate Reality, Eastern religions.

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Материалното въображение и неговите измерения в пространството

Abstract: The article aims to examine the role of imagination as something that offers the possibility to transcend reality and, at the same time, as a means of penetrating into the singular, individual inner world of every Man. The text is based on the poetics of Gaston Bachelard and that is why the imagination is considered as an ontological possibility of the psyche. An object of research is the material imagination and its dimensions in space visualized by the image.

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Симулакрумният век

Abstract: Of course, everything could be easily explained by the unreserved adoption of the basic attitudes of the postmodern world. However, since the late 60-s, our world has become the world of the postmodern, and both its contents and stylistic evaluations, that are being applied to arts or culture (including Philosophy), require the interpretations through the simulacra matrix of the postmodernism and its metaphoric images of the events in history and culture. Thus, people, having nothing in common between each other, when sharing the meanings or the interpretations on any dominating texts, have lost any sense or understanding out of that semiotic puzzle.

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Семиотика на виртуалния образ в киноизкуството

This paper analyses the symbolism of virtual image as observed in two movies: “The Great Gatsby” (1974) directed by Jack Clayton and “The Rum Diary” (2011) directed by Bruce Robinson. In both movies the directors turn to using of reflections by mirror surfaces as well as of transparent images which are analogous to the virtual ones created by transparent surfaces. In the second of the mentioned cases the virtual images are situated in the room behind the reflecting surface among the real individuals and objects, creating in this way an impression of unreality. An entering to characters‘ inner world, in which their invisible remembrances, dreams or desires are placed, is a peculiarity of the symbolism of the virtual image. The scenes in which such images appear can be considered as hypograms according to Riffaterre‘s conception, i.e. they are of utmost significance for the understanding of the whole movie.

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Аспекти на киберсигурността в комуникационното общество

В статията се обосновава тезата, че проблемите на киберсигурността са едни от най-важните проблеми на съвременнния свят. На основата на схващането на киберсигурността като постигането на такова състояние на обществото, при което то ще може да предотврати и отрази заплахите и да осигури превъзходство в изграждането и функционирането на виртуалното (кибер) пространството, се очертават главните аспекти, съдържанието и механизмите на киберсигурността на комуникационното общество.

The paper defends the argument that the problem of the cybersecurity is one of the most important problems of the contemporary world. Cybersecurity is defined as the possibility of a society to prevent and reject the threats in cyberspace. On this basis the main aspects, the nature and the mechanisms of the cybersecurity in the communication society could be identified.

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Развитие на дигиталната компетентност у студентите

The investment in the "human capital" through the provision of a better education and development of skills and competencies corresponding to the new demands of the knowledge-based society and economy has been highlighted as one of the important priorities for Europe in the 21st century.
This paper discusses issues related to the effective use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the learning process, and the need to encourage and develop the information and digital literacy of students. The author focuses on the role of the new basic skills and competencies for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process of students and their adaptation to the requirements of the global and dynamic labor market.
The paper also includes an empirical component relating to studying the extent of the use of digital technologies by students at Southwest University, their level of acquiring necessary skills and competencies, and their motivation to increase their level of digital literacy in order to meet the constantly changing requirements of work and life in the digital society .

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Българските политици и Мрежата

This article analyzes the activity of Bulgarian politicians on the web, their skills to use new technologies in their political activity.

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Виртуализацията и фантомите на информационното общество

Virtualization is the replacement of real objects and actions by images and communications. Traditional institutions prescribe doing real things and real actions but people instead operate with virtual objects – images that make social institutions a kind of virtual reality. Political parties and other organizations lose their role in the struggle for power while virtual political power – image of candidates - becomes critically important. Capitalism and alter-social movements do not restore authenticity against imagery but find value in fluid authenticity.

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Дигиталните технологии и изобразителното изкуство

Through digital technologies and virtual reality, art has become extremely available. I will focus your attention specifically on oil art. Will be traced the image of man in the works of digital artists like: Maggie Taylor, Ricardo Fernandez Ortega, Sanna Tomac, Susan Madsen, Vicente Arnas, Eli Tiunine, Marco Escobedo, Danny Quirk and Adam Martinakis.

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"Интелектуалецът и Другият"

Abstract: The paper analyzes main notions, ideas and values regarding the opposition between the Intellectual and the Other as described in the Jose Ortega Gasset's essay.

Keywords: Intellectual, Other, creative work, pragmatic attitude

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Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет и Бенедето Кроче – „рицарите” на „южния” либерализъм на ХХ век

Ortega y Gasset and Benedetto Croce: Two “Knights” of Twentieth-Century “Southern” Liberalism

Abstract: Several important aspects of the political philosophy of Ortega y Gasset and Benedetto Croce, the principal representatives of Liberalism during the first half of the twentieth century in Spain and Italy, respectively, are discussed in the present article. This parallel examination shows how, during the hardest period in the history of Liberalism, and notwithstanding their complicate and erratic individual stories as philosophers and persons, the two thinkers kept their loyalty to the principles of Liberalism; thus they contributed both to the theory and, what in our opinion is even more important, to the practical realisation of the liberal society.

Keywords: Politics, Liberalism, Freedom

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Мотивът за „кризата на Европа" във възгледите на Освалд Шпенглер и Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет

Abstract: The article is dedicated to one of the main philosophical subjects in the first quarter of the 20th century - the subject of the European crisis presented in the opinions of Oswald Spengler and José Ortega y Gasset. The paper analyses the Spengler's conception of the crisis in the context of his cyclic theory of the life and death of the cultural organisms. In this frame the European crisis is reflected as a period of an inevitable decline and ending of the European culture. In its second part the article studies the Ortega's point of view of European crisis in the perspective of his conception of the historical crises as a period of liberation of the dead forms of culture. In this context the crisis of Europe appears not as a decline but as a crucial moment in the European history.

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Светът на метафората

Abstract: As an universal principle of culture the metaphor is an opportunity for man to escape reality, to be free and to recreate a new desired world for himself. Through culture countless ways of playing the game, fantasy and freedom are revealed and all are man’s essence.

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Потенциалност и метафора (Един възможен „изместващ прочит" на разбирането на Ортега-и-Гасет за метафората)

Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to elaborate a "misreading" of Jose Ortega y Gasset's view on metaphors as an aesthetical possibility to escape from reality. Preserving the metaphorical tension in metaphorical action as a non-predetermined one will be taken into account in order with the conceptualization of the Aristotelian term dunamis. The term potentiality concerns infinity of speech as well as incompleteness of perception towards the things in the world. In addition, the problem of singularity appears here in relation with the metaphorical action.

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Ортега. Приноси към философията

Abstract: The article makes a sketch about the idea of human life, which is the fundamental concept of the philosophy of Ortega y Gasset, contrasting it with the notion of substance, as has been usually understood. The comparison is done in the context of the debate about the traditional matter of the philosophy, the question of being.

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Комплексен прочит на една комплексна мисловност

Abstract: The essay highlights the absolute necessity to read Ortega's thought with an open and complex mind. With an idealistic mind, looking for precise definitions, rigid classifications, final answers is possible to mix up the acceptance of the unpredictability and lack of precision of the reality with certain vagueness or contradiction in Ortega's work. Its urgent to leave the old idealism and assume that there is no precision in the reality so it couldn't be neither in the knowledge you can obtain from it.

Key words: Complexity/Complex thought; Idealism; Ortega y Gasset, sociology.

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Между негативния и позитивния протест

Abstract. The author analyzes the first civil protest in Bulgaria from September 1987 until February 1988. It took place in Ruse and was caused by the pollution that a chemistry factory in the neighboring Romanian city of Giurgiu had constantly been producing since 1984 and Bulgarian authorities could not cope with it. The citizens of Ruse suffered not only from the pollution but also from the silence enforced on their problem in mass-media by the ruling Communist Party. Six ordinary women were encouraged, probably by the Soviet policy of “glasnost” and “perestroika”, to organize their acquaintances and friends to protest peacefully against the silence on the pollution of their town. They used formal and informal channels to persuade people and to prepare the slogans for the demonstration. Then the initiative was taken by the intellectuals from Sofia. Their activities as well as the repressions of the authorities transformed the civil protest into a political one. The role of the Soviet leader M. Gorbachov to discredit the Bulgarian leader by interfering with the Bulgarian-Romanian diplomatic debate on the pollution remained hidden for both country and capital eco-activists.

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Анатомия на един граждански протест в България в края на социализма: случаят „Русе"

Abstract. The author analyzes the first civil protest in Bulgaria from September 1987 until February 1988. It took place in Ruse and was caused by the pollution that a chemistry factory in the neighboring Romanian city of Giurgiu had constantly been producing since 1984 and Bulgarian authorities could not cope with it. The citizens of Ruse suffered not only from the pollution but also from the silence enforced on their problem in mass-media by the ruling Communist Party. Six ordinary women were encouraged, probably by the Soviet policy of “glasnost” and “perestroika”, to organize their acquaintances and friends to protest peacefully against the silence on the pollution of their town. They used formal and informal channels to persuade people and to prepare the slogans for the demonstration. Then the initiative was taken by the intellectuals from Sofia. Their activities as well as the repressions of the authorities transformed the civil protest into a political one. The role of the Soviet leader M. Gorbachov to discredit the Bulgarian leader by interfering with the Bulgarian-Romanian diplomatic debate on the pollution remained hidden for both country and capital eco-activists.

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Протестна мобилизация при популистка ситуация

Abstract. In recent years populism has become a question of present interest for both foreign and Bulgarian researchers. The paper aims to examine the following research question: How and to what extent populist situation motivates political participation in the form of a protest attitude. Here populist situation (Stefan Popov, Ivan Krystev, Petya Kabakchieva) means the context within which the motives of protest attitude would be examined. The paper draws attention to the perceptions of the absence of adequate political representation and the transformation in public sphere. The notion is based on the fact that these changes reflect the vigorous fragmentation of the society, so the common is transformed into a mechanical sum of individual demands and ideas (on concrete issues). On one hand, this decreases the options for effective collective actions; while on the other, it increases the influence of various populist trends, because populism successfully profits from the disappointment energy, rage and fear, thus transforming the latter into mobilizing power, used to oppose the political status quo through an appeal to the unappeased masses (Jean-Pierre Rioux).

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Май 1968: Образът на Дьо Гол в лозунгите, афишите и графитите

Abstract.French May 1968 is one of the most brilliant examples of civil protest in the modern history. For the first time in France, 10 million workers are out on the street, and within one day their number increased by one million. For the first time, the role of De Gaulle is call into question. The comprehensive study of the May events would be impossible without clarifying the role of slogans, posters and graffiti because they are one of the most authentic sources of this period and are an expression of the position of the French society as a civil society, which has ceased to be a "silent majority". The slogans weren’t "mass production" of party headquarters, but were made by the hand of the individual. Posters, created by the Popular Workshops, were an immediate response to the official position. The graffiti that filled the walls of hours were taken up by meetings and demonstrations, or embedded in posters. The purpose of this research is the study of the image of the General, established on the basis of these valuable historical documents.

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Изначалният беззвучен звук: учението за АУМ и за четирите четвъртини на atman в „Мандукя упанишад”

The primordial soundless sound: the doctrine of AUM and of the four quarters of atman in Majdukya upanicad

Milena Bratoeva

The present paper is an attempt to interpret the doctrine about the four modalities of atman, encoded in the supreme sacred sound AUM, introduced in the Majdukya upanicad, belonging to the tradition of Atharvaveda and composed probably around 450 – 400 BC. The four states of the consciousness have been described in brief in the Majdukya, which consists of only twelve definitions (sutras). Despite of its briefness Majdukya upanicad is one of the most significant and in-depth texts among the so called “classical” upanicads. The Upanicad has attracted the attention of Gaudapada – one of the founder of advaita vedanta, who wrote a profound commentary on it. The fundamental idea of Majdukya is that atman, the Self, is identical to brahman, the Absolute, and that the essence of both of them is prajava, the primordial cosmic vibration.

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За изобразителните трансформации на музика в индийската култура

On Visual Transformations of Music in Culture of India

Ivanka Vlaeva

Abstract. There is a specific tradition in India – the miniature called ragamala (literally – a garland of ragas), which visualizes raga. It develops since the end of the 16th century. Exact iconographic moulds have been made through the centuries. Their aims are to express definite musical and aesthetic characteristics and to reflect the structure of the mode system and its elements in pictures. This research turns on the core of the unique ragamala. Some of the questions that the current study raises and looks into are: What kind of relations we can find between music and fine arts? In which way the structure of raga is transferred from the music to the miniature? The author describes her own observations on the contemporary continuity of the ragamala tradition in India and especially in Raghurajpur a heritage crafts village in Puri distric, Orissa. There are observed transformation from court art into folk forms.

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Тантра – пътят на познанието в епохата на Кали Юга

Tantra - the path of knowledge in the age of Kali Yuga

Nikolay Yankov

Summary: Despite sprouting from the same roots of the traditional indian world conception, through the years tantra has developed its own unique doctrine, which has often threatened the stability of the orthodox, thus becoming an inconvenient and eretical phenomenon due to its potential to break the established norms of conduct and encourage each individual no matter his caste background to experience the mystical unity with the divine. But even the most striking and extreme practices of tantra find their explanation and logic in the traditional indian thought. Even more, tantra has proved to be the only direct successor of the ancient vedic cult. Through the doctrine of tantra for the first time in aryan-dominated India the idea of the Divine Mother becomes so powerful that permeates into almost every sphere of indian life. As Andre Padoux says: „For the last thousand years what we think of hinduism is in fact pure tantrism“. And the rediscovery of the divine femenine power is very much related with the sensitivity of the contemporary age of Kali Yuga (Age of discord) – an age of materialization and desintegration of the values. As the authors of the tantras put it – this teaching is not a new teaching but a new revelation of the truth of the Vedas, addressed to the man of the Kali Yuga when the spiritual is hidden beneath the veil of the sensitive, physical and material because tantra promises its followers that it is going to libearate them from the material, by letting them step upon the material, which constitutes our everyday perceptions.

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За границите на себепознанието. Поетическото мечтание – форма на себеизразяване и трансцендиране

The aim of the paper is to realize a philosophical and anthropological reflection on the process of day-dreaming and to represent it as a creative self-expression and self-overcoming of the Man. The paper analyzes the role of day-dreaming to transcend the reality and to understand the inner world of the Man.

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Крахът на мултикултурализма или необходимостта от неговото преосмисляне в контекста на „Манифеста на Брайвик”

The contemporary concepts of toleration, plurality and justice differ on the interpretation of civil and private roles, and of the institutions conducive to human freedom and rights. Since moral evolves under public pressure, its weakness and defects have become gradually apparent: present cultural xenophobia and racism emanate from past territorial aggressions and fearful mythologies (against violent incursions). They are no longer appropriate in today’s global multicultural world, purposive to the 21st century’s ethos of harmonious living together.

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Ислямът в Европа

The article analyzes the phenomenon of Euro-Islam; the causes of its vitality are examined. Special attention is focused on the failure of multiculturalism and the inability to achieve social dialogue between representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, and religions.

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Преди и след Стената: към типологията на държавните граници

State borders are considered as constituting and constituted factor for the society. The article discusses three types of state borders – traditional, isolationist (totalitarian) and post-nationalstate borders. It concludes that the globalization leads to ambiguous consequences for the state borders: some of them drop, but new appear.
Key words: border, Berlin Wall, Schengen Agreement

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Граници и идентичности – от „селяни” и „християни” до „българи” и „сърби” (1877-1918 г.)

Тhe article explores the process of forging national identity in an transitional region where the ethnic boundaries were not that clearly outlined. The cases have been traced where on the base of preliminary attitude for Serbian or Bulgarian identity or in the absence of national consciousness, because of certain cultural settings and the long-term activities of state institutions, the Serbian and Bulgarian identities were built and created. These newly built identities strictly followed the political border between Serbia and Bulgaria established at Berlin congress 1878 that survived in the three decades formative period until the Balkan wars and the First world war.

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Съдбата на текста. Една вариация върху огъня

The cultural aspect of the text is its creative nature. Any sense that touches us, to one degree or another, moulds us; and with any response, whichobjectifies our inner experience, we create the text. Arguments in support of her thesis the authoress is searching in one of the most representative works of Bulgarian art culture – the dance drama "Nestinarka" by Marin Goleminov. In this work the fire is raised to heights of an unifying poetic image, whose essential characteristic is complexio oppositorum – the paradoxical unity of opposites. The analysis shows that if complexio oppositorum is a generating model in the creation of the work, logically it should be also a generating model in the process of its comprehension.

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Градивото на текста – статути на словото

The author draws attention to the basic theses about types, which occur in relation to the word, after materials from Bulgarian literature and some fundamental texts of our civilization.

What is the difference between the wording of the Bible, the Koran, the ancient sacred texts and a modern text on the problems of biblical and koran studies, of the ancient religions. The authentic religious texts sublimate impressions of eternity and infinity while the modern texts sound on a small-scale, describing a human horizon which is always finite. The word having a status of denoting one is the primordial Word coming from God.

In a status of depicting one is the word, which comes from the man. It is no longer that untouchable spirit of truth. It loses its horizon of eternity, but wins a whole pallet of new attitudes to time – to be not only fashionable, but classy, to be contemporary, but at the same time to be dependent on the conjuncture, to be archaic and in its archaism – super modern one.

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За природата на фантастичното и границите на въображаемото

Many of the classical readings of fantastic literature, such as Todorov’s, Cawelti’s or Caillois’s emphasize the subversive or irrational component of it. Although studies on its mimetic component exist as well, they have not pursued to the end the logical conclusions of the interaction between both fields. Through a typology of objects as they appear in fantastic fiction, and the study of their ontology, this article attempts to show how realistic view is not only a foundational base of fantastic discourse but it also proves what this discourse is claimed to question. The author examines the contrast between Todorov’s functional definitions of the fantastic and the ironic view and SF ideas of Stanislav Lem. The conclusion is reached that fantastic literature is oxymoronic by essence, and only subversive or dissident a posteriori, i.e. after obeying the conscious intentions of the writer.

Keywords
Fantastic Literature; Mimesis; Literary Realism; Subversion

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Синергетика и толерантност

This article discusses the problems of tolerance and globalization in terms of synergetics. The main idea is that synergetics can be used both for explanation of the processes in contemporary society and as a method of their turning in appropriate direction. It is shown that the synergetics itself is an example of the principle of tolerance. It not only combines in a creative way achievements of science and arts but reveals points of coincides of Western and Eastern thinking. In terms of synergetics and non-duality, globalization can be a path for forming a new global consciousness of tolerance and creativity.

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Толерантността към чужденците в глобалния свят

This paper examines the necessity of a culture of tolerance in the contemporary world. As more multicultural environments of living are observed due to large-scale migrations the problem of tolerance of foreigners is raised. Z. Bauman‘s analyses shows that living with a „foreign neighbour“ is living in conditions of indefiniteness and insecurity. Tolerance is an effort for the human being in order to cope with the uncertainty and confusion which a foreign presence brings into the social space and to admit the foreign identity as valuable as his own. According to Tzvetan Todorov tolerance of foreigners is based on the principle of equality: on the belief in the universal human nature – a philosophical idea of the Enlightenment. Thus this paper searches tolerance into Kant‘s concept of enlarged mentality: the capacity of permeating into the point of view of everybody. This extended way of thinking takes into consideration the potential agreement with the others which is necessary in the social world. The task of tolerance as an active attitude is therefore the effort of communication when meeting the foreign and overcoming the formal tolerance through a reflection from a common standpoint.

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Осцилациите на хомосексуалния между световете на оскърблението и политическата коректност в посттоталитарното българско общество

The paper analyses the situation of homosexuals in Bulgaria after the political changes of 1989. In the first place it examines the transformations of the penal laws and the abolishment of the discriminatory paragraphs in them. On the second place the paper trace out the establishment of some gay-organisations, the opening of many gay-bars, pubs and clubs and other homosexual people’s attempts to come in sight in the public space. However the article also studies the other side of this process – some cases of aggressive assaults on homosexual people, as how as the injuries and the insinuations, which create “the world of the insult” described by Didier Eribon. The conclusion is that though there are only few aggressive and openly discriminatory acts against homosexual people most of them live a dual life; they could be homosexuals in their private life, but the demonstration of their sexuality is thoroughly unwelcome in the public sphere.

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Мобилният човек, или парафраза на тема «Скитникът евреин»

THE MOBILE MAN OR PARAPHRASE
ON THE THEME "THE WANDERING JEW"

Darina Vasileva

(Summary)

The constantly increasing man's mobility is an evident mark of the late modernity. While the rise of physical mobility does not arouse any doubt, the mental mobility remains a matter still open for discussion. The present text makes attempts in two aspects:
to analyze the matter of mental mobility from the viewpoint of the sensitivity and creativity specific for art which transforms the general picture of real life and the notion of man into an image of real life and man's attitude towards it;
to launch the thesis of pluralism when interpreting the work of art as an aspect of the matter of mental mobility.
The analysis of the above problems is based on a fragment of Simeon Yanev's novel "Biographies of Riff-Raff".

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Властта посредством съблазняване в контекста на Е. Фром

Abstract: The paper offers an interpretation of Fromm’s arguments in the perspective of two global historical tendencies. The first one could be found in the dynamism of living standard being in stagnation until the beginning of the industrial age and rapidly increasing in developed economies in the second half of the 19th century. The second one reveals a change in power mechanisms governing economic relationships: from direct appropriation of a product or a personality of a dependent individual (pre-capitalist societies and early capitalism) to subjection and binding by means of a seduction strategy (advanced capitalism). In this perspective, Fromm’s concepts concerning healthy and unhealthy consumption, as well as his vision of retransformation of capitalist society, are considered. Fromm’s views of human necessities as objective and identifiable by means of scientific research are discussed critically. At the same time, Fromm’s analysis revealing the illusion of choice and freedom of consumers in contemporary societies, their manipulation through a fully-fledged and “scientifically based” seduction strategy, is highly valued.

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Парадокси и изпитания на модерния човек: идеите на Ерих Фром

The paper analyzes E. Fromm anthropological ideas and approaches to the human nature, the human essence; to the problems and paradoxes of the modern man existence; to the influence of the protestant ethics on the soul and mind of the contemporary man. The main concepts of his analysis are: human nature, freedom, personality, illusions, destructivity, psychoanalysis, capitalism, future, hope.

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Ценностните „чужденци” в Западна Европа

The article traces the process of western European society heterogeneities as a result of mass immigration. Two contradictions generated in this process have been analyzed. First contradiction is expressed in the collision between the growing need of mass immigration and increasing public concern about immigration, which often takes the shape of neoracism and xenophobia. The other analyzed contradiction is between the core European values such as freedom of speech and Muslim immigrant values that are radicalizing at their residence in the European social milieu. On that basis, a conclusion is drawn on the establishment of new inter European value boundaries.

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За границите на мисленето и пространствата на другостта

The article discusses the interconnection of Eastern and Western kind of thinking questioning the statement that the Chinese thought is the other pole of human experience putting the limits of our thinking and representing an impossible for us kind of thinking. The main aim of the paper is to show that in spite of the fact that the Chinese way of thinking investigates unknown spaces and relations in the structure of the world, its premises are accessible and understandable for the human mind. The Chinese thought develops aspects of knowledge which are ignored by the Western thought and vice versa. Nevertheless, they both have their significance in the way we perceive our reality. Therefore, they should be considered rather in terms of complementation and not of contradiction.

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Тялото, оковаване. Жените в романите на Милан Кундера

The body, shacklement. The women in the Kundera novels

Summary

It is well known that Milan Kundera is a discoverer in the novel genre. A part of his original novel poetics are the characters in his books, often called thesis-characters or function-characters. This is also valid for the female characters in Kundera's books. Even though secondary in respect to the male characters, it turns out they could also be a key to understanding the often complex work of the author. In their descriptions we find a painful juxtaposition or an oscillation between the female archetype and the sociopolitical environment that wouldn’t allow such an archetype to be. In the totalitarian world the female body becomes a locus of the humiliation of human individuals, a sort of metaphorical shackles for the woman's soul.

Резюме

Известно е, че Милан Кундера е откривател в областта на романовия жанр. Част от оригиналната му романова поетика са персонажите в книгите му, често наричани персонажи-тези, персонажи-функции. По подобен начин са конструирани и женските образи в романите на Кундера. Макар и второстепенни по отношение на мъжките персонажи, те, оказва се, могат да бъдат (още един) ключ към сложното творчество на писателя. В описанието им наблюдаваме мъчително противопоставяне или осцилация между архетипа на женското и опровергаващото, недопускащо този архетип социално и политическо. В тоталитарния свят женското тяло става топос на унизеността на човешкия индивид, превръща се в метафорични окови на женската душа.

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Тялото и означаващата интенция на етическия субект

The proposed text is an attempt to defend one dualistic conception about subjectivity (nominated as ethical dualism) investigating the relation between the subject and its own body. The authors which are in the core of the investigation – Milan Kundera and Pierre Abelard – put the topos of value (for both this value is the love) in the frame of one interiority which remains aside from the body and the action. The main pathos has for an object to illustrate that these two authors understand subjectivity as unalienated from the body and in the same time they hypostatize one latent intention, one ethical subject which is beyond and before the body.

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Феноменология на пърформънса (част 1)

In the present paper are analized different performance types by means of Heidegger's phenomenological ontology. Ascribing phenomenical character to a performance is possible when there is a lack of representativity of something else and approaching the point of self-suficiency and self-clarification of something “which shows itself in itself” (“das Sich-an-ihm-selbst-zeigen”). The contradiction between mimesis and poiesis is importand for the aimed analysis as well as the lack of representativity is replaced by sense producing.

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Жените в политиката: за и против квотния принцип

Резюме
В статията се разглежда квотният принцип като средство за преодоляване на джендърния дисбаланс в политическите институции. В първата част се обобщават основните аргументи в полза на този принцип. Втората част е фокусирана върху уязвимите места на разглежданата аргументация. Посочват се няколко аргумента срещу квотния принцип: (1) По-голямото количество жени в политическите ръководни органи не води непременно до по-адекватна защита на интересите на жените; (2) Квотите възраждат и укрепват един стереотип, който не е в полза на жената – стереотипът за жената като „слабия пол”, който се нуждае от покровителство; (3) Налагането на квотите предразполага към политическа пасивност у жените. В статията се защитава тезата, че джендърният паритет е цел, за която следва да бъдат полагани системни и продължителни усилия. Паритетът обаче трябва да бъде постиган, а не налаган. Посочват се два фактора, от чието преодоляване зависи степента на женското участие в политиката: (1) трудностите на жените при съвместяване на професионалния и семейния живот; (2) исторически наложилият се и широко поддържан от днешните медии стереотип, че политиката е мъжка работа.

Women in politics: the pros and cons of the quota
Principle

Summary
In the article the quota principal is viewed as means for overcoming the gender disbalance in the political institutions. The first part is a summary of the main arguments defending this principle. The second part is concentrated on the weak points of the argumentation. There are a few arguments against the quota principle: (1) The larger number of women in the leading political organs does not necessarily means that their interests are represented more adequately; (2) The quotas revive and support a stereotype which is not in favour of women – the stereotype for them as the „weak gender”, which needs patronage; (3) The applying of the quotas predisposes political passivity in women. The article defends the thesis that the gender parity is a goal for which systematic and continuous efforts need to be made. However, the parity has to be reached, not imposed. The degree of women participating in politics depends on the overcoming of two factors: (1) the difficulties women have dealing with both professional and family life; (2) the historically imposed and widely supported by nowadays media stereotype that the politics are for men.

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Женската политическа амбиция

Резюме
В статията се правят се разглеждат различни фактори, обуславящи степента и формите на женската политическа амбиция: социализационният процес, който налага определени роли на жената; политическите партии и държавните институции; интересите на различни социални прослойки от развитие или затормозяване на женската политическа амбиция.

Summary
In this paper are made some conclusions about the women ambition to be political informed, to participate actively in the political life, to make political career. Some factors are analyzed: the socialization process, the political parties’ and state institutions’ behavior, the interests of some influential social groups in the society.

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Протестантството в България и жените

The present article concerns the history of woman's emancipation in the context of Protestantism in Bulgaria from a sociological point of view. It contains a three conceptual levels of analysis of woman's emancipation:

1. Women's emancipation within Protestant churches and organizations themselves.
2. Women's emancipation concerning other Protestant institutions (schools for example), related to both Protestants and non-Protestants.
3. Women's emancipation regarding the influence of Protestantism on society.

Keywords: Protestantism, woman's emancipation, historical sociology, nationalism

Статията засяга историята на еманципацията в контекста на протестантството в България от социологическа гледна точка. Тя съдържа три концептуални равнища на анализ на еманципацията:

1. Еманципация в рамките на самите протестантски църкви и организации.
2. Еманципация, отнасяща се до други протестантски институции (например училища) и засягаща както протестанти, така и не-протестанти.
3. Еманципация, свързана с влиянието на протестантството върху обществото в по-общ план.

Ключови думи: протестантство, еманципация, историческа социология, национализъм

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Жената, религията, фундаментализмът от гледна точка на исляма

Резюме:
Когато се дискутира темата за фундаментализма, винаги се намесва и тази за пола, по-специално за ролята и мястото на жената в ислямската религия. Настоящата статия поставя въпроса за отношението между традиция и модерност, булото като тенденция на равенство или неравенство, емблема на радикална ислямистка политика или белег за фундаментализъм? Съпоставителният анализ проследява мястото на мюсюлманката на Запад и в мюсюлманския свят, както и ролята й днес от гледна точка на кораничния текст и западната интерпретация. Патриархалната интерпретация на Исляма предполага маргинализация на жените и обособяването им в отделна сфера, а всъщност техните права са гарантирани от Корана и са равни с тези на мъжете. Има ли място днес за признаване на различните форми на религиозност?
Ключови думи: ислям, жената, религия, фундаментализъм

Abstract:
When we discuss the theme about fundamentalism it is always involved also this one about sex, more particularly about the role and place of the woman in the Islamic religion. The present report puts the questions about the relation between tradition and modernity, the veil as a trend toward equality or inequality, as the emblem of a radical Islamist policy or a sign of fundamentalism. The comparative analysis will follow the place of the Muslim woman in the West and the Muslim world, her role today from the point of view of the Koranic text and the West interpretation. The patriarchal interpretation of Islam suggests the marginalization of women and their separation in a definite sphere but, in fact, their rights are guaranteed by Koran and they are identical with those of men. Is there a place for the acknowledgement of the different forms of religiousness today?
Key words: Islam, woman, religion, fundamentalism

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Женското начало в религиите

Статията предлага един по-необичаен подход към проблема за изследване на женското начало в религиите – подход, основан на етимологичното определение на понятието религия и трансперсоналното разбиране на несъзнаваното и връзката му с религиозността. Прокаран последователно, този подход води до извода, че съществуват религии, в които човекът се мисли като разделен от божествения първоизточник, каквито са юдео-християнските религии, които са и религии в собствения смисъл на думата, и религии или по-скоро вярвания, в които връзката не се преживява като прекъсната, а човекът се мисли в единство с божественото.

In this paper a slightly unusual approach to the problem of feminine principle in religion is proposed. This approach is based on the etimological definition of religion and understanding of unconscious and its connection with religion in terms of transpersonal psychology. When consistently followed, this approach leads to the conclusion that we may distinguish two types of religions: religions of separation and religion of unity.

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От пролетарската еманципация до киберфеминизма

Abstract
The study examines some inner contradictions in the evolution of contemporary feminism in the conditions of transition to open democratic sosiety. The aspiration for successful professional career of women in society with nonestablished values leads from the patrimonial socialist emancipation to the peculiar cloning of some preserving their loyalty to traditional family and sexual role and others oriented to “fast food” consumption of spiritual and material goods. The alienation from the existing rules of partnership provokes their egoistic selfisolation and gives rise to futuristic ideas of “technological” equality of sexes, inspirating newest trends of cyberfeminism.

Резюме
Показани са някои вътрешни противоречия в еволюцията на съвременния феминизъм в условията на прехода към отворено демократично общество. Стремежът към по-пълноценна професионална реализация на жената в общество с неустановени ценности доведе след наследената социалистическа еманципация до своеобразното й клониране в оставащите верни на традиционния семеен модел и сексуални роли и ориентиращите се към “бърза консумация” на духовни и физически блага. Отчуждението на жената от установените норми на партньорство става причина за егоистичната й самоизолация и футуристичните идеи за “технологично” равноправие на половете, залегнали в основата на новото направление на киберфеминизма.

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Диктатът на фантазмите – «идеалните» образи, моделирането на «женското» тяло и неосъщественият бунт

В текста се анализира посткомунистическата трансформация на женските образи, които редуцират българската жена до ролята й на тяло - обект на желание и предмет за консумация. Изследват се репрезентативните кодове на крайно сексуализираните рекламни и медийни образи и начина, по който те моделират телата на средностатическите български жени и момичета. Статията разглежда променената социална роля на пост-тоталитарната жена, като акцентира специално върху детерминираността на успеха на жената от нейната сексуална привлекателност.

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Защо не се чувствам «жертва» на «мъжкия поглед»?

The ambition of the text is to question one of the most widespread myths which many schools of feminism subscribe to – the myth of male dominance.

Key words: feminism, sex, gender, Eros and Agape, healthy and pathological hierarchy.



Oсновната амбиция на този текст е да оспори един от най-разпространените митове, споделян от различни школи на феминизма – митът за мъжкото господство.

Ключови думи: феминизъм, пол, джендър, Ерос и Агапе, здравословна и патологична йерархия.

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Щрихи към портрета на един невиждан слон: Хегеловата диалектика в десет дефиниции

Thе design of this article is to sketch an approach to the formalization of Hegel’s dialectical logic which is deliberately close to thе conceptual framework, developed by my late colleague and friend Ivan Punchev. The formalization is presented in a series of definitions which capture in mathematical form the essential properties of some of the key concepts of Hegelian dialectics.

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Интензионалност, индивидуализиращи функции и гранични условия на интерпретация

Grasping of an individual internal structure as a part of some conceptual system implicitly or explicitly is based on the presupposition which could be called “thesis of intesionality” - the claim that our statements about the world are put within definite contexts of opinion, belief, knowledge, etc. In relation with the thesis in question the determination of intensions (analysed by Carnap in “Meaning and Synonymy in Natural Languages”) could be relativized in a proper way toward individual conceptual systems which comprise “individuating functions” (Hintikka) and which are defined on certain limitation conditions of interpretation.

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Науката – аристократка или прислужница

To determine science as something uniform is one of the most complex problems in the philosophy of science. And different answers to the question of the essence of scientific knowledge determine different strategic accents of its function and development. All attempts, for example, to treat science as a servant and estimate it only because of its immediate applications and immediate profit are based on wrong ideas of its essence and of the lows of its genesis. These excessively pragmatic requirements set up a wrong strategy for its management. Thus the failure of all efforts to improve the quality of scientific research and the effectiveness of its applications is assured. That is inevitable when one kind of science social functions come into a conflict with another kind through a short sighted and primitive understanding of the priorities. And the science, its social image and the society itself suffer from this situation.

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Трансформация на времето в условията на късната модерност

Концепцията за „късната модерност” става популярна като реакция на постмодернизма преди всичко чрез работите на Антъни Гидънс и Улрих Бек. Те които разгръщат идеи, характеризиращи настоящата епоха с понятия като “късна”, “рефлексивна”, “развита”, “втора”, „рефлективна”, “висока” (“висша”) или “глобална” модерност, “рисково общество” и “рефлексивна модерност”. Опитват се да отговорят на много от въпросите за особеностите на сегашната епоха, които стоят и пред постмодернистите като нарастващата несигурност и случайност, отслабването на бинарните противопоставяния, фрагментизацията на социалния живот и дори акумулират редица постмодернистки аргументи, имплантирайки ги в своите теоретични модели. Това, което ги отличава е, че отхвърлят тезата, че се светът се намира в постмодерна ситуация и утвърждават, че става дума за определен период на модерността, свързан с глобализацията, реконструиране на традицията и явлението индивидуализация. Този период става възможен с развитието на електронните медии и комуникационните технологии, които от своя страна подпомагат мобилността на капитала, глобализацията и следващите от това промени в политиката, основните институции, човешкото поведение и в останалите сфери на живот.
Анализът на късната модерност може да засегне различни характеристики. В този текст искам да обърна внимание на характерната за нея трансформация на времето. Начинът, по който тече и се възприема времето в традиционното общество е различен от този на ранната модерност, особено от ХVІІІ век насам. Сега наблюдаваме радикални промени в неговото социално функциониране, свързани с особеностите на маркетизираната ситуация, резултат на третата нидустриална революция и глобализацията.

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Хайку и далекоизточното разбиране за Аз-а

В доклада се прави опит да се изследва източното разбиране за аза, намерило специфичен израз в хайку. Изследването се разгръща в три основни насоки: 1. Първата насока е определяща и касае въпроса за отношението субект-обект, които според източната мисъл трябва да бъдат видени преди всичко в тяхното единство. 2. Втората се занимава с нивата на разгръщане на аза и стремежа към разкриване на истинския, Висшия Аз. 3. Третата насока разглежда накратко начина, по който този Аз може да е творец. Прави се изводът, че за дзенската мисъл творецът трябва да съумее да достигне до голата реалност, отвъд видимостта на думите и капаните на логиката, а за това хайку е най-удачната форма.
Ключови думи: субект-обектно отношение, единство, не-Аз, не-думи

In the article an attempt to examine the Eastern conception of Self through the lens of haiku is made. The study follows three main streams: 1. The first one is determinant. It considers the subject-object relation and their unity according to Eastern thought. 2. The second one deals with the levels of unfolding of the Self and the path towards the Higher Self. 3. Third one discusses how this Self may be a creator. A conclusion is drawn that according to Zen the creator is the one who is able to reach the true reality beyond the words and logic and that the poetic form of haiku is an appropriate means for this.

Key words: subject-object relation, unity, non-Self, words without words

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Някои философски и естетически подходи в традиционното японско хайку

Докладът предлага анализ на някои естетически и философски концепции н традиционното японско хайку. Целта е да се покаже техния широк смисъл и фундаменталното им значение за създаването на една уникална поетична форма и нейното дълбоко разбиране. Специално внимание се обръща на влиянието на някои идеи на дзен будизма върху тази поезия на висше духовно просветление.

Ключове думи: японска поезия, хайку, дзен, естетически категории, уаби, саби, юген, ауаре, моно но ауаре, каруми, хосоми, фукьо, гинко

The article offers a thorough analysis of some aesthetic categories and philosophic concepts in traditional Japanese haiku. The aim is to demonstrate their broad meaning and fundamental importance for building a unique piece of poetry and profound perception of it. Special attention is paid to the influence of some ideas of Zen Buddhism upon this poetry of high spiritual enlightenment.
Key words: Japanese poetry, haiku, Zen, aesthetic categories, wabi, sabi, shiori, yugen, aware, mono no aware, karumi, hosomi, fukyo, shasei, ginko

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Между водопада и морето от сълзи

Много се е писало за поезията на Баня Нацуиши и нейната връзка със сюрреализма, за тази радикална промяна на гледната точка на хайку поета, който обръща поглед към вътрешната си реалност и я легитимира като не по-малко важна от тази, която го заобикаля. Важен фактор за тази промяна е отказът на Баня от сезонните думи като структуроопределящ фактор на хайку и замяната им с ключови думи. Баня смята, че много поети бъркат понятията „реалност” и „факт” и че всъщност реалността може да включва въображаемото и нереалното. Той говори за „цялостност на човешката реалност” /A Future Waterfall, p. 67/. И докато сюрреализмът в творбите на Баня наистина е видимата част на айсберга на дълбоката промяна, която той извършва с хайку поезията, смятам, че има по-важна, но и по-трудно забележима част и това е екзистенциализмът.

Ключови думи: хайку, Баня Нацуиши, поезия, екзистенциализъм, сюрреализъм


Much has been written about Ban’ya Natsuishi’s poetry and its connection with surrealism, as well as about the radical change in the point of view of the haiku poet who turns his gaze towards internal reality and legitimizes it as no less important than that which surrounds him. An important factor in this change is Ban’ya’s decision to not use seasonal words as a structurally defining factor in haiku and his replacement of them with keywords. Ban’ya believes that many poets confuse the concept of "reality" with "fact" and that, in fact, reality can include imaginary and the unreal. He speaks of "the totality of human reality" (A Future Waterfall, p. 67). And while the surrealism in Ban’ya’s works is merely the tip of the iceberg that is the deep change he is bringing about in haiku poetry, I believe that there is also a more important yet more difficult to notice aspect: existentialism.

Keywords: haiku, Ban’ya Natsuishi, poetry, existentialism, surrealism

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Ролан Барт: „кратката форма, която предпочитам най-много”

В статията се анализира концепцията на Роланд Барт за хайку поезията. Френският семиолог прави естетическа анатомия на този жанр, определян от него като „радикална форма на поезията”. В текста са разгледани следните аспекти:
- Зависимостта между вътрешната топография и външната типография на хайку;
- Спецификата на времето в хайку;
- А-дескриптивният и анти-интерпретиращ характер на хайку;
- Съ-присъствието като поетически инструмент, чрез който читателят на хайку е „накаран” да вижда, а не да узнава действителността;
- Границите на хайку (границата между източната и западната нагласа за хайку, ограниченията за рецепцията на хайку, границата на езиковия превод на хайку).

Ключови думи: хайку, типография на хайку, киго (kigo), съ-присъствие, хайку като завръщане към нещата сами по себе си, граници на хайку

The Roland Barthes's conception for the haiku poetry is analyzed in this article. The French semiologist makes an aesthetic anatomy of the genre, defined by him as "a radical form of poetry". The following aspects have been reviewed:
- The dependence between the internal topography and the external typography of haiku;
- The time in the haiku poetry;
- The a-descriptive and anti-interpretative nature of haiku;
- The co-presence as a poetry instrument, by which the haiku reader is "made" to contemplate, but not to find out the reality;
- The boundaries of haiku (the boundary between the east and west attitudes to haiku, the limitations for the perception of haiku, the barrier of the language translation of haiku).

Key words: haiku, haiku typography, kigo, co-presence, haiku as returning to the nature of things, the boundaries of haiku

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Европейският съюз и правата на човека

В статията се очертават най-важните исторически етапи в развитието на идеята за зачитането на човешките права и се разкрива тяхното значение за изработването на основните концепции и документи за правата на човека в Европейския съюз. Показва се как с разработването и приемането на Хартата за основните права в Съюза и подписването на Договора за реформи от Лисабон, не само се осъществява най-пълното обхващане на човешките права и свободи, но същевременно се гарантира тяхното интернационално юридическо упражняване и защита.

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Европейският съюз на глобалната сцена: великан или пигмей?

„Глобалната сцена" обикновено асоциираме с мощни играчи - отделни големи държави или група държави, които непрестанно мерят силите си и като оказват влияние върху по-малките играчи, във всеки момент конфигурират света на сфери на влияние. Глобалната сцена е място за гиганти; в нея място за джуджета няма, което не значи, че те нямат право да съществуват - просто влиянието им върху света и събитията в него е нищожно, гласът им е немощен и никой не го чува. Колкото и интересни да са обръщенията и предложенията, които правят - най-често към гигантите, - те по правило са обречени, ако не са съгласувани с интересите на големите.

С провокативната формулировка на заглавието по-горе обобщавам проблем, пред който днес и несъмнено в бъдеще Европейският съюз ще бъде изправен. В случая се интересувам от ролята на ЕС като глобален фактор, като глобален актьор на международната сцена. И, естествено, откривам - заедно с други критици, коментатори и наблюдатели - едно дълбоко, ако не противоречие, то поне разминаване, несъответствие, което създава на ЕС най-малкото неудобства и препятства развитието на външната му политика и дипломация. Очевидно става дума, от една страна, за икономическия ръст на ЕС - и в това отношение той действително е исполин, и, от друга страна, за неговия военен потенциал - в това отношение ЕС с право е наричан лилипут, пигмей, джудже.

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“Единни в многообразието”: културно-специфичното и универсалното в дискурса за европейските ценности

Важен момент при прочита на европейските ценности, на който следва да се обърне внимание, е свързан със статута им - те феномени на Общността ли са или има основания да се търсят корените им и в по-ранни епохи? Възприема се гледната точка, че общоевропейските ценности, подобно на конструиращата се европейска идентичност, такива, каквито ще бъдат изследвани в настоящата работа, стават факт едва в рамките на ЕС. В същото време философската им деконструкция показва, че появата им е била подготвяна в продължение на столетия.

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Послеслов за биографичното начало

Обичайно е послесловът на една научна книга да се пише или от автора й, или от фигура, притежаваща било академичен, било институционален престиж. В единият случай послесловът се мисли като дължимо обобщение на публикувания текст или като своеобразен ангажимент, като изрично извеждане на обещаващи перспективи от завършения текст. В другия случай, когато носи подписа на авторитетната личност, послеписът служи отчасти като рецензия, отчасти - и в много по-голяма степен - като своеобразно поръчителство и застъпничество.

Този послеслов е от друг характер. Написан от университетски колега и приятел на автора на книгата, неговата цел не е да анализира и преценява изказаните тези, да ги сравнява с позициите на други автори или да прибавя някакви уточняващи детайли. Намерението, мотивирало следващите редове, е друго: да посочи, да подчертае една идея, от която книгата „тръгва" - идеята, че биографичният подход може да има евристично значение при осмисляне и интерпретиране на съвременната философия. Че „Логико-философски трактат" ще бъде по-добре разбиран, ако трактатът, определян от самия Витгенщайн като книгата на живота му, се осмисля и био-графично, в траекторията на живота на неговия създател. Че в края на краищата биографичният подход, без да се смята за самодостатъчен, следва да бъде интегриран в херменевтичната стратегия при изследванията върху Лудвиг Витгенщайн.

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Етико-религиозните идеи в „Логико-философски трактат” на Витгенщайн

Бележка на редактора на Notabene


В чест на 120-годишнината от рождението на Лудвиг Витгенщайн /р. на 26 април 1889 г./ предстои да излезе от печат книгата на Камен Лозев Ранният Витгенщайн: живот и философия, С. 2009 г. С любезното съгласие на нейния автор по-долу публикуваме част от последната глава на книгата, в която се обсъждат етико-религиозните страници на :Логико-философски трактат. За онези, които не познават в подробности тази малка книга, оказала изключително въздействие върху развитието на философската мисъл на двадесети век, вероятно ще е интересно да научат, че самият Витгенщайн е виждал в Трактата не толкова логически, колкото етически труд. Основният патос на философията на ранния Витгенщайн е, че всъщност за най-важните неща в живота, каквито са етическите и религиозните проблеми например, не можем да говорим смислено. Защо и как стига до този странен на пръв поглед извод младият Витгенщайн, Камен Лозев показва именно в тази последна част на своята книга.

Л.К.

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Езиковите игри на Витгенщайн: трансцендентални контексти

Съгласно Витгенщайновите „Философски изследвания“, под „езикова игра“ следва да се разбира в разширен смисъл „цялото, състоящо се от езика и дейностите, с които той е преплетен“ (Витгенщайн 1988: 144). Това означава, че доколкото във всекидневния опит ние се натъкваме на ситуации, в които разбирането протича в нетематични и саморазбиращи се дейностни контексти, правилата за употребата на една дума не могат да бъдат откъснати от практическите правила на боравене със съответното нещо, което е референт на думата. Спецификата на имането-на-работа с предмети в един вече трансцендентален смисъл трябва да бъде разбрана и проследена посредством пред-предикатни структури. Но това съвсем не е безотносително към езиковите игри в специфичния за Витгенщайн смисъл, доколкото в структурно отношение дейностите, които обичайно извършваме, се явяват контекст или практическо условие за възможност за протичането на една определена езикова игра и в последна сметка условие за достигане до правилно (в този контекст) разбиране на думи и изречения.

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Метаезиците. Символи на цикличното време

“In the beginning was the word.” The word gives meaning of the idea, gives substance of the knowledge, it shapes the created reality. The present multimedia environment and the antagonistic social conditions set the word against the meaning, turned the language into the screen of reality. Becoming aware of the manipulation on the first level of communication – verbal expression – (phonetic language) man turns his attention to the next – intuitive (extrasensory) perception and expression through abstract symbols. While the intuitive communication presents direct transmission of information in the conditions of interpersonal brain resonance, the sophisticated archetype of the entire personality finds expression in the symbolic language. It is the sign of the universal identity of the vector symbolic of numbers, forms, sounds and emotions, as well as of the matrix symbolic of the unity of their counterparts.

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Time, Human Consciousness, and the Twin Paradox

Humans are time-beings. They are laid in time, their consciousness is one of things-in-time. In Kant’s transcendental philosophy time is a pure form of sensuous intuition. But if we think of time as a physical concept, then we may stick to two different views about its nature - dynamic and static one. The first regards the “flow” of time as a real process. The world exists only in the “present” moment. The other view regards all states from the history of an object to be equally real, i.e. the flow of time is mind-dependent. Only the static view of time can treat the twin (or the clocks) paradox in a non-contradictory way. But an unexpected peculiarity comes to the fore, concerning the conscious grasp of the moment of the encounter of the twins. It invites the option Kant’s transcendental conception to be revisited.

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Езикът като отражение на дискриминацията и основание за дискриминация

Последните два века от човешката история, особено годините след Втората световна война, се характеризират с нарастващо участие на жените в сферата на платения труд. Това обаче не води винаги до съответстващи на образователния и трудовия им капацитет професионални позиции и трудов статус. Еманципацията на жената се оказа дълъг, труден и много противоречив процес.

Част от задържащите процеса причини трябва да се търсят в някои обективни различия между мъжете и жените, криещи се в техните биологически особености и мисии в обществения живот. Например в единствената /поне засега/ възможност жената да ражда деца. Или в различията от гледна точка на тяхната физическа сила. И тези различия ще продължават да бъдат причина и повод за известни специфики в развитието на мъжа и жената, в техните трудови функции.

Друга част от причините обаче опира до властовите позиции в обществения живот. До нежеланието на повечето работодатели да се лишат от такъв ефективен начин да печелят повече. До нежеланието на повечето представители на така наречения „силен пол” да се лишат от редица властови ресурси, от доминиращата си позиция в сферата на платения труд, от привилегированата си позиция в сферата на семейния бит и отглеждането на децата.

Причина за дискриминацията е и известна инерция в общественото съзнание, която пречи за осъзнаването на редица обществени явления, техния смисъл и обществена роля.

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Езикът на протестантството в България – средство за социално включване и социално изключване

Протестантството в България и езикът са в същностна връзка. Разбира се, същото би могло да се каже и за всеки друг социален феномен, ако приемем хипотезата, че езикът е същностен за конструирането на социалното изобщо. В конкретния случай с протестантството в България обаче има две неща, които следва да бъдат отчленени:

1. Връзката на генезиса на самото протестантство с езика. Възникнало в зората на формирането на модерното национално съзнание, протестантството има за основен лайтмотив проповядването на разбираем, а именно - национален, език.

2. Специфичният контекст, в който е ситуирано протестантството в България и социално-историческата динамика на развитието му.

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Забраненият език – от дискурсивното обезличаване до фактическата асимилация на хомосексуалните в България в периода 1945 – 1989 г

Една от основните теми на незавършената от Мишел Фуко „История на сексуалността” е критиката на теориите за модерната репресия върху сексуалността, обединени от него чрез формулировката за „репресивната хипотеза”. Във „Волята за знание” Фуко твърди най-общо следното: смята се, че сексът през модерната епоха е обект на забрани, ограничения и мълчание, „репресията функционира като осъждане на изчезване, но и като предписание за мълчание, твърдение за несъществуване и следователно като констатация, че няма нищо за казване, нито за виждане, нито за научаване относно всичко това.”1. Всъщност, именно модерността е времето, в което: първо – се наблюдава най-голямо множене на дискурсите върху секса и второ – истината за нас, истината за същността на нещата се полага като функция от прекрачването на сексуалните бариери. Поради посоченото мултиплициране на дискурсите върху секса от една страна и поради утвърждаващата се връзка между секса и знанието, секса и истината от друга, според Фуко теориите за репресивния режим, който модерната власт упражнява над секса, са неспособни да обхванат значително по-сложната връзка между тях.

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Езикът на изменчивостта (тълкуване на Идзин)

In the article the so called “specific language” of I Ching as representative for typical Chinese philosophy of variability is discussed. Two aspects of this specific language are under main consideration: 1. Understanding of variability as expressed in the structure of isolated hexagrams (graphic symbols of relative state of piece amidst the stream of constant movement); 2. Understanding of variability as expressed in the overall order of the 64 hexagrams. Special attention is paid to the meaning of two important concept li and wen, revealing patterns of microstructure and macrostructure of reality as ordered movement.

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Философски концепции в съвременната лингвистична теория и методи на анализ

The paper deals with some philosophical ideas underlying the mentalist (nativist) theory of language within the framework of .Noam Chomsky's generative grammar. The problem of language as a biological phenomenon, based on the Cartesian ideas of Rene Descartes is in the focus of the discussion. Distinction is drawn between human language, animal language and machine languages, thus exemplifying the basic features of human language as inherited endowment which is stimulus free and creative and which leads to a new definition of language as a 'discrete infiniteness'. Light is also shed on the part of the philosophical concepts dealing with the so-called Plato's problem known in modern linguistics under the notion of 'poverty of stimulus' which is directly related to language acquisition and is part of the theory of epistemology. The logical relation between the principle of poverty of stimulus and the concept of the existence of universal grammar is further explored. Finally, the modern concept of a division of language into two different domains: I-language and E-language, is dealt with.

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Език и свят: проблемът за мистичното (опит върху ранния Витгенщайн)

The article focuses on the issue of the mystical as it is revealed in earlier Wittgenstein’s philosophy. Three facets of the mystical are discussed as identified in the Tractatus: one, the mystical as a boundary between meaningful and meaningless propositions; two, the mystical as in the form of conceiving the world as limited whole; and three, the mystical as the impossibility to speak on ethical matters like the meaning of life.

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Езикът на философията

The language of philosophy can be regarded as relatively distinct ways of implementing the philosophic action – philosophic speech, philosophic silence, philosophic gesture. This complex unity of discourse /ordered and controlled speaking /writing //, the silent discipline of senses and mind /askesis/ and the aristocratic detachment from the vanity of the day /ekstasis/ can be seen as a historical legacy of the philosophy of various religious and esoteric practices. Nevertheless, according to the author, it is more correct to speak about essentially new ‘frame’ of the social, which assigns a ‘non-everyday’ horizon to the presence and this way, inside the ‘world’, the distinction between ‘daily’ and „onthological”. „Philosophising is something that is before any kind of geschaft and represents the central event of presence, it is independent and completely foreign to the manner of behaviour that we normally have.” /Haideger/. „Philosophising does not enter as well from the divine side, because the other world is the ‘easy’ way for the philosophy, the hard way is the ecstatic overturn to this world. The philosophical gesture is the gesture of turning ‘the world’ upside down /Hegel/, there where one never enters from the side of the normal, useful, common.

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