NotaBene е електронно списание за философски и политически науки. Повече за нас
Abstract. The following text presents the personality and philosophy of Stepan Popov, Bulgarian emigre (1906-1989). The first comment is on his Bulgarian period when he was one of the leaders of the rightist socio-political movement "The Third Generation". More attention is paid on his philosophy of history expressed mainly in his book „Der Wille zur Gestalt", 1970. The article analyzes some of the basic philosophical-historical concepts such as nation, national character, people, state, etc. The stress is put on the author's concept of the Bulgarian idea as the essence of his philosophy of native land.
Keywords: Stephan Popov, philosophy of history, philosophy of native land, the Third Generation, the Bulgarian idea
Abstract: This article discusses the influence of Aristotelian philosophy both on the Austrian School of Economics and on the German Historical School, as well the battle between these two German-language schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It examines the formation and development of methodological views of Carl Menger, the founder of Austrian School, in clash with this competitive group and under the influence of Austrian philosopher Franz Brentano, who continues the dissemination of Aristotle's ideas in late nineteenth century catholic Austria. Then it briefly explores the demand of Eugen Bоhm-Bawerk, the second great name of the Austrian School, on conceptual purity. Finally, it presents the argument of Ludwig von Mises, the most prominent twentieth-century Austrian economist, whit philosophers of the Vienna Circle, and his clearly Aristotelian understanding of human action and praxeology.
Key words: Aristotle, Austrian School of Economics, German Historical School, Karl Menger, Franz Brentano, Eugen Boem-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, Vienna Circle
Summary:The paper seeks to investigate some of the sources which contributed to the specifically constructivist character of the earlier philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as we find it developed in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Three main sources are briefly overviewed: Russell's constructivist analysis and logical atomism, Hertz's 'Mechanics' and the in-born engineering talents of young Wittgenstein. A general view underlies the whole paper, namely that the atomistic picture of the world displayed by Wittgenstein at the beginning of the Tractatus was most congenial and consistent with the 'constructivist' view of language and propositions.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Hertz, objects, Hertz's 'Mechanics'
Abstract: The present paper will expose Cantor's Theory of transfinite numbers, and more specific his Continuum Hypothesis, on transfinite grounding - upon the constructing of the linear continuum c as "the pure continuous number-domain", with the words of Dedekind. For this purpose, we will unfold Cantor's grounding that cardinality of the continuum c is equal to the cardinality of the sets of natural numbers - N and the rational numbers - Q as basic dimensions in n-dimensionality of the continuum. This is a construction, which poses the known number sets as basic and initial dimensions of the continuum c. These sets are also taken in their inclusion to one another as proper subsets to each other and to the set of real numbers - R. From here, we can deduce the Continuum Hypothesis formula with producing the next Aleph-numbers and to propose a new version of generalized Continuum Hypothesis. Also this will provide the solution and interpretation of Aleph-0 as a number - with its own number value upon the continuum c and as a number of the complex processes and entities in reality.
Going even more further, we can postulate the intensity of an infinite set: as its own ability to be raised to power, or covered, with transfinite cardinal number, in particular to the least transfinite number Aleph-0. So, namely on the intensity of the infinite sets, continuity can be defined and connected with the dimensionality of the continuum. And from here we can formulate the Aleph-enumerability and omega-enumerability of infinite sets as the suggestion of grounding the enumerability of the infinite sets.
All this leads also to the construction of transfinite numbers orders, in this construction we can develop them as higher and higher number classes with increasing cardinalities. These transfinite numbers orders can provide the density of "the whole absolutely infinite aggregate of numbers", with Cantor's formulation. With all this, the new transfinite numbers, introduced by Cantor, are demonstrated as powerful instrument for describing and investigating the reality to the very boundaries of its physical and conceptual comprehension.
Key words: Continuum Hypothesis, Cantor, transfinite numbers, Aleph-0, Theory of numbers, logic of infinity.
Gnoseological Discourse on the Modern Notion of Man
The paper is developing the thesis that the contemporary philosophical situation can be characterized by an enhanced interest in anthropological issues. The text therefore proceeds to place under analysis various gnoseological discourses on man. The views of Paul Ricoeur and Evandro Aggazzi on man as subject of philosophy are considered in detail.
Key wods: anthropology, Riceour, Aggazzi, concepts on man
Postfeminism in the Age of Web 2.0
The text focuses on the public manifestations of female gender identity in the context of social network Facebook. The new myth of femininity in social networks includes mixture of new stereotypes about housework, “new age” practices, healthy life, technology and aesthetics of everyday life. The paper investigates the new meaning of gender roles and their levels of use in the public sphere.
Key words: media, social media, gender, postfeminism, popular culture
Abstract: This paper compares and contrasts conflicting religious perspectives on the moral status of the human embryos and their use in stem cell research derived from major monotheistic religions such as Catholicism, Judaism and Islam. I examine the validity of such religious arguments in debates on stem cell research and science policy more broadly through a critical analysis of Jurgen Habermas’s theory of the post-secular society, particularly the claim that the clash between science and religion in contemporary liberal democracies could be offset by adopting a new concept of ethical citizenship. This normative perspective mandates epistemic flexibility by both religious and secular citizens who ought to willfully engage in complimentary learning processes in order to transcend the inherent limitations of both non-reflexive religious beliefs and narrow secularist worldviews. My analysis of the role of religion in the stem cell controversy suggests that the value positions of participants in public deliberations are deeply entrenched and ideological differences often translate into conflicting epistemic claims about science. I argue that a meaningful dialogue between science and religious traditions on the issue is largely dependent on how compatible are scientifically derived assessments of embryonic status with the respective religion’s fundamental theological tenets about the beginning of personhood. It is also contingent on the degree of openness of each religious tradition to both rival traditions and scientific knowledge. Additionally, I illustrate how the stem cell controversy is not reducible to the conflict between religion and scientific knowledge on the value of human embryonic life, around which stem cell debates worldwide have often been framed, by undertaking a close examination of three bioethical issues central to the debate: (1) secular perspectives on the contested moral status of the human embryo; (2) the ethics of human cloning technology; and (3) concerns about the exploitation of women as major tissue donors in the global stem cell bioeconomy.
Keywords: Stem cell research, religious perspectives on the moral status of the human embryo, bioethics, science policy, post-secularism
Abstract: The paper considers the predominant significance of the approaches of philosophical education. It put an accent on the work with philosophical texts. In this regard the article develops the hypothesis that this work brings to one of the main educative competence which is the ability of interpretation of phlosophical texts.
Keywords: sense, imagination, interpretation, understanding, erudition
Abstract: The paper reflects on some of the most significant aspects of the Berdyaev’s Christian modernism. It analyses his concept of human creativity, his unorthodox interpretation of Trinitarian doctrine and his categorical negation of Christian dogma of hell. The article claims that Berdyaev’s unorthodox ideas aim to unite Christianity and modern philosophy in a humanistic attempt to confirm the human dignity and freedom.
Keywords: humanism, human freedom, Trinitarian dogma, creativity
Abstract: The fifth freedom is motivated as a consequence of the information society and the development of mobile communications as an opportunity to remove barriers to the transfer of data in the fields of health, security, banking and transport. This seems entirely in the spirit and direction of European integration. But these 4 spheres have different regulation and concern sectors at different stages of development, with the most sensitive being the civil liberties.
Some European leaders believe that data transfer regulation can help address the issue of controlling new migration.
The introduction of fifth freedom is unlikely to be a solution, but it could ease the control of the processes that are taking place. However, it would be difficult to define the boundary between public information and a personal data base.
Key words: fifth freedom, information policy, migration, personal date base, European union, mobile communications
Abstract: The article makes an attempt to analyze the IDEA of the OTHER within the frames of Proto-globalization. The question of how to live in the conditions of uncertainty created by the presence of the Other has become extremely acute in the XVIth century when Europe has faced the unknown "Other" in America, India, China, Africa. This question is also a current, topical issue, because globalization requires an even greater intensity and permanence to continuously live in the company of the Other.
Key words: Oter, Otehrness, proto-globalization
The paper reveals in broader lines the influence which Herman Lotze had on young Frege. Several ideas propounded by Lotze and later defended and developed by Frege are into focus: namely, the anti-psychologism, or objectivism, in logic; the context principle; and the broader view of logicism which Lotze maintained in a somewhat weaker version.
Key words: Lotze, Frege, objective content of ideas, logicism
Abstract: The article analyzes the difficulties faced by modern nation - states trying to deal with the problems of refugees. Undoubtedly the fact of the great numbers of refugees is a factor that complicates the situation, but many of the questions posed by the phenomenon are related to political values, concepts and traditions that are severely provoked. I explore the idea of Agamben of understanding the problem as biopolitical problem and I look at his criticism and that of Arendt and Rancière of the "Declaration of Human Rights". The idea that the phenomenon of "refugee" requires rethinking of basic political concepts is the subject of analyzes in my work.
Key words: refugee, human rights, nation-state, citizen
Abstract: In this article, the question of the religion-tolerance relation is discussed in general terms - in terms of the division of religions as inclusive and exclusive. The main question is whether this opposition, being too conditional and by itself exclusive, is real. The conclusion is that the more inclusive one religion is, the more exclusive it turns to be and vice versa. Exclusiveness is a peculiarity of each religion on its formal and institutional level whereas in the inner mystical level they all are inclusive.
Key words: tolerance, inclusive and exclusive religions
Abstract: The article interprets conventional public images of the "migrant" in European and Bulgarian context and shows that for xenophobic Bulgarian Left, as well as Bulgarian and European extreme Right and transnational capitalism the existence of left-wing migrants is unwanted.
Key words: migrant, left, Bulgarian, European, capitalism, liberal
Abstract: The article analyses the migratory potential of the countries in Africa and the Middle East as a source of migratory pressure on the European Union. The first part focuses on the factors explaining the magnitude and the peculiarities of this migratory potential. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of the age structure, the increasing shortage of employment for the new generations and the lack of resources for the growing population in Africa and the Middle East. In the second part of the article are formulated four perspectives of the migratory pressure on the EU: 1/ The migratory pressure will increase over the next decade; 2/ The differentiation between the refugees and the economic migrants will become more and more difficult; 3/ The migratory pressure will include in itself potential for Islamist terrorism, motivated by the crisis of the life perspectives of the young people in Africa and the Middle East; 4 / Middle East' and African migrants in Europe will support dual and conflict loyalties (to the old and the new homeland), which will cause concern among the "local" European population. Finally the article draws the conclusion that in this complex situation the EU faces a double challenge - to save the refugees and to save himself.
Keywords: Demographic transitions, migration pressure, push and pull factors, youth bulges, Africa and Middle East, European Union, migration policy
Summary: The world today is in a large-scale financial and economic, refugee, social, ideological, geopolitical crisis as a result of the failure of neoclassical and neoliberal economic policies established after the 1970s. There is also a crisis of the international system of one global hegemon created after the 1990s. We have on the one side a trend of oligarchization of the democracy as a result of dependencies between political and economic elites, and on the other hand - trends of isolationism, populism, authoritarianism which find a fertile ground in a time of fear of all the crises, the image of the clear enemy and the illusions that there are easy decisions. The liberal democracy became possible as a result of the communication technologies of the Second industrial revolution and the rise of the social state. However now in conditions of sharp contradictions of the neoliberal capitalism and the rise the technologies of the Fourth industrial revolution it is in a state of decline and severe crisis.
Key words: Digital technologies, Industrial revolution, digital capitalism, digital sovereignty, mixed reality, rational choice
Abstract: Starting point of the article is the Hegel's idea for historical and non-historical nations. The first nations are most developed and pave the way in history being models for development of the second ones which should take the same road. That means that there is a common universal history and undeveloped nations should do the same as the developed have done. However the periods of crises give rise ideas that there are many roads in the history. Such trend could be observed now in a time of growing geopolitical multipolarity and signs of deglobalization.
Key terms: historical nations, non-historical nations, philosophy of history, catch-up development, universal models, theories of modernization, developmental state, postmodernity
Abstract: This article is dedicated to Kant's exceptional achievement in transcendental logic of Critique of pure reason - the inference as a pure and common logical form, not just the syllogism, is founded and deduced in its own logical formations. This result is accomplished on the basis of two main transformations. The first one is the incorporating the construction of unconditioned and its concepts in the structure of inference which allows Kant to solve the problem for the general logical function of the inference. The second connects the logical inference functions with the system of judgment and in such direction establishes these functions as extension and completion of the basic logical possibilities of the judgment. With that Kant also offers the stunning idea for the whole theoretical and structural integrity of logical thought-forms.
Kew words: Kant, transcendental dialectic, concepts of the unconditioned in the inference structure, the system of inference
The Repressive Society and the Utopia of the Sexual and Political Liberation according Herbert Marcuse
Abstract: The article analyses Marcuse's ideas of repressive society and the power of Eros. The accent is also put on his conception of the mass culture as an ideology of industrial civilization and on the opposite vision of the high culture as one of the modes of the great refusal to the values and norms of the repressive society. The concepts of mass and high culture are analysed in the context of Marcuse's distinction of basic and surplus repression.
Keywords:repressive society, basic and surplus repression, mass culture, great refusal
Abstract: The paper analyses different aspects of the Bulgarian print advertising in the period 1930-1945. The main accent is put on the advertising of consumer electronics (radio receivers and gramophones). The thesis defended in the paper is that the language, the symbols, the product presentation, the images, the communication with the recipients and the style of advertisement are very different than those of the contemporary advertising environment. The analyzed adverbs could be found in books, dedicated to radiotechnics, electrical engineering, telewriters and electronics; in popular science and technical journals and also in some other papers and magazines.
Keywords: Bulgarian print media advertising, history of print advertising, old print advertising, old technics advertising, advertising strategies, informative advertising, graphic advertising
Abstract: The article presents the political and psychological analysis of the problem of the terrorism in view of the threats to national security. Solving this problem should not be done by military means and methods, and through understanding and elimination of psychological and political reasons for his birth.
Keywords: terrorism, national security
Abstract: Georges Dumezil's trifunctional hypothesis is considered as a subject of various attempted revisions and extensions. It appears that in its original form there is enough logical coherence to resist modifications.
Abstract: The world of religion is often partitioned between the two main human abilities, feeling and reason. The experiencing of sacred places, objects, people, etc. undoubtedly involves intense feelings. But the understanding of this experience and the ability to classify it presumes thinking. During the Enlightenment and rational critique of religion began a series of reductionist attempts to relegate the religion only to reason. The purpose of this paper is to explicate one such attempt by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, and also to display an opportunity to outdo it by the German theologian and philosopher Rudolf Otto, author of one of the most famous theological books of the 20th century “Das Heilige”, 1917.
Keywords: sacred places, religion and reason, Rudolf Otto, Immanuel Kant
Abstract: The present paper focuses on the individual and collective representations of the afterlife in the context of the recent developments of the death study, which blend psychological constructivist and social constructionist approaches. The latter could be applied to representations of “heaven”, “hell”, “nothingness” among others in culture, as well as to the „traces“ of the presence of the dead in the reality of the living people – from the expectations for one’s own funeral and for the contents of the posthumous memory to the projections of the dead bodies such as „encounters with spirits“ and fear of worms. The analysis of these representations relies on a specific interdisciplinary terminology, flexible enough to describe the intertwinement of various types of socialization, (non)religious beliefs, cultural practice and biographical trajectories. It introduces notions such as posthumous reputations, postselfs and postbodies.
Based on a sample of 60 biographical interviews of men and women (75 years old and over) from UK, Bulgaria and Romania and turning to the terminology of the psychological constructivism and the social constructionism this paper discusses the construction of the nonliving body and living memory of the deceased person. It shows how the gaining of existential meaning of the death presupposes an exchange and interchange of cultural models of mourning and personal experiences, of public instructions and individual strategies for coping with the loss of the innermost image of the loved ones and the fear of the disintegration and decay of the dead body.
Keywords: death study, posthumous reputations, postbodies, postselfs
Abstract: In the article the Euroscepticism is seen as a mixture of distrust in the EU institutions, rebellion against the status quo and pessimism about the future of the EU. The article analyzes the factors that contribute to expanding the influence of Euroscepticism - the presentism, i.e. the dictate of the present over the past and the future; the nationalism as nostalgia for clearly delineated borders; the crises in the functioning of the EU. The article briefly outlines several Euroscepticism's manifestations - electoral apathy, support for nationalist parties, and mistrust towards the EU institutions. Euroscepticism is treated on the one hand as a consequence of the crises in the EU and on the other as a factor in deepening the crisis. Euroscepticism is both a result of the crises and their root. Thomas theorem ("If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences") serves as an explanation of the role of Euroscepticism in the deepening the crisis in the EU. Incorrectly defined situation of the EU generates destructive impacts on his future.
Keywords: W. I. Thomas, self-fulfilling prophecy, historical memory, nationalism, crises, electoral apathy
The point of the text is to outline one of the main topics in the work of the French writer Michel Houellebecq – the conflict between two worlds and two religions: East (in the face of Islam) and West (represented through Catholicism and the European decadence from the late XIX and early XX century). The arguments according to which Houellebecq interprets the Islam and the Catholicism are displayed and analysed. His literature work is inscribed in the current intercultural issues and debates on the civilisation clash between two more and more different in their basis cultures - the European and the Islamic one.
The thesis of Houellebecq about the incapability of the Islam to get incorporated into the civilizational cultural and religious model of Western Europe is defended in accordance with the line of his thought in the novels “The Possibility of an Island”, “Submission”, “Platform,” and “Elementary particles.
Key words: Catholicism, Islam, European decadence, French literature, Crisis
S.H. Vatsyayan Agyeya, a pioneer in introducing modern sensibility to the post Chhayawadi Hindi literature, is heavily influenced by Western literary aesthetics, fiction, poetry and ideologies. In his first and most famous novel Shekhar Ek Jivani (Shekhar : A Biography) the influence of the West is sufficiently evident. (This novel has been translated into Bulgarian). When a prominent Indian writer like Agyeya reveals such an acute consciousness of the Western influence in his writing process, it leads to various possibilities. In this article an attempt is made to explore the shades, contradictions and enrichment that is born from this literary union. I have also examined whether the influence of the West on Agyeya leads to assimilation into the mainstream Hindi novel writing or this venture by the author leads to a separate/parallel stream created by subverting the former.
Key words: Hindi literature, Western literary aesthetics, Vatsyayan Agyeya
The dialogue “Alcibiades” offers an excellent opportunity for the participant to speak exactly on the topic of the conference, because in the conversation between the elderly Socrates and the young Alcibiades the main problem is precisely this one: what should learn a young man,,in what values and how should he be educated, in order to become a really good statesman. The young Alcibiades intends to become a politician. It is easy to become a political figure, but this does not necessarily mean, that he will become a good ruler and true statesman, Socrates holds. In order to make his dream come true Alcibiades has to learn a lot, to understand and to contemplate on various questions, insist Socrates and as examples points to some of the traditions in the royal court of Persia and to some of the political and educational practices there, which are strongly idealized in the optics of Plato.
Key words: political education and formation of a future statesman; political order; monarchy and politeia; Persia and Athens; justice and just; the self-knowledge – highest aim of the philosopher and the politician-statesman
Abstract: The novel “Eugene Onegin” is analysed through the economical theory of Adam Smith. The research is literary, historical, but also philosophical as much as it turns to some thesis of the Russian anarchism. The displayed context is the one in which Pushkin uses the ideas of Adam Smith about the land, the profit and the private property. In summary is presented also the influence of the ideas of Smith and Marks over the novel of Pushkin and the changes from the middle 19th and early 20th century.
Key words: capital, serfdom, Russian anarchism, economical theory, gentry, political reforms
Abstract: The article compares the function and the meaning of the minaret and the bell tower. Despite their external similarity, the minaret and the bell tower have different religious sense. The minaret creates specific architectural silhouette of the temple. But additionally it uses the conceptual resources of the Tower of Babel and serves to impose territorial identification of Islam and to strengthen the unity of his followers.
Keywords: temple, minaret, bell tower, tower of Babel, menhir
Abstract: The paper analyzes varieties of aspects of “ethnos – politics” relation: notion of ethnos definitions in the contemporary debates; the ethic localism trends; the conflict generating factors; human rights issue; the legal aspects of the ethnic rights; the typology of the ethnic groups; the role of the state, etc.
Keywords: ethnos, ethnic groups, ethnic rights, ethnic conflicts
It is hard to find a more distinctive mark of modern society than the trust placed
in scientific knowledge. Science is regarded as perhaps the best exemplar
of objectivity, rationality, and progress in human affairs.i
Doppelt (Doppelt 2008: 303)
Abstract. The aim of the article is to outline some peculiarities of Orient mentality and their potential to form ecological consciousness. An important aspect of the ecological consciousness is the ecological attitude. It is defined as consisted of at least three aspects: attitude to nature, attitude to other human beings, and attitude towards the quantity of one’s own life.
Important ideas of Asian thought that can contribute to the development of ecological consciousness are discussed as a foundation for farther analysis. The conclusion is that ecology should not be simply a science but also a wisdom, spiritual experience and transformation.
Key words: deep ecology, ecological consciousness, Chinese thought
Аbstract: The report presented the main ideas of V.I. Vernadsky, about the noosphere as a stage in the development of human culture (civilization). Reveals the internal contradictions of his concept - the pursuit of "naturalist" Vernadsky to perform scientific analysis of the formation and development of the "noosphere" as the highest stage in the geobiogenezis. Shows that even in shaping future socio-political implementations of noosphere society author manages to not leave the field of this analysis and does not pass into the field „philosophical and religious” utopianism.
Keywords: Noosphere, Science, Utopia.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is a philosophical and privatescientific argumentation of the Integration theory of the nature of consciousness. In its development, the author draws mainly on two achievements of the East-European tradition in psychology and philosophy of the mind. These are L. S. Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory and A. Gavrilov’s Relational Hypothesis of the Mind, and through updating and synthesis with the modern neurophysiological concepts of the function of the brain, the author seeks an integrative defi nition of consciousness.
Abstract. The article is focused on two possible approaches to investigate diplomatic culture. The first one implies the consideration of diplomatic culture as “encounter culture” and examines the consequences of this view. The second approach envisions diplomatic culture in its natural development and outlines different phases of its creation emphasizing on the ”classical diplomatic culture”. At the end conclusions are drawn related to the current state of diplomatic culture, the challenges with which it has to cope and the perspective of its survival and proliferation.
Abstract: Тhe study explores the character of the Supranational identity that is being created within the European Union. In order to understand the models that are used in its construction a comparative analysis between the National and European identity is proposed.
Abstract: The paper describes some Russian philosophical interpretations of love /at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century/ as a sacral phenomenon and notion, a way towards God. The philosophical-anthropological approach of those authors analyzes love as metaphysical relation between man and woman, human being and nature, human being and society, human being and God.
Keywords: love, man, woman, God, society, nature.
The article examines the problem of semi-openness on the basis of a G. Bachelard’s idea mentioned in his “Poetics of space”. Speech closes through meaning while through poetic expression it opens. Movements of "opening and closing are so numerous, so reversible, so tentative" that the philosopher suggests the following wording: "man is essentially semi-open being". In the article Bachelard's ideas are extended by analyzing examples from the field of belles-letters. They cover the existential meanings attributed to the half-open door, eyes, lips, and the so-called mixed objects - object-subjects, which according to the French philosopher open themselves like us and create a sense of intimacy. The idea of semi-openness can be associated from psychoanalytic point of view with melancholy and the accompanying splitting of the personality. It is therefore devoted considerable attention to the way in which psychoanalytic concept of "crypt" appears in the T. Gautier’s work.
The article "The Essence of Counterfactual Analysis and David Lewis Understanding of it" aims at outlining the essence of the counterfactuality and the ensuing counterfactual analysis, which became famous after the publication of Robert Fogel's book: "Railways and American Economic Growth: Essays in Interpretative in 1964. The text focuses on one of the "birth" places of the counterfactual issues - the causality as a particular field of logics - but also explores the David Lewes' views on the semantics of 'possible worlds' and its degree of similarity with the real one. The great majority of the philosophers who think that the causal facts need to be explained thought (or reduced to) the occurrence-facts together with the fundamental-law-facts, regulating the occurrences, are in favour of the approach that regards the counterfactual causality as the explanatory key to the issues.
Abstract: Article is a theoretical attempt to observe manifestations of contemporary regionalism in respect of modern doctrine of nationalism. Analysis is based on traditions and culture of Silesia, Poland. The main accent is put on tension that can be seen in attempts of practical political realization of aspirations for gaining autonomy for Silesia. History of observed region is presented as a battlefield where both national and regional ideologies look for and find their symbolic arguments. Article is focused on the question of people's identity and its political usages. Nowadays collective identity is a part of regionalist efforts people living in Silesia to be recognized as national minority because of their cultural and ethnical diversity.
Key words: Silesia, Poland, regionalism, nationalism, identity, national minority, ethnical minority, history
Abstract: In its first part the paper lays germanstress on the ideological nature of the socialistic cultural objects in Bulgaria. In this aspect subject of analysis are different socialistic guide-books, touristic brochures and photo-albums of Bulgaria where on the foreground ideological monuments are presented. The oblivion, the moving or the destruction of these monuments after 1989 are also analyzed. In its second part the paper focuses on the commercialization of the cultural tourism in Bulgaria after 1989. On the basis of Zygmunt Bauman’s figure of the “tourist” the consumer attitude towards lots of cultural-historical objects ande their close relation to the kitsch is studied.
The subject of this article is the notion of metaphor, used by Ricœur in the context of figure of speech, which taken out of the field of poetry and introduced to the language of philosophy, would facilitate overcoming the difficulties arising from the language of classical metaphysics. The idea of the metaphor aims at ending the dominating understanding of correspondence between reality and thinking. The metaphor represents the unity of reason and action.
Keywords: metaphor, identity, language, discourse, hermeneutics
The human body is one of the main resources of religions as they practice em-bodiment of their spiritual aspirations. This paper makes a comparative analysis of expressions of religious believes through bodily signs (prayer-habits, dietary regimen, sleep deprivation, sexual abstinence, etc). The focus of the analysis is one of the manifestations of these religious bodily signs, especially in Islamic cultures - the control of the body through clothing. The Islamic dress code is seen as a manifestation of religious obligation, commitment to the religious community, gender status expression, sexual protection, and personal choice.
Key words: religious bodily signs, Islamic dress code, gender status expression
The purpose of this article is to examine the contribution of Aristotel Gavrilov, a representative of antirepresentationalism (or presentationism, in the terminology of the Bulgarian philosophical tradition). The significance of this contribution is determined not only by the fact that it is an original attempt to formulate an extended philosophical concept of the nature of consciousness but also an exceptional opportunity to explicate the main methodological shortcomings in solving the subject – object relations in the traditions both of the presentationism approach and the representationalism.
Abstract: Thomas Bernhard's works are reviewed mostly through his novel "The Old Masters". The book attempts to derive a specific aesthetic method, typical for the novelistic heritage of the Austrian writer. The main topic is the destiny of Germany, which is shown in the context of post-war literature. The article reviews certain aspects of the so called antipatriotic literature, common for post-war Austria. The theory is supported by quotations from "The Old Masters", referring to Martin Heidegger's philosophical views.
Keywords: Austrian Literature, Thomas Bernhard, Austria, the old masters, Heidegger.
The Woman as the "Absolute Other" in E. Levinas's Philosophy
Abstract: The feminine (le feminin) and the woman hold a particular status in Levinas's works. Particular in the sense that like other key notions in his philosophy, they are characterized by the author himself as ambivalent, which on the other hand often renders their interpretation difficult and leads to ambiguous, sometimes mutually exclusive, interpretations. This duality is expressed in Levinas's treatment of both notions - on one hand they are the step stone to the French philosopher's focal theme about The Other, and on the other hand, they are seen as the "absolute alterity", thus drawing criticism stemming from the clearly manifested "man's writing" and the author's androcentric position.
keywords: The feminine, woman, ambiguity, the Other, alterity, androcentrism
Abstract: Heidegger's comments about a pair of shoes painted by van Gogh are read with attention to their historical context.
The paper goal is to deliver a comment on the specifics of Schopenhauer’s idea of knowledge and the separation between the gnoseological knowledge and the knowledge of the pure subject. Accordingly, while referring to this problem, this paper will be exploring the idea of mediation of the knowledge of pure subject. In its essence the gnoseological knowledge, as described by Schopenhauer, is representation. In this sense, it is a subject to the a priori principle of sufficient reason and therefore of its forms – time and space, causality. The pure subject’s knowledge is beyond those forms, as explained by Schopenhauer, the pure knowledge is aesthetical knowledge, which goes beyond the intellect for a brief moment and by doing that reflects on the pure ideas themselves. Without taking up the discussion of Schopenhauer’s aesthetics here, we can nevertheless point out that the pure knowledge is strictly connected to this part of his philosophy.
Keywords: knowledge, pure subject of knowledge, individuation, principle of sufficient reason, representation
The paper analyses the main notions and the dynamics of Marx’s theory of religion in the light of the social spiritual and economic trends at his time, and especially as social critic, not as immanent religious critic. The analysis and the critic of religion are discussed within the framework of: the critic of the German speculative philosophy; the human production; the social relationships of alienation. This approach is placed by K. Marx within a social-historical context where the surmounting of the religious illusion involves perfecting societal relations and is linked with the rationality, transparency and humaneness of these relations. That philosophical trend strives to embody the transcendent in the immanent not only in thought but in reality as well. On this basis concrete practices are proposed for implementing this process: in the case of Marx this is the attainment of transparency and rationality in social relationships through scientific and technological progress and revolutionary change. The diversity of theoretical attitudes to the Marx’s theory and method and their influence are emphasized: M.Weber, E.Fromm, P.Tillich, S.Freud, etc.
Key words: Marx, religion, materialist philosophy, capitalism, alienation, social critic.
Аз твърдя, че философски проблеми съществуват и твърдя дори, че съм решил един от тях.
Карл Попър (Попър 1998: 123)
Според известен речник думата „демаркация” (demarcaton) има сложен произход от испанска, италианска или немска дума и означава „разграничавам, полагам граница (между)”. В английския език терминът demarcaton за пръв път се появява през 1816 г., но проблемът, който назовава, е далеч по-стар. В общи линии той се свежда до въпроса как да се разграничи науката от не-науката. „Не-наука” е събирателен термин, с който обхващаме както математика, логика и метафизика, така и астрология, алхимия и френология – с други думи, всякакви псевдо-, лъже-, пара-, квази- научни възгледи и теории, които „претендират да са научни, но не са, защото имитират науката”. (Стефанов 2007: 9). За философията на науката проблемът винаги е на дневен ред и дискусиите по него продължават и днес.
Карл Попър вероятно е философът, който през двайсети век най-много е допринесъл за решаването на демаркационния проблем. Решението на Попър е в основата на неговата философия на науката, но също и на неговата социална философия (Лозев 2000). В интелектуалната си автобиография „Безкрайното търсене” Попър ни е оставил интересно описание на ситуацията, в която за първи път осъзнава значението на проблема. Той е едва седемнайсет годишен, когато присъства на изнесената от Айнщайн лекция във Виенския университет през 1919 г. Младежът излиза от лекцията зашеметен, защото по думите му тя „далеч надминаваше моите разбирания” (Попър 1998: 38), но е най-силно впечатлен от „недвусмисленото твърдение на Айнщайн, че би сметнал теорията си за несъстоятелна, ако тя не издържи на определена проверка” (Попър 1998: 39).
Макар и млад, Попър долавя колко различен е подходът и отношението на Айнщайн към собствената му теория в сравнение с позицията на Маркс, Фройд и Адлер към създадените от тях „научни” теории. Готовността на Айнщайн да приеме възможния провал на своята теория Попър не открива нито в марксизма, нито в психоанализата, нито в индивидуалната психология. Защо са така различни тези „теории”? И справедливо ли е всички тях да именуваме с термина „научна теория”?
Размислите върху тази тема ще доведат след време философа Попър до създаването на първия му, и най-важен за неговата философия на науката, труд Logik der Forschung (Логиката на научното откритие), 1935.
The Utopia of the sexual and political liberation in the “repressive hypothesis” of Herbert Marcuse and its criticism on the part of Michel Foucault
In its first part the article discusses Marcuse’s ideas of the repressive society. The concepts of the false needs and false consciousness, the “performance principle” in the contemporary culture, the relation between eros and culture are studied. The article focuses on Marcuse’s idea of the distinction between the basic and surplus repression and on the historical nature of the surplus repression. The accidental, historical characteristic of the surplus repression enable the possibility for the new non-repressive civilization that could be formed on the principle of pleasure. In this process according Marcuse the sexuality plays a principal part. In its second part the article discusses Michel Foucault’s criticism on this theory defined by him as the “repressive hypothesis”. Foucault speaks ironically of the power that Marcuse gives to the sexuality and claims that the relationship between power and sexuality is much more complicated than is in the Marcuse’s scheme.
The Birth of Analytical Method: George Moore and the Overcoming of Kantian Philosophy
ABSTRACT: The article is dedicated to a crucial moment in the philosophical development of George Moore during his work on his two dissertations, 1897-1898. It is argued that what has been later known as ‘the analytical method’ in philosophy came out largely as a result from Moore’s criticism of Kant and his deontological ethical theory. The main thrust of Moore’s critique of Kant is his accusation that Kant is too ‘subjective’ and too ‘psychological’ in his attempt to show the necessary connection between human will and freedom.
Abstract: The main goal of this article is to establish the significance of Schopenhauer’s interpretation of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. For this purpose it is necessary to explicate the genesis and the nature of the principle in some of the main interpretations through the history of philosophy. The article analyzes some inquires of the principle before Leibniz and also Leibniz’s interpretation. It is essential to outline the specifics of Schopenhauer’s idea of the principle as a prerequisite for the knowledge itself in the representational model of the world, i.e. the world as representation. The paper also presents Schopenhauer’s concept of the “fourfold”-ness of the root of principle of sufficient reason.
Key words: Schopenhauer, Sufficient Reason, Scottish Philosophy, Leibniz, Representation.
Abstract: The article discusses the theory of concept, which Hegel develops in Subjective logic of his fundamental work Science of Logic. Hegel define the concept as the least and the most basic unit among the logical forms in Traditional logic. So the concept is demonstrated as the basis, upon which the theories of judgment and syllogism must ground. Hegel deduces three basic component of the concept: universal, particular and singular concept. In this way Hegel develops in movement and deduction the relation between genus, species and individual, which relation is axiomatic for the Traditional logic. The triad structure pretends to be the essential logical structure of the concept and reveals his full potential as form of thought.
Keywords: Hegel’s logic, universal, particular and singular concept, genus and species, Traditional logic
Astract: The paper summarizes the main ideas of Bradley’s idealist philosophy which most influenced the thought of Moore and Russell. At some length are discussed Bradley’s doctrines of ‘internal relations’, the Absolute, the non-existence of individual facts as well as the doctrine that we do not do justice to reality when we deal with singular judgments. It is argued that both Moore and Russell grew as philosophers in an incessant struggle with Bradley’s main ideas.
The main aim of the article is to present the idea of boundary in Western and especially in Eastern thought through the very relation East-West. East and West are used as symbols of particular kind of interpreting the world – in terms of unity and in terms of differentiation. Revelation of the relativity of content and meaning constructing the both sides of the relation, proves the validity of ideas, developed in Eastern thought, and guides to the conclusion that the two kinds of thought are equally important aspects of the human thought as a whole.
Abstract. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current situation in South America’s regional cooperation, taking into account contemporary foreign policy of the leading Latin America’s countries, particularly the way they perceive the regional cooperation process. At the beginning it assesses the neo-liberalist course during the 1990s taken by South America’s governments which explains why these countries have chosen to put economic emphasis on the style of regional relations. Since 2002 the shift to the left in the region, albeit with different nuances has set up new political agenda for regional cooperation that makes up the newly created UNASUR as well as Venezuelan President-led ALBA, to complete the horizons of the new pattern of the South American cooperation. This Latin America’s regional dynamics has left its mark on the OAS. Although it has been for a long time regarded as USA-led regional organization, the OAS activities has evolved in multidimensional framework for regional cooperation in defending democracy and human rights in the Western Hemisphere. The Inter-American Democratic Charter, while a significant milestone in the history of the OAS, is far form being excellent in promoting democratic governance. Nevertheless, the OAS continues to gain relevance in despite of numerous challenges presented by the newly established Latin-American organizations seeking for autonomous South America’s regional cooperation, excluding the USA and Canada.
The author has presented and analyzed some of Schleiermacher’s basic ideas on and approaches to religion. The analysis focuses on the abstract level, the ideal in Schleiermacher’s interpretation of religion, and then on the concrete historical, social-political being of religion. In the first aspect, Schleiermacher views religion not as a functional tool used by the individual or by society , but as an expression of the actual emotional relationship between the human being and God. Schleiermacher emphasizes the priority of religion and Church as his spiritual ideal over philosophy, morality, state, politics. He deduces this priority from the priority of the spiritual over the material, of the eternal and universal over everyday life and passions. Schleiermacher searches for the causes of the low social and cultural status of religion in contemporary society moving from the normative essence of religion and humanity to their empirical contemporary reality.
The article aims to propose a philosophical-anthropological view over the poet’s figure. Some questions are unveiled, such as: How does the creator control the matter, how he opposes the pencil’s substance to the paper’s one? How does the matter sway the poet’s mind throughout the images of past events, deep waters, wild winds, transparent skies? How these images in the poetry art provoke and influence upon the reader? What is the role of the poet? What distinguishes him from other authors? What is the language’s role in the act of creation? These questions bring some new aspects to the task of metaphysical thinking of the human being as a personality, which reveals itself supported by poetry and dreams. The act of self-expression by means of poetry is related to the idea of breaking from every day life with a special way of communication, with the poetry’s language, which conceals the ordinary and makes an allusion to the secret, the unspeakable, the unconscious.
In the article is shown cognitive mechanism of human's sensuous, according to its structure and way of function. It is based of the formula "contact+difference= contradistinction=sensation", which means: if there aren't contact and difference between irritating factor and sense, there isn't a contradistinction too; if there isn't contradistinction, there isn't a sensation too. The sensuous process is produced by quantitative-qualitative reactions in the reception cells. It is marked with the contradiction: if there is a perfect sensation, the process loses sensibility; if there is a perfect sensibility of the process, sensation disappears. This "defect", hidden of high frequency of the relation, is valid for all process of development. This formula is objective first stage of the knowledge.
The present paper aims to delineate the conceptual background that made possible the formulation of Russell's paradox in its three different modifications: set-theoretical, predicative and relational. As is well known, Russell viewed his discovery as a by-product of his unsuccessful attempts to refute Cantor's fundamental theorem which shows that there is no greatest cardinal number. Thus we can get the set-theoretical rendering of the paradox, which appears about a year after the first known exposition of the paradox. Therefore, Russell's own reconstruction of the way which led him to the formulation of his famous contradiction is incorrect. The true sources of the paradox are not mathematical but philosophical: the critique of Bradley's metaphysics (which directed Russell's attention to self-applicative predicates) and Hegel's dialectic (which is responsible for his constant search for contradictions). This demonstrates the continuity of mathematical and philosophical logic which is blurred by today's reigning preconceptions.
Keywords: Russell's paradox, Cantor's set-theory, Bradley's theory of judgment, Hegel's dialectic.
This article is study of some thoughts of Alain Badiou concerning the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-68). As I think Cultural Revolution confirmed the impossibility of state socialism to overcome inconsequence revolutionnaire and continuity as regards to pre-modern social forms, mainly The State: the mechanisms of continuity already run independently of individual wills of revolutionnaries, although the pattern soviet is denied.
This essay explores the possibilities of speaking of Bulgarian philosophical canon, taking the Bulgarian literary canon as a model. It traces the evolution of the different debates on the subject, comparing the main historical periods in the 20th century.
Key Words: Bulgarian philosophical heritage, Philosophical canon, Totalitarian and post-totalitarian Bulgarian thought
In the first part of the article, "play - sport" identity is analysed in the Spanish philosopher's doctrine. It is concluded, that in this case, sport is metaphorically interpreted - it's not a notion for а part of the existing plays but for a certain type of human existence. For Ortega, the essential sport/play insignia is the stimulus of self-exemption: the play requires to be played as good as possible. In the second part of the article, the concept of sport/play relationship with the "good utopism" is analyzed. According to Ortega, the man who has no vital goals at the frontier between the actually attainable and the impossible is a person with degrading human existence. In this sense, authentic life turns out to have sportsmen orientation - a process of constant self-overcoming, permanent effort to achieve the unachievable. At the end of the article, by analyzing Ortega's vision of art and hunting, another meaning of play is provided. Ortega interprets it not only as self - exemption but also as a relief from reality. In the article, comparisons are made between Schiller, Huizinga and Ortega's game doctrines.
Keywords: sports, play, self-exemption, "good utopism", release from reality, hunting as a mankind holiday.
В първата част на статията се анализира тъждеството „игра - спорт” в доктрината на испанския философ. Прави се изводът, че в случая спортът се тълкува преносно - не е понятие за част от съществуващите игри, а за определен тип битие на човека. За Ортега същностен белег на спорта/играта е подтикът към самопреодоляване: ”играта изисква да се играе колкото се може по-добре”. Във втората част на статията се анализира връзката на понятието за спорта/играта с „добрия утопизъм”. Според Ортега човекът, който не разполага жизнените си цели на границата между реално постижимото и невъзможното, е човек с деградиращо битие. В този смисъл автентичният живот се оказва живот с ориентацията на „спортиста” – процес на непрестанно себенадмогване, на перманентни усилия за постигане на непосилното. В края на статията, като се анализира визията на Ортега за изкуството и за лова, се сочи още едно значение на играта. Ортега я интерпретира не само като самонадмогване, но и като освобождаване от реалността. В статията се правят сравнения между доктрината за играта на Шилер, Хьойзинха и Ортега.
Ключови думи: спорт, игра, самопреодоляване, „добрият утопизъм”, освобождаване от реалността, ловът като ваканция на човечеството.
In a Kantian perspective, it will be argued that symbols as indirect representations give a chance to throw light on metaphors in our social expeirence at the level of the so-called „critical ontologies“. We could consider certain key metaphors in order with the aim to express social and cultural dimensions of life in a proper way. The literal and philosophical development of such metaphors could play the role of possibility condition for symbolic generalizations. From a transcendental-logical viewpoint, these generalizations are comprehensible as basic elements of our fore-predicative experience.
This essay presents the chronology and evolution of the famous Renaissance debate on Plato’s superiority over Aristotle and the historical figures who took part in it. It also aims to find arguments in support of the interpretative thesis sustained here, which is the following. The debate on Plato’s superiority over Aristotle was internal to the society of Greek exiled scholars in Italy and, as a consequence of this, its scope (in terms of duration, number of participants and influence on other philosophers) remained quite restricted.
The Image of the Intellectual Bulgarian Woman in the Humanities of the Inter-War Period
The paper offers a discussion on the opinions – expressed in the period between the two World Wars – about the intellectual woman. A next level of analysis presents the Bulgarian woman as an intellectual. At last, a special accent is put on the participation of the Bulgarian woman in the philosophical life of the country.
Key words: intellectual woman, Bulgarian woman, inter-war period
В статията се разглеждат някои от най-важните аспекти на актуалния въпрос за отношението на християнската религия към равноправието на жените в Църквата и обществото, като се защитава тезата, че поставянето на този въпрос не е свързано със същността на християнската доктрина, а е резултат на принудителното въвличане на християнското богословие и Църквата в неговото обсъждане от представителите на съвременния феминизъм. Показва се, че отношението на християнството и феминизма към равноправието на жените не е и не би могло да бъде еднозначно, но че те могат взаимно да се обогатяват и да предлагат теоретични и практически решения, водещи към по-пълно и адекватно разрешаване на проблемите на равноправието между мъжете и жените в църковния и в цялостния живот на обществото.
Изящната и кратка поетическа хайку форма не търси смисъла си под експресивните наслоявания на езика, а проблясва като лъч и се разроява след думите. Така хайку открива пространството на недоизказаност. В него смисълът е безбрежен и с неподозирани очертания, защото читателското съзнание като фин инструмент приема лъченията на текста и отзвучава със свои тонове. Заложеният в човешката природа стремеж към образованост разкрива освен желанието за знание и необходимостта чрез него да бъде опознат светът, да бъде променен, но и споделен, защото е човешки свят. Със специфичните си художествени средства хайку не само улавя, но и споделя моментите на „тук и сега” на света. Нещо повече – позволява ни да бъдем част от него.
The brief and exquisite poetic haiku form does not contain its meaning in the expressive layers of the speech, it rather shines out like a ray of light after the words. In this way haiku reveals the incompleteness. Its meaning is infinite and has unexpected outlines because the reader’s mind, like a delicate instrument, perceives the message of the text and converts it into its own tunes.
Set in human nature, literacy striving reveals not only the need to understand and change the world but also share it with others as it is a human world. With its specific modes of expression haiku not only captures but also shares the moments of “here and now” of the world. What is more important – it allows us to be part of it.
Key words: message, sense, intuition, poetry, experience.
През последните години почти няма пазарен сектор в глобален мащаб, който да е така еуфорично-динамичен, както световният пазар на произведения на изобразителното изкуство. Това е един хетерогенен пазар с трудно-определими граници, тъй като включва освен произведения на изкуството и такива, които са движими паметници на културата, както и collectibles - разни вещи за колекциониране.
Никога досега не са печелени толкова много пари от изкуство, както през 2006 г. и оттогава до началото на сегашната световна финансова криза. Отделни творби достигнаха цената на авиолайнер „Боинг". Гладът за красота изглежда неуталожен от Шанхай до Ню Йорк, но доминиращият център на тази търговия си остава Европа.
Защо съществува очевидна, трайна и устойчива тенденция на „евроцентризъм" в контекста на световния арт-пазар на творби на изобразителните изкуства, чийто годишен обем през последните години е от около 20 милиарда евро?
The paper focuses on the linguistic interpretation of the attitudes of the self towards the Other determined by the characteristics of the lexicon. It is based on linguistic data on word, phrase and idiom level as well as on an analysis of relevant proverbs in English and Bulgarian. The goal of the research is to compare the images and metaphors underlying these expressions to the effect of establishing the zones of disparity and overlap in the interpretation of Otherness in the languages under discussion. Its starting point is the assumption that the necessity to accept the Self in order to accept the Other and communicate successfull, and the subsequent projection of Self-perception on the way we conceive of the Other are influenced by the lexical content of our personal narrative, which is in turn structured by the lexicon available in the mother tongue.
The work treats some terms in Hebrew, with which are indicated the male and female basis at the creation of the world in the book Geneses” of Pentateuch of Moses. The approach used is linguistic one, based on the possibility of the Hebrew to produce different meanings from a single radical by means of different sounding. In the language sense of the bearers of Hebrew as a mother tongue, this gives a possibility to be formed different semantic chains, which comes from a single radical but have different meanings. That can be combined in different sense paradigms. In this way the radical appears as a potential of meanings, realized depending on the context, but besides that it consists of all the rest meanings, which present implicitly and influence on the consciousness.
The present article is an experiment for treatment and interpretation of the symbolics of the town's space on other leve, different from the purely ethnographical. Taking in mind the thesises of famous ethnologists and anthropologists that the ethnology is more an original method of learning than a source of privat knowledge (Mauss) and that no science can consider the structures proceeding from its field as limited, as some arrangement of certain parts (Levi-Strauss) the symbolics of the town is treated both in its representation, psychologically (as archetype) and in its concreteness, physically and architecturally (as topos).
Proceed from the maxim that: 1.Culturologically the town is a „centre" - meeting of sacral and profane spase. 2. Historically and philosophically the town is a continuum of the world history. 3. Psychologically the town is an archetype of the power - conflict and reconciliation between the collective unconsciousness and the ego consciousness - the present attempt is only marking of a detailed investigation of the town's symbolics.
The universal symbolism of the Bible used in an aesthetic narrative structure acquires new individual meaning – human fear of the immensity of spiritual dimensions, which gives life to a world of seeming understanding as apposed to true knowledge.
The visual perspective in the story “Lazarus and Jesus” by Emiliyan Stanev points to the world of human logic as apposed to inner vision and Logos – the divine knowledge. Fear of Logos is a rush into death and human logic, which gives rise to a world of false understanding and loss of spiritual perspective. The visual as apposed to vision places the mind into the circle of appearances, where life to the body becomes death of the soul, while resurrection can be understood in spiritual terms only. The story dramatically opposes the impulse for spiritual resurrection and the urge into fear leading to death of body and spirit. Loss of vision turns the mind into a slave of appearances; loss of knowledge turns the mind into a prey of fear and distorted logic.
The dynamic between the visual and inner vision becomes symbolic of the dynamic between death and resurrection as well as between knowledge and distorted understanding. Those dynamic relations give depth to understanding basic psychological and epistemological problems from the viewpoint of a humanitarian pessimist.
Употребата на думата “елит” в различните типове дискурс в днешна Русия е широка както в публицистиката, така и във всекидневието и се отнася до различни социални слоеве, носи и различна емоционална натовареност. Преди да характеризираме основните черти на политическия език на днешния властови елит на Русия, е необходимо е да кажем няколко думи за самия елит. Според унгареца М. Вайда елитът на обществото “това е група от хора, стоящи на горното стъпало на йерархията, способна да създаде образци на потребности и поведение”. За механизма на влиянието на елита пише и немският социолог П. Драйцел: елитът се състои от притежаващите висши позиции в група, организация или институция, в която подборът се осъществява според принципа на “продуктивността на знанието”. По този начин благодарение на неговите позиции и ролята, властта и влиянието, елитът има възможност да формира социалната структура на обществото. Още В. Парето разделя елита на непосредствено властови, управляващ и продуктивен, създаващ духовни ценности.
Квантовата механика описва материята на атомно и субатомно ниво. На такова ниво микрочастиците имат коренно различно поведение от това на макротелата и затова възникват явления, които са непознати за класическата физика - корпускулярно-вълнов дуализъм, квантуване, неопределеност и суперпозиция на състоянията, вероятностен характер на събитията (преходите от едно състояние в друго), забранени състояния и съществената роля, която играе процесът на наблюдение (измерване) на квантовата система за определяне на конкретното й състояние. За описанието на тези нови явления е необходим нов математически апарат. Той е създаден сравнително бързо през втората половина на двадесетте и началото на тридесетте години на двадесети век, макар че продължава да се развива и досега.
Испанският философ Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет не е публикувал нито едно специализирано върху езика съчинение, но темата за езика присъства в много от текстовете му. Езикът е сред най-обширно мигриращите „предмети”, обсъждани в неговото творчество. Както посочва Педро Сересо Галан, един от проникновените изследователи на ортегианската философия, проблемът за езика в доктрината на Ортега е „скрита вена, която от време на време излиза на повърхността, но която не престава да пулсира” (7, 378). Езикът е една от привилегированите теми във философията на Ортега.
It is generally assumed that the process of production, distribution and consumption of specialised discourse is realised within certain cultural contexts which presuppose and reveal shared values and beliefs embodying basic assumptions both as to the nature of the discipline and the subject matter and as to the ‘professional ethic’ and relationships between the members of the respective community or, as stated by Bizzell (1982:193), all academic discourse is „a form of language use that unites a particular community“.
Convincing as it may sound, this claim needs serious reconsideration in the modern age of globalisation of academic communication. How are we to define the community Bizzell refers to? And does present-day academic discourse really unite scientists of different social, economic, ethnic, cultural, etc. backgrounds, or does (or maybe should?) the very expansion of the community and the ever-increasing multiplication of voices within it result in diversification rather than unification? And if so, will this lead to communication breakdowns
Two basic philosophical positions have to be considered in this respect, namely the internalist/social constructionist and the externalist ones. The discussion shows that if one remains committed to the traditional understanding of ‘discourse community’, one should either recognize the existence of a very large number of very small communities, or accept that the academic discourse community has disappeared. A more realistic point of view would be to speak at present of fluctuating communities united by temporary common goals.
Slavoj Zizek, easily interpreting the theses by Jacques Lacan, the fragments by Marx, some texts by Alain Badieu etc., develop the concept for the retro - actively fixed target (the exact definition is mine - D.G.) - this explicaton on the events historics, which the people fabricate postfactum, in order to show the latter as a result of deliberate pursue and realized object. This inversion by "telos" and "praxis" by himself teleologic, but she pursue not simply towards giving legitimation on the factition by way of the grounding antedate of the acts and achieved owing to accession to power: here the subject receive the opportunity choosing the own history of itself. This act is possible solely through and on the level of language, because the language give opportunity to change the own past, transforning him in the present. But does is do the true choose, the chance correcting the errors and the failures or someting totally different? The answers stretch beyond the bounds on the Zizek study... if it is possible so to speak for him. In the centre of attention is the fortune on the left in the future...