NotaBene е електронно списание за философски и политически науки. Повече за нас
Summary:The aim of the article is to present an overview of the changes in women's status in Chinese society throughout the years. The method implemented is historico-analytic with emphasis on the reasons for undertaking necessary changes concerning the place of women in economic and social life. Special attention is paid to the changes in marital relations, especially under the reign of the Chinese Communist Party, and the liberty gained by Chinese women which contributed to their heightened position in society and stronger self-esteem.
Keywords: Chinese women, women's status, women's submission, marital relations in China
Abstract: The study proposes an analysis of two different views on justice in the social space. One shows the importance and place of identity as well as its relation to "recognition policy", and the other is related to socio-economic space and the concept of justice as impartiality in the distribution of basic goods.
Keywords: John Rawls, Charles Taylor, justice, recognition policy, identity
Резюме: Темата предлага анализ на два различни възгледа за справедливостта в социалното пространство. Единият показва важността и мястото на идентичността, както и връзката й с „политиката на признаване, а другият е свързан със социално-икономическото пространство и концепцията за справедливостта като безпристрастност при разпределението на основни блага.
Ключови думи: Джон Ролс, Чарлз Тейлър, справедливост, политика на признаване, идентичност
Abstract: The article follows the tendency to very critical and sometimes illegitimate attitude towards art, reaching its natural ending in Benjamin's „The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". The paper compares his view with the positions of some of his contemporaries, who also work on the problems of art. The aim is to demonstrate the ambiguity of Benamin's conclusions and to show that the lethal diagnosis is overstated and the final decision is inappropriate because, as it is known, " Ars longa, vita brevis."
Kеy words: Benjamin, art, original, reproduction, Ortega y Gasset, mass.
Abstract: Modernity and Postmodernity have witnessed secularization of the Western world and ultimate rationalization of thought. However, the rationalistic approach towards epistemological and ethical questions that characterizes Modernity has proven insufficient. Modern artists and philosophers directly or indirectly oppose the one-sided rationalistic view of the world and claim that the main subject and purpose of art is revelation of spiritual essences, connection with metaphysical reality. Eternal truths, Rothko claims, are the subject matter of all good art. This texts considers the modern tendency to associate art with spirituality in terms of themes, purpose and the role of the artist. I refer to contemporary philosophers and artists to elucidate the complex relationship between religion, art and spirituality today. I also explore the view that art is a kind of spiritual practice that can be compared to religious commitments. At the same time, art does not fully substitute religion. A crucial distinction is that art is inclusive, allowing agnostics and atheists to have spiritual experiences, while religion is exclusive. This however doesn't mean that art has priority in facilitating one's spiritual growth. Along with that, the paper aims at elucidating the role of art in individual and social life.
Keywords: modernity, artists, art, religion, secularization
MODERN MIGRATION WAVES TO EUROPE - A CLASH OFCIVILIZATIONS OR A STRUGGLE FOR RESOURCES?
The European migration crisis is considered by many as the greatest challenge that Europe has faced since the fall of the Iron curtain.The lack of consensus at the management level concerning the causes of the crisis and the ways to overcome it, in turn, highlights the contradictions between individual EU-Member States. This paper has its goal in examining the new key elements of the refugee crisis and whether it can be considered as an expected consequence of a clash of the Muslim and Western civilizations, or whether we should look elsewhere, in the eternal struggle for recourses and as its result the more growing social inequality.
Keywords: Migration crisis, clash of civilizations, globalization, integration, multiculturalism, climate change, noosphere.
DIGITAL CHALLENGES OF THE POLITICAL ELITE IN USA DURING THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN IN 2016
The article examines the presence of Presidential Candidates on the Internet space during the US 2016 Presidential Campaign. The Internet is becoming an important tool for communication between ordinary people and between politicians. It is increasingly used as a field for political races and ''struggles''. Attention is given to different challenges faced by politicians and their teams as a result of using the opportunities of the digital technologies. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are being used not only to present candidates, their vision of developing the US society over the next 5 years, but are also being used to criticize, attack and even insult towards their political opponent. In this context, it is important for politicians to have the necessary digital competence and relevant online behavior.
Key words: political elite, presidential campaign, presidential candidate, Internet, social network, Facebook, Twitter, cyber-attack.
National Sovereignty in the Era of Globalization
The report studies the transformation and the collapse of national sovereignty in the era of globalization. An essential attention is paid to the current foreign policy that the national states take and the position the political elite takes. Mentioned are the most significant problems that are caused by the lack of autonomous foreign policy.
The proposals made by the main theoretical perspectives on globalization are reviewed.
Keywords: Globalization, national sovereignty, foreign policy, elite, national states, society.
The Paradoxical Aesthetics of Denis Diderot: Is There Any Objective ‘Essence’ of Art? Realism in Enlightenment
The purpose of this article is to go deeper into Diderot's studies of the origin of beauty. The very word "aesthetics" – derived from the Greek word “αίσθησης” and means sensation, perception or sense experience — concerns itself with the study of art and beauty. As a philosopher Diderot seeks to understand the principles that underlie our value judgments: What is beauty? Is it objective in any way? How is aesthetic pleasure related to perception? What is an artist? What is called talent or genius? What makes something be art? And isn’t it beauty just a perception of relations? Nevertheless this article has as its purpose to reveal part of the French aesthetics of the eighteenth century. Therefore, it passes through a number of philosophers who are deal themselves with the nature of beauty аs Plato, Augustine, Christian Wolf, Jean-Pierre Cruze, Fr. Hutchison.
Key words: history of philosophy, history of arts, realism, Diderot, аesthetic beauty, essence of the genius.
Confucianism – Tradition in the Change of China
The paper discusses the role of Confucianism in today’s development of China. The influence of the teaching of ‘Master Kun’ is sought both on the level of the individual and the society as a whole. Emphasis is put on the changes which China is undergoing and the perspectives for the near future.
Key words: Confucius, China, the East, rituals
Abstract: In this article, the main problem raised is the subjective and ontological experience of aging, the problem between mind and body, and the way in which everything (whether living or not) "becomes" because of aging. I try to put a clear boundary between the way in which aging, as the stage of reaching old age, appears on the one hand in the non-living, on the other, in the living things. The ontological statement is that aging reveals itself as one of the basic reason of beingness at all and that we can understand it only through awareness of our own attitude towards it.
Keywords: aging, beingness, old age
Abstract: This essay tries to analyse briefly globalism, nationalism and multicultural model. It considers the relation between the national idea and globalization. The paper put an accent on the changes that globalization causes to our social reality and to human lives.
Keywords: globalism, nationalism, multicultural model
Abstract: The aim of this article is to make a short comparison between the main concepts in the two most popular Eastern philosophies after giving a short description of both. The core conclusion of the work is that the Western perception is finding it extremely difficult to think "outside of the box" and therefore hard to understand the Eastern intentions.
Keywords: East, West, Daoism, Buddhism, Ultimate reality, concept, reason, language, expressing, metaphysic, nature
Annotation: In this paper, the basic points of the concepts of Chaos as developed in Old Greece and Old China are compared. The main idea is that in Greek thought Chaos is a term for the cosmological beginning, prior to the order of Cosmos, while in the Chinese thought Chaos is a synonym to the unnamed and undifferentiated Ultimate reality. Therefore, while the Greek concept of Chaos represents the shift from mythological to rational thinking, the Chinese one is connected with ancient mystical practices for achieving this Ultimate reality that could not be grasped within the means of logic.
Key words: Chinese philosophy, comparative philosophy, Chaos
Abstract. The aim of the present paper is to compare two basic figures of the analytic philosophy: Quine and late Wittgenstein. What is to be argued here is that these two authors have many theses in common and they realize a turn within the analytic tradition. Among their followers are Sellars, Ostin, Searl, etc.
Keywords: linguistic turn, paradigm, reference, ontolology, conceptual scheme, representationalism, foundationalism
Abstract: The paper analyses the philosophical and religious ideas of Nikolai Berdyaev about existential freedom applied in the context of his views of the society, technology and sex. In this sense the article also focuses on other important Berdyaev’s concepts – those of objectivation, androgyny, humanism and dehumanization.
Keywords: existential freedom, Berdyaev and technology, objectivation, androgyny
The aim of the report is to highlight the similarities and differences between shaman’s and Yogi’s states of consciousness. Тheir characteristics вill be examined as follows; philosophical system, a system of rituals, value for the practitioner, different varieties of the practices worldwide. What immediately makes impression to the investigator, is not so much the emphasis on similarities, but on the remarkable fact that the differences between yoga and shamanism are complementary. Crystallization of this supplement slowly but surely lead to the realization of a more complete picture of the sacred in the world of two of the oldest techniques for a consciousness change.
Key words: Yoga, shamanism, consciousness, techniques, states of mind
Angela Carter creates fiction that is highly intertextual and very difficult to fit in a specific genre. The unquestionable label for Carter’s fiction (influenced or not by postmodern tendencies) is experimental - the author plays with conventions in every aspect of her works: character, plot, form, genre. Her collection of stories “The Bloody Chamber” (1979) is an example of such resume. The focus is on the story “The Company of Wolves”, adapted for the big screen with Carter as the screenwriter. This text aims at comparing “word” and “image”, story and film, scrutinizing expressive techniques used in both media. Problems in adaptation faced by film are discussed in detail in accordance to text specifics. In order to accomplish its goals this text observes texts and contexts in the body of Angela Carter’s work and beyond.
Key words: Carter, film, experiment, wolves
Abstract: In the current text the thesis of the presence of a dialectical moment in the historical development of the idea of the a priori. The concepts of Plato, Kant and Hartman, which have a key role in the development of the a priori,are chronologically presented . In the history of the idea of the a priori, the following dialectical movement is found: Plato describes the priori as objective, Kant reduces it to the subjective and rejustification of Hartman’s original position.
Key words: a priori, a posteriori, dialectic, historic development
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to analyze the phenomenon of the Internet using the techniques of philosophy, political science, sociology and psychology.I will try to shed light on aspects of global network, which are important for the development of nearly all societies today.
Abstract: Since 2006 radical social changes have started in Ecuador. A decisive transformation in searching for a new idea and policy different from the Neoliberalism has begun. The transition into the third millennium is a time of crisis and protests. The Neoliberalism is the best form of government for the local oligarchy and transnational companies. The things changed on 15 January 2007, when the new president Rafael Correa dared to embark on a new path relying on changes in the socio-economic situation. External Correa's policy is very active in relation to international infrastructure projects and economic integration among the countries of the region, leading South America to the way of self development and a new political paradigm.
Keywords: South America, Ecuador, history, policy, modernity.
Abstract: The article views the problem for the psychic phenomena in the study of Franz Brentano. The way in which the philosopher differentiate it in his work Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt). Their specifics have been differentiated and the difference between physical and psychic phenomena has been shown. The doctrine of Brentano is interpreted as basic source of ideas for the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl which emerged in the beginning of 20th century.
Keywords: psychic phenomenon, psychology, intentionality, consciousness
Abstract: This article is an attempt to present some essential aspects of the authentic Chinese wisdom that is not based on rational and absolutist constructs as is the Western thought. It discusses the problem of the relation of language to the reality. Its main thesis derived from the Zhuangzi’s treatise is that language is not able to capture entities, it cannot reach or reflect the reality. The article presents the main difference in the philosophical premises of East and West – while the Western thought and logic is built on the idea of substance and entities, the Eastern thought penetrates the understanding of Void, the process of relativity.
Key words: Chinese philosophy, Zhuangzi, language, reality, void
Abstract: The objective of this work is to attempt to structure familiarity of scientific paradigms up to present days. Conversions thanks to which certain types of scientific artifacts have become the driving force of our lives. Of course it is normal to one to think this seems absurd at first, but you focus on the key factors of human life, we can easily assimilate trails marked by science.
The article analyzes the early work (before 1913) of Edmund Husserl. The main topic is the specifics of the immanent and transcendent objects. The immanent are seen as related to the consciousness and the analysis of essences. The transcendent – as incomplete and external from the consciousness'es view. The article also shows how Husserl overcomes the classical interpretations of image. The analysis is historically philosophical. It interprets Husserl's work through Wundt's and Brentano's psychological point of view.
Keywords: Phenomenology, Immanent and transcendent objects, Edmund Husserl, psychology, consciousness, image.
The imaginary is present in human life and poetry expresses it by creating a fictional world. This world fills the gaps and shortcomings of the real world. Metaphor is a mean of escaping from the reality and a perfect form of spirituality, which closens real and imaginary life.
The text briefly revises the etymological and the philosophical uses of the term "virtual". Virtual space and virtual time are the key components for the aesthetics of Susanne Langer in making the idea of a work of art both a symbol and a virtual object, where the audience gains an experience of the primordial nature. In the understanding of the conceptual feeling originating from the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead lies the key to the possibility of infinite interpretation of the eternal categories from the field of ethics and morality.
Abstract: The main purpose of the text is to reveal some great delusions in the philosophical systems of two great philosophers. Greatness itself cannot be a sufficient proof of trueness, greatness depends on specific minds and spirits of its age. In this paper the author puts the idea for reconsideration. To reconsider Kant and Hegel's philosophy in order to prevent overreliance in authority. To reconsider Goethe's philosophy in order to find out the genius of the poet. It is time for philosophy to respect the evolution of thought and the progress of science and to upgrowth itself above any kind of dogmatism, because a genuine philosophy mostly requires freedom.
The topic of the European crisis and the decline of the thinking in the philosophy of Martin Heidegger
Abstract: The article discusses some main Heidegger‘s concepts and ideas in the context of the topic of the European crisis which appears in the philosophy in the end of 19 century and develops in the period between World Wars. The main question of the paper is the one: is the thematization of Heidegger‘s philosophy in this conceptual framework possible. With this purpose the Heidegger‘s criticism of the European philosophy that causes the dominance of science and technology, the concept of Das Man etc. are studied. The conclusion is that although the Heidegger‘s philosophy concerns not with political but with ontological problems there are some political implications of his thought.
The article refers mainly to the philosophical work of Ion Dezideriu Sirbu as a part of the cultural inheritance of Romania. Which is little known not only in Bulgaria. Unlike other countrymen of his like Cioran, Ion Dezideriu Sirbu does not leave his country, therefore his recently translated diaries have never been published during his lifetime. Though bound in an unbreakable way with the political-historical context of his time, Sirbu’ s thought goes beyond these frames and transcends the human existential-political being. The questions about Death and Alienation leave the existential boundaries and reach the metaphysical inquiry. There are questions in his diaries that step over the contemporary being not less painfully. About the role of the philosophic endeavourer in society, about the role of philosophy for the mankind altogether.
... Where is the location of prejudices here?
Prejudices will play a positive role of prism that will help to find what lies behind or beyond the barrier as their meaning. Prejudice will appear as a rhetorical question, directing the mind to search for meaning behind the very meaning, expanding horizon and positive role in the interpretation to be possible not only one point to explain all the possible answers, and answers to appear only possible decision or interpretation of multiple questions.
The text concerns the need of civilizing in the irreversible process of globalization. The toleration as an expression of the civilization and as a need for culture survival. Civilization as uniting people and culture as giving them identity.
Женският образ, доколкото съществува като част от християнския религиозен канон, е строго конфигуриран, двуизмерен. Средновековната естетика акцентира предимно върху сцени от Библията и различни жития на светци. В тях фигурира единствено образът на Девата. В началото на 14-ти век живописта се превръща в едно от водещите изкуства на Ренесанса. Тогава се преоткриват античните разбирания за красотата и се обръща особен интерес върху митологията. Във Флоренция новите меценати на изкуството – семейство Медичи, настойчиво толерират развитието на ново културни процеси. В кръга около тях се събират имена като Марсилио Фичино, Анджело Полициано, Сандро Ботичели. Фичино прокарва чрез преводите на Платон идеята за съзерцателната красота, която трябва да се види „зад” формата на тялото. Именно тогава художници като Филипо Липи и Ботичели преинтерпретират досега съществуващия образ на Дева Мария, за да го заменят с митологичния образ на богинята Венера. Прототип за ренесансовите художници става градската жена, чиято красота се вплита в най-различни сюжети. По този начин Ренесансът преоткрива голото женско тяло за света.
Woman image, as far as it is a part of the Christian canon is strictly configurated, two-dimensional. Aesthetics of Middle Age makes accent mostly on scenes from the Bible and the different books from the saints. In them there is only the image of The Virgin. In the early 14-th century the art of painting become one of the most important art in Renaissance. Then become a revealing of the Ancient understandings for Beauty and the mythology takes an important place. In Florence the new Maecenas of the art – The Medici family are tolerating the progress of the new formed cultural processes. They are surrounded by names like Marsilio Ficino, Angelo Poliziano, Sandro Botticelli. From the translations of Plato Ficino promote the idea of the contemplating beauty, which have to be seen “behind” the form of the body. These painters like Filippo Lippi and Botticelli give a reinterpretation of the image of Virgin Merry and they replace it with the mythological image of the goddess Venus. A prototype of the Renaissance painters became the woman from the city and her beauty implicate in different subjects. This way the Renaissance reveals the naked body for the world.
В това изследване (с отворен край) човешкото тяло се разбира като отправна точка на всякакви не-телесности, чрез които образуваме социокултурното пространство, живеещо сякаш „свой собствен” живот през различни телесни практики. Това, което се има предвид е, че културата, най-общо разбрана, може да съществува единствено през телесности. Културата обаче е и нещо повече: въпреки че има началото си в локалните телесни практики на група индивиди, тя има претенцията да се издига до ранга на едно универсално смислово поле, изразяващо „човешкото”; до оптика, през която светът да бъде наблюдаван; и следователно до „нещо”, с което самите тела да се съобразяват. Затова културата и тялото общ-уват, маркирайки се взаимно, удържайки се в сравнително строги определености. Обаче основният патос на изследването си остава девиантното тяло, отдалечаващо се от нормативните очертания, въвеждайки множество проблеми около „идентичността”.
Ключови думи: Тяло, Девиантност, Култура, Морал, Идентичности
Дзен философията на живот се разгръща в практическата непосредственост на живеене, поетическият език е най-близък до нейното словесно възпроизвеждане. В тази връзка стилът на Егзюпери е изчистен до простотата на приказка. Поетиката на текста поставя ударение върху естетическото като екзистенция на живота, където Егзюпери кодира своята философия за постигане на Просветлението. Съзнателното освобождаване от Азовите илюзии в контекста на Сатори е път на пробуждане на най-дълбоката и най- чиста надазова Мъдрост. Съзерцателността и тихото смирение, въплътени в Малкия принц, носят изначален белег на благоразположеност в търсенето на Просветление.
Ключови думи: Егзюпери, Дзен, Малкият принц, Просветление, Сатори, Поетика, илюзии, его, Аз-ът, Вътрешна Мъдрост
The Zen philosophy of life represents the spontaneous way of living. When we talk about Zen the language of poetry is the closest to its verbal interpretation. In this relation the style of Exupery is purified to the simplicity of a fairy-tale. The poetics of the text puts an accent on the aesthetics as an existention of life, where Exupery is codifying his philosophy of reaching the Enlightment. Conscious emancipation from the Ego illusions in the context of Satory is a road to awakening of the deepest, purest, over Ego Wisdom. Contemplation and quiet humbleness embodied in Little Prince carry a significant sign of good will in seeking Enlightment.
Key words: Exupery, Zen, The Little Prince, Enlightment, Satory, Poetics, illusions, ego, the Self, Inner Wisdom
В хода на историята на философията редица мислители са се опитвали да осмислят социалното битие на индивида и неговото вписване в културния социум. Това обаче, което Бурдийо прави в своята книга “Практическият разум”, не е дефиниране на същността на човека и изследване на структурата на отношението човек – свят, визирайки активното изграждане на света от субекта и адекватното му наместване в него. Френският философ се занимава с вече изградения социален свят и това доколко отделният индивид успешно съумява да се причисли и идентифицира към налично-конструираните смисли в света. Бурдийо разглежда „ролята” в обществото като цяло и влизането в отделни групи - сферите на изкуството, военното дело, правосъдието и дори най-обикновени професии като инженери и лекари, т.е. - онези социални отношения, "които не могат нито да бъдат показани, нито докоснати с ръка, и които трябва да бъдат овладени, конструирани и валидизирани чрез научния труд."
In his study, using computer simulation which lead to interesting and valuable results, prof. Jeffrey Elman is concluding, contrary to prof. N. Chomsky, that recursing which has considerable meaning in education is based upon biological evolution, as well as that limitation also connected with the education process are not in fact biological instructions. I think that Chomsky is right in his statement about the nativity of the recursion and the existence of the universal grammar, which is only assumption, because I am not familiar with his works. I just represent some facts which relate to my thoughts on the subject, following mostly my intuitive consent with the author. The limitations in the volume of the current work are giving me the possibilities to represent only a part of them, while I continue working on the subject.
Волята сама по себе си, непознаваемата и единствена воля за живот при Артур Шопенхауер отрича християнството, волята за власт (мощ, сила) на Фридрих Ницше също така го отрича. Ницше обявява не само, че бог е мъртъв, но и че светът има нужда от преоценка на всичко досегашно, което го е вълнувало или което го е пропивало и разяждало отвътре. Зовът на Заратустра не е зов към смърт, а към живот. В християнството Ницше съзира деградацията на човешкото, на това, което е живо, и което се стреми към живот; той говори за упадък на самата живееща същност на човека, на устрема му към съвършенство, към борба, към живот тук и сега. Философът подлага на критика основите на християнството, неговия стремеж към всичко, което е „над" и „отвъд". Тук - в света на Ницше - няма бог, няма живот след, няма чакане на отвъдното, няма рай и ад. Упадъкът се състои в изсъхването на живота и стремежа към нещо, което не е в живота, а извън и отвъд него, в разложението и покоряването на монотонността. Животът се превръща в чакане, той не е живот сам по себе си, а единствено преходна спирка. Бог е мъртъв, защото той просто трябва да умре, за да може погледът да се насочи не нагоре, а надолу към самия човек, към живота на човека като ценност, към волята му за живот, която е дишаща и жива, която не чака, а която е. Майкъл Тенър озаглавява послеслова си към книгата „Ницше" с остроумното „Ницше и застраховка „живот"" като в него споменава как цялата философия на Ницше е едно преосмисляне и оценяване на живота, на стойността му.
Философията започва с изумлението. Изумлението от страна на философа спрямо природата и от страна на хората спрямо философа. Изумлението на хората, както сетивно, от наблюдението на заниманията на философа, от това какво прави, как го прави, но и от самото бездействие на философа. Освен сетивно, разбрано чрез очите, хората се изумяват понякога даже повече от това какво или как говори философът.