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Случаят Шейлок: справедливостта над правото или правото на справедливостта

Tекстът е центриран около проблема за отношенията и и границите между правото и справедливостта. Шейлок е изразител на отношението на правото в субективен смисъл към правото в обективен, според което законите и законността не зависят и не се нуждаят от критерий за справедливост. Освобождаването от представата и изискването за необходима връзка между право и справедливост в свят, построен върху псевдоценности, погубва и представата за действително реалния свят. Човек не е в състояние да оцени действително случващото се, което го дели една крачка от „баналността на злото“.
Ключови думи: самоценност, автономна личност, справедливост, смисъл, доб-ро, духовност

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The Case Shylock: Fairness Over the Low or the Low of Fairness

The text is centered on the issue of the relationship and the boundaries between the low and the fairness. Shylock is an expression of the relation between the law in a subjective sense and the law in an objective sense, according to which the laws and the legality do not depend and do not need a criterion for fairness. The release from the notion and the requirement for a necessary connection between the law and the fairness in a world built on pseudo-values destroys the notion of the actually real world as well. The man is unable to evaluate the things that are actually happening, which is only one step away from the "banality of the evil".
Keywords: self-value, autonomous person, fairness, meaning, good, spirituality

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Is Love Disease According to Ortega y Gasset?

Summary: The article is focused on José Ortega-y-Gasset’s work, "Studies on Love," in which the Spanish thinker outlines two types of feelings that could be conditionally called: love-passion and love-affirmation. In the first one a pathogenic character can be found, but in the second one - a conscious choice of creation and preservation of the loved one is realized.
Keywords: Love, Disease, José Ortega-y-Gasset, drive, choice of giving

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“Avenue Foch” in Philosophical-Aesthetic and Axiological Touches

Abstract:
This paper gives a close reading of Dr. PetarKonstantinov’s fiction novel “Avenue Foch” (1993) – a chronicleofthelifesuccessesandadversitiesof a youngpainterinSofiainthe 1980s, – throughtheprismoftheaestheticandvalueaspectsoftheprotagonist‘sworldview. Theexpositionconsecutivelyfixeson ’AvenueFosch’asanallegoryofthe peaksinhumancultureintheiraxiologicalambivalence; onportrayingthepersonalityoftheyoungpainterthroughhisrelationshipswiththeclosestones inhisenvironment; onone’soriginalmotivesto choose –or,ratherrealizeandaccept–one’sfateas a creatorbybirth; ontheinsuperabilityinthischoiceandthisfate.
Ключови думи: “Avenue Foch”, PetarKonstantinov, art, creation, artistic worldview, expectation, insuperability

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Post-Truth Politics and Refugees (Case Study: The Bulgarian Media Image of Refugees)

Abstract: The era of the social media, information abundance and fake news raises the post-truth politics - a combination between emotional argumentation, lies, bullshits, sensations and silence about the important topics. The study will tries to trace the mechanism of post-truth politics through the media image of the refugees in Bulgarian context.
Key words: post-truth, fake news, refugees, media, popular culture

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Subjective Justification And Distributed Cognitive System

Summary:
In this article I discuss the problem of subjective justification in cases of distributed agency according externalist criteria of subjective justification presented by John Greco (1999).
Distributed cognition hypothesis is concerning cases of group agent consisting of more than one individuals and external vehicles, artifacts and tools. They form united system which characteristics are different than the sum of the characteristics of its parts.In this article I suggest normative system for group agents similar Greco’s theory of individual agent. Еach one of the social interactions is governed by the rule of mutual nonlinear interaction. This interaction governs also the language and communication games between the members of the distributed system. It is similar the idea of Wittgenstein about the language games.
Keywords: cognitive integration, externalism, epistemology, distributed cognition, group agent, subjective justification

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Classification of visual tropics in the visual semioticsof Group µ

Summary: The article presents the taxonomy of visual rhetorical figures proposed by the Belgian Group µ in their study titled “Traité du signe visuel: Pour une rhétorique de l'image” where the visual rhetorical act is consider as an extension of the possibilities of the semiotic world. The visual figures typology of the Liege school is described based on images used by the Belgian semioticians and applied to contemporary visual data. The classification proposed by the scholars from Liege is introduced in comparative prospective considering another visual figures typologiy ,representative for the structuralist version of visual semiotics in francophone semiotic studies, proposed by Jacques Durand as a member of the Paris School of Semiotics.
Key words: Visual rhetorical figures, taxonomy, Group µ, visual semiotics, structuralism

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On the Distinction Between Formal and Material Implication

Abstract: Russell's understanding of implication in The Principles of Mathematics (1903) is dual. At the heart of this understanding we find two concepts: material and formal implication. In the paper I give the reasons why Russell had to introduce the distinction between formal and material implications. I then draw the consequences of the distinction with special attention to their direct effect on logical affirmation and logical conclusion.
Key words: proposition, propositional function, material implication, formal implication, logical conclusion.

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A Post-bellum Tractatus?

Abstract: The paper discusses some recent attempts to “go beyond” the interpretative Tractatus wars, finds them over-optimistic, unrealistic or flatly inconsistent, and suggests reasons to consider any imminent cessation of interpretative hostilities unlikely.

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On the Title of Frege’s First Book

Summary: The paper seeks to answer the question why, in his later years, Frege explicitly expressed regrets over his choice of the term ‘Begriffsschrift’ as the title of his first book. It is well known that Ernst Schroeder, the most important reviewer of Begriffsschrift, was very critical of the work and its title. Comparing the reasons for Frege’s and Schroeder’s dissatisfaction with the title of the book the paper reveals the essence of the main principle which Frege closely and unwaveringly followed throughout the years in his work. It was due to this principle, the Principle of priority, that the Aristotelian tradition in logic was overthrown and the new paradigm of mathematical logic was established.
Keywords: Begriffsschrift, Frege, Schroeder, Principle of priority, modern logic

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On Inflating Frege on Thinking

Abstract: The text considers a recent suggestion for re-interpreting Frege’s conception of the activity of thinkingand the latter’s epistemic role in his theoretical project. The suggestion is dismissed as both conceptually confused and interpretatively untenable given the available textual evidence.
Key words: Frege, G.; thinking; epistemology; anti-psychologism

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Some sayings on silence (and on the talking that says nothing)

Summary:The paper sketches a peculiar view of Wittgenstein's philosophical legacy after the publication of the Tractatus – as an (inescapably doomed) attempt to construct some form of philosophical grammar which complements the purely negative doctrine of the early Wittgenstein.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Tractatus, silence, grammer

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The Theory of Descriptions and Its Influence on the Tractatus

Summary:
The article discusses the issue raised by Russell concerning the essence of the descriptive phrases and specifically the definite descriptions. Russell’s views of the period of his Platonic atomism related to the nature and the logical form of propositions and their components is briefly stated. Russell’s theory of descriptions and some ontological views of the earlier Wittgenstein are also commented.
Key words: Russell, Frege, Wittgenstein, description, reductionism

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The Role of the Tractatus for the separation of Logic from Mathematics

Summary: The paper is concerned with the reasons (such as certain ideas and theories) leading in the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century to the emergence of logicism – the doctrine that mathematics is part of logic, as well as with the reasons for its subsequent overcoming (after the 20s of the 20th century). The conception of logic in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus plays an important philosophical role in the overcoming of this doctrine and the re-separation of logic and mathematics.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Frege, logicism, logic, mathematics

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Frege for Validation

Summary: What distinguishes Frege’s approach to logic from the traditional ways of developing logical theory are its semantic features:logical phenomena are investigated against the background of our speaking about the world. This is manifested in the Fregean terminology in which concepts like those of sense and reference that describe the relations between the language and the world, and thereby the meanings of linguistic expressions, play central role. Frege’s semantic approach ensues from his orientation towards the notion of truth. According to him, the notion of truth is supremely fundamental and cannot be reduced to simpler notions. That is why, in order to elucidate it, Frege appeals to our practice of speaking and, more concretely, to the practice of making assertions. This gives an intriguing pragmatic nuance to his logical enterprise. After analyzing the relevant texts, we can say that by discussing the notion of truth in the context of the topic of assertion, Frege anticipates some important ideas that have been developed as late as in the middle of the 20th century by J. Austin and J. Searle within the framework of the speech act theory.
Keywords: Frege, assertion, speech act theory

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Фреге за утвърждаването

Резюме: Онова, което различава подходът на Фреге към логиката от традиционните начини, по които логическата теория е била развивана, е това, че той е семантичен: логическите феномени се изследват на фона на нашето говорене за света. Това си личи не на последно място по терминологията на Фреге, в която централна роля се пада на понятия като смисъл и референция, с които описваме отношенията между езика и действителността, а с това и значенията на езиковите изрази. Подходът на Фреге следва от неговата ориентация към понятието за истината. Това понятие е пределно основополагащо и не може да се сведе до по-прости понятия. Ето защо, за да го обясни, Фреге се позовава на нашата практика на говорене и по-специално на практиката на правене на твърдения. Това придава интересен прагматически нюанс на Фрегевите занимания с логиката. Чрез анализ на релевантните текстове можем да кажем, че чрез обсъждането на понятието за истината в контекста на темата за твърдението Фреге антиципира важни идеи, които са били развити едва в средата на ХХ век в теорията на речевите актове на Остин и Сърл.

Ключови думи: Фреге, утвърждаване, теория за речевите актове

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„Авеню Фош" във философско-естетически и аксиологически щрихи

Резюме:

Статията представлява близък прочит на художествения роман на д-р Петър Константинов „Авеню Фош" (1993) - хроника на житейските успехи и несгоди на един млад художник в София от 80-те години, - през призмата на естетическите и ценностните аспекти в световъзприятието на главния герой. Изложението се спира последователно върху „авеню Фош" като алегория на върховете в човешката култура в тяхната аксиологическа амбивалентност; върху обрисуването на личността на младия художник през неговите взаимоотношения с най-близките в обкръжението му; върху изначалните мотиви човек да избере - или дори по-скоро да осъзнае и приеме - своята съдба на творец по рождение; върху непреодолимостта в този избор и в тази съдба.

Ключови думи:„Авеню Фош", Петър Константинов, изкуство, творчество, художествено световъзприятие, очакване, непреодолимост

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Болест ли е любовта според Ортега-и-Гасет?

Резюме: Статията е фокусирана върху произведението на Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет „Изследвания върху любовта", в което испанският мислител очертава два типа чувства, които можем да наречем условно: любов-страст и любов-утвърждаване. В първата може да се открие патогенен характер, но във втората се реализира съзнателен избор на сътворяване и съхраняване на обичаното.

Ключови думи: Любов, Болест, Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет, нагон, избор на отдаване

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Политика на постистината и бежанци: един български медиен пример

Резюме: Ерата на социалните мрежи, информационното изобилие и фалшивите новини ражда политиката на постистината - комбинация от емоционална аргументация, лъжи, измишльотини, сензации и премълчаване на важните теми. Текстът ще се опита да проследи механизма на функциониране на постистинната политика през медийния образ на бежанците в България.

Ключови думи: постистина, фалшиви новини, бежанци, медии, популярна култура

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Субективно оправдаване и разпределена когнитивна система

Резюме:

В тази статия ще изследвам проблема за субективното оправдаване в случаите на разпределено познание през призмата на епистемологическия екстернализъм, и в частност - теорията за когнитивна интеграцияна Джон Греко (1999). Хипотезата за разпределеното познание се отнася до случаи на групов агент, изграден от няколко индивиди заедно със съпътстващите ги инструменти, техника и артефакти. Те оформят самостоятелна цялост, групов субект, различна от сумата на отделните части.

В статията предлагам нормативна система за групов агент по подобие с теорията на Греко за индивидуален субект. Всяко социално взаимодействие между индивидите в случите на разпределено познание се извършва съобразно правилото за нелинейно динамично взаимодействие, коетосе приемаимплицитно или експлицитно от участниците в разпределената система. Това взаимодействие се приема и в комуникационните и езикови практики между членовете на разпределената система.То е сходно с идеята за езиковите игри на Витгенщайн.

Ключови думи: когнитивна интеграция, екстернализъм, епистемология, групов агент, субективно оправдание

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Класификация на визуалните тропи във визуалната семиотика на Групата µ

Резюме: Статията представя таксономията на визуалните риторични фигури, предложени от белгийската Група µ, в тяхното изследване, озаглавено "Traite du signevisuel: Pour unerhetorique de l'image", дефиниращо визуалния реторичен акт като разширяване на възможностите на семиотичния свят. Предложената класификация на визуалните фигури е описана на базата на изображения, използвани от белгийските семиотици, но и на такива свързани със съвременната визуална комуникация. Класификацията, предложена от екипа от Лиеж, е разгледана в сравнителна перспектива, съставена с друга типология на визуалните фигури, представителна за структурната версия на франкофонската визуална семиотика, формулирана от представителя на Парижката семиотична школа Жак Дюран.

Ключови думи: визуално риторични фигури, таксономия, група µ, визуална семиотика, структурализъм.

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За разграничението между формална и материална импликация

Резюме: Ръселовото схващане за импликацията в „Принципи на математиката, 1903, е дуално. В същността на това разбиране стоят две понятия: материална и формална импликация. В статията излагам причините, които карат Ръсел да въведе разграничението между формална и материална импликация. След това проследявам последиците от това разграничение, като наблягам върху логическото утвърждаване и логическия извод.

Ключови думи: пропозиция, пропозиционална функция, материална импликация, формална импликация, логически извод.

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Post-bellum Tractatus?

Резюме: Текстът разглежда някои опити за „преодоляване" на интерпретативния конфликт („войни") свързан с Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus и посочва причините за тяхната нереалистичност, свръх-оптимизъм или открита противоречивост, както и тези за слабата вероятност за скорошно прекратяване на противопоставянето между интерпретаторите на ранния Витгенщайн.

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Относно заглавието на първата книга на Фреге

Резюме: В статията се опитвам да отговоря на въпроса защо в края на живота си Фреге ясно изразява неудовлетвореност от избора на Begriffsschrift (Понятопис) като заглавие на своя първи труд. Известно е, че Ернст Шрьодер, най-важният рецензент на Понятопис, е много критичен относно творбата и нейното заглавие. Сравняването на причините за неудовлетвореността от заглавието при Фреге и Шрьодер разкрива същността на главния принцип, който Фреге внимателно и неотклонно следва през годините. Именно благодарение на този принцип, Принципа на приоритета (на съждението спрямо понятието), е преодоляна Аристотеловата традиция в логиката и е установена новата парадигма на математическата логика.

Ключови думи: понятопис, Фреге, Шрьодер, Принцип на приоритета, модерна логика

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Относно инфлационната интерпретация на възгледите на Фреге за мисленето

Резюме: Текстът дискутира неотдавна изложена идея за предполагаемата нужда от преосмисляне на концепцията на Фреге за мисленето и неговата епистемична роля (в теоретичния проект на Фреге). Предложението е отхвърлено като концептуално проблематично и интерпретативно неиздържано при наличните текстуални свидетелства.

Ключови думи: Фреге, Г.; мислене; епистемология; анти-психологизъм

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Няколко думи относно мълчанието (и говоренето, което не казва нищо)

Резюме: Статията набелязва един особен поглед към философското наследство на Витгенщайн след публикуването на Трактата - като (неизбежно обречен на неуспех) опит за конструиране на философска граматика, която допълва чисто отрицателното учение на ранния Витгенщайн.

Ключови думи: Витгеншайнр Трактатар мълчание, граматика

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Теорията за описанията и влиянието й върху Трактата

Резюме

В статия е обсъден повдигнатият от Ръсел въпрос за същността на обозначаващите понятия в широк смисъл и в частност определените описания. Накратко са изложени схващанията на Ръсел от периода на платоническия атомизъм за природата и логическата форма на пропозициите и техните съставки. Коментирана е теорията на описанията и основни положения от онтологията на ранния Витгенщайн.

Ключови думи: Ръсел, Фреге, Витгенщайн, описание, редукционизъм

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Ролята на Трактата за разделянето на логика и математика

Резюме: Статията разглежда причините (като идеи и теории), коитов края на 19-ти и началото на 20-ти век водят до възникването налогицизма - доктрината, че математиката е част от логиката,както и причините за неговото последващо преодоляване (след края 20-те години на 20-ти век). Важна философска роля за преодоляването на това разбиранеи за повторноторазделянена логика и математика изиграваконцепцията за логиката в Логико-философски Трактат на Витгенщайн.

Ключови думи: Витгенщайн, Ръсел, Фреге, логицизъм, логика, математика

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Репродуктивното тяло и възвърнатата женственост в периода на късния социализъм в България

The article analyses the pro natal policies of late socialism in Bulgaria. It compares the early communist practices and ideology focused on the ideal figure of woman shock worker with those of the late communist regime oriented towards the favoring of maternity. This accent on the role of woman as a mother changes the emancipatory politics of the regime and ultimately leads to recapturing of femininity of socialist women.

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Gnosis, Utopia, Revolution – the Russian Mystic Anarchism

The subject of this paper is the revolutionary attitude of the Russian social-spiritual movement called mystical anarchism. The article describes its specific characters summarized mainly by the idea of non-acceptance of the world. An analogy between the ancient Gnosticism and the mystical anarchism is drawn. The focus of the paper is on the views of Vasilij Nalimov and Aleksej Sinyagin whose activity is in the context of the Soviet reality. The author shows the similarities between the Gnostic essence of mystical anarchism and the ideas of the Bulgarian Bogomils who are highly appreciated by Sinyagin. It is concluded that the Gnostic essence of the mystic-anarchist ideas determines their destructive character and that the imagined by the representatives of this movement revolution could not at all be soft.

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Гносис, утопия, революция – руският мистичен анархизъм

The subject of this paper is the revolutionary attitude of the Russian social-spiritual movement called mystical anarchism. The article describes its specific characters summarized mainly by the idea of non-acceptance of the world. An analogy between the ancient Gnosticism and the mystical anarchism is drawn. The focus of the paper is on the views of Vasilij Nalimov and Aleksej Sinyagin whose activity is in the context of the Soviet reality. The author shows the similarities between the Gnostic essence of mystical anarchism and the ideas of the Bulgarian Bogomils who are highly appreciated by Sinyagin. It is concluded that the Gnostic essence of the mystic-anarchist ideas determines their destructive character and that the imagined by the representatives of this movement revolution could not at all be soft.

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Technology, Materialism and the Future of the Marx’s View of History

The article discuses some aspects of Marx’s historical materialism in the light of Heidegger’s remarks, in the Letter on Humanism, regarding Marx’s view of history and technology as the essence of materialism. It seeks to give hints at Marx’s legacy 200 years after Marx’s birth, at a time when an increasingly technological capitalism threatens to displace labour from the process of production. It argues that the issue of ownership and democratic control over knowledge has in recent years become only more vital for emancipatory politics.
Keywords: historical materialism, Letter on Humanism, technology, technological capitalism

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Технологията, материализмът и бъдещето на Марксовия възглед за историята

The article discusses some aspects of Marx’s historical materialism in the light of Heidegger’s remarks, in the Letter on Humanism, regarding Marx’s view of history and technology as the essence of materialism. It seeks to give hints at Marx’s legacy 200 years after Marx’s birth, at a time when an increasingly technological capitalism threatens to displace labour from the process of production. It argues that the issue of ownership and democratic control over knowledge has in recent years become only more vital for emancipatory politics.
Keywords: historical materialism, Letter on Humanism, technology, technological capitalism

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За Маркс и марксизма през погледа на Карл Попър

Статията се съсредоточава най-вече върху основната критика на сър Карл Попър към марксизма, а именно, неговия историцизъм. В интерпретацията на Попър Марксовият стремеж да превърне утопичния социализъм в наука довежда до създаване на доминирано от Лапласов детерминизъм схващане за историята като подчинена на „неумолими” закони, чрез които бъдещето може да се предвиди. Предложен е обзор на основните критически аргументи на Попър против Маркс развити във втория тома на „Отвореното общество и неговите врагове”.
Ключови думи: Маркс, Попър, марксизъм, детерминизъм, историцизъм

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About Marx and Marxism according to Karl Popper

The paper is focused mainly on the key criticism of Sir Karl Popper leveled against Marxism, that is its historicist nature. According to Popper Marx’s attempt to transform socialism from utopia to science led to the formation of a deterministic view of history as governed by inexorable laws on the basis of which the future can be predicted. The paper offers a brief survey of Popper’s critical arguments against Marx developed in the second volume of his Open Society and Its Enemies.
Keywords: Marx, Popper, Marxism, determinism, historicism

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Modernity and Holocaust – Premodern Premises of the Holocaust. Part 1.

This text has the intention to explore a major problem: the relationship - as much as it exists - between modernity and the Holocaust. For this purpose, Zygmunt Bauman's views are taken as a starting point and the attempts is to be determine whether they are true and correct. For this reason that article generally tries to be an alternative to the view that modernity legitimizes science as its "singular orthodox cult" (Bauman, 2002: 109) and, on the contrary, asserts that throughout modernity we see not denial, but grading and identifying the passion with life itself and with the essence of humanity (which is beautifully synthesized by L. Feuerbach). To prove this, the article looks into the works of a series of thinkers that gave the image of what remains in history under the name modernity.
Keywords: modernity, Holocaust, Zygmunt Bauman, Utopia

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Модерност и Холокост – предмодерни предпоставки за холокоста. Част 1.

Този текст има задачата да разгледа един основен проблем: връзката – доколкото, ако и както я има – между модерността и холокоста. За тази цел като отправна точка се вземат възгледите на Зигмунт Бауман и се прави опит да се провери тяхната валидност. В този смисъл, от самото название на събитието, което той разглежда, на първо място се поставя темата за модерността – какво е тя, защо я има, до какво водят нейните позиции. Но по-важният въпрос, на който следва да се търси първоначално отговор, е има ли основание Бауман да я разглежда като явление, обявило „война на страстите", като период, превърнал разума във „върховна“ и „единствена“ ценност? Да се отговори на този въпрос, означава всъщност да се отговори и едновременно на въпроса представлява ли холокостът наистина продукт на модерния свят, или – обратното – неговата причина се намира наистина както в него, но така и отвъд него – в цялата човешка история, а следователно и в самата човешка природа.

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The Jewish question, modernity and human relations within Zygmunt Bauman

The following article deals with the modern phenomena of Holocaust. The current survey shows the impact of devastation during the German Third Reich, the different causes for the creation of totalitarian system of government, and some remedies which seek prevention of human oppression and maintenance of blissful environment.
Key words: genocide, cold intellectualism, eugenics, imperialism, anti-semitism, totalitarianism, collective thinking or mass irresponsibility – rascalism, morality, need for eternal values

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Еврейският въпрос, модерността и човешките взаимоотношения у Зигмунт Бауман

Резюме: Настоящата статия разглежда модерният феномен на Холокоста. Това изследване показва ефектът на унищожение по време на Немският Трети Райх, различните причини за създаването на тоталитарната система на управление, и някои лекове, които целят превенцията на човешка опресия и подръжката на дълбоко щастлива среда.
Ключови думи: геноцид, студен интелектуализъм, евгеника, империализъм, анти-семитизъм, тоталитаризъм, колективно мислене – масова безотговорност – простолюдност, нравственост, нужда за вечни ценности.

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Между лично и фикционално: знаци-символи в интертекстуалната и наративната равнина на романа „Весел дом” на Алисън Бекдел

The article explores one of the five global themes in the graphic novel “Fun Home” of Alison Bechdel – the theme of death. It goes through all intertextual relationships connected to it, namely the reference to existentialism, to Camus, to Wallace Stevens, to the myth of Icarus. It also reveals the role of the main narrative events which could be interpreted as signs-symbols shedding light on the death of the main character. All this is achieved through verbal and graphic figures and their interaction is part of the research.
Key words: graphic novel, intertextuality, narrative, sign, existentialism, authenticity, facticity, absurdity, death

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Between personal and fictional: signs-symbols in the intertextual and narrative plain of the graphic novel “Fun Home”, Alison Beckdel

The article explores one of the five global themes in the graphic novel “Fun Home” of Alison Bechdel – the theme of death. It goes through all intertextual relationships connected to it, namely the reference to existentialism, to Camus, to Wallace Stevens, to the myth of Icarus. It also reveals the role of the main narrative events which could be interpreted as signs-symbols shedding light on the death of the main character. All this is achieved through verbal and graphic figures and their interaction is part of the research.
Key words: graphic novel, intertextuality, narrative, sign, existentialism, authenticity, facticity, absurdity, death

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Cultural-Anthropological Interpretation of the Phenomenon "Terrorism"

This article aims to discuss “terrorism” not solely as a political or legal phenomenon, but as a result of the identity crisis caused by the interaction between a person and the other, the state, or the international politics. Furthermore, some problematic interpretations of the term terrorism are analysed. Terrorism is perceived as one of the many demonstrations of aggression, along with the forms of violence used by the state in its domestic and foreign affairs. Finally, we discuss the impact of mass media on the portrayal of terrorism as even more inhuman and horrific.
Keyword: terrorism, violence, identity crisis

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Културно-антропологичен прочит на феномена „тероризъм“

This article aims to discuss “terrorism” not solely as a political or legal phenomenon, but as a result of the identity crisis caused by the interaction between a person and the other, the state, or the international politics. Furthermore, some problematic interpretations of the term terrorism are analysed. Terrorism is perceived as one of the many demonstrations of aggression, along with the forms of violence used by the state in its domestic and foreign affairs. Finally, we discuss the impact of mass media on the portrayal of terrorism as even more inhuman and horrific.
Keyword: terrorism, violence, identity crisis

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Media and civic education – perspectives and current issues

The article reveals the relationship between media, civil society and civic education through the prism of the functions of the media and their current status. It analyzes the role of media literacy as part of civic education in Bulgaria. In this sense, this paper aims to put some theoretical perspectives in understanding the social responsibility of the media in civic education of young people.
Key words: media, media freedom, civic education, civic journalism, citizens` media, communications

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Медии и гражданска образованост – перспективи и актуални проблеми

Статията разкрива взаимовръзките между медиите, гражданското общество и гражданската образованост през призмата на функциите на медиите и актуалното им състояние. Анализира ролята на медийната грамотност като част от програмата по Гражданско образование в България. В този смисъл, статията цели да изведе някои теоретични ракурси в осмислянето на обществената отговорност на медиите за гражданска образованост на младите хора.
Ключови думи: медии, медийна свобода, гражданско образование, гражданска журналистика, граждански медии, комуникации

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A Story of a Bulgarian about the Philosophy Education as a Module of the Cognitive Science in Germany

This article proceeds from the assumption that academic knowledge could be enriched not only by personal investigations but through the view towards and the understanding of the work and achievements of other scholars in a particular field of knowledge. The paper put an accent on the personal experience in the meeting with other modes of investigation. From this point of view the personal experience of a Bulgarian student on the philosophy education as a module of the cognitive science is described and analysed.

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Разказ на един българин за обучението по философия като модул на когнитивната наука в Германия

Настоящата статия изхожда от предпоставката, че академичното знание се обогатява, не само чрез собствени изследвания, но и чрез поглед към и разбиране на работата и постиженията на останалите изследователи в дадена област на познанието. В текста се набляга върху личния опит от първо лице в срещата с друг тип изследователски методи, като този личен опит не се предава чрез стандартните научни статии и студии, но пък неговите прозрения са от изключителна стойност, а херменевтичните му тълкувания са безкрайни. От подобна гледна точка текстът описва и дискутира личния опит на един български студент по преподаването по философия в Германия като модул на когнитивната наука, която впоследствие се подлага на историко-философски анализ.

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The Possibilities of Science and Biotechnologies – Meeting with Future. The Provocation of the Humanistic Tradition

The article focuses upon some ethical and social problems bound up with the development of biotechnologies. The progress of science and biotechnologies conduces to new situations that provoke human values, traditions and fundamental principles. “What way the man is going to choose” is a very important question. We have to table it for discussion before we continue to organize the reality around us in conformity with some already established practices that change us and our world.
Key words: biotechnologies, humanism, transhumanism

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Възможностите на наука и биотехнологии – среща с бъдещето. Провокацията на хуманистичната традиция

В статията поставям етични и социо-политически проблеми, свързани с развитието на биотехнологиите. Възможностите на технологиите и науката много бързо се развиват, и възникват нови и нови ситуации, непознати преди, които провокират човешките ценности, традиции и основополагащи принципи.”Какъв път ще избере човека” е един въпрос, поставянето на който е изключително важно, преди да продължим да се стремим да организираме реалността си в съответствие с вече установени (но не избрани) практики, които променят нас и света ни.
Ключови думи: биотехнологии, хуманизъм, трансхуманизъм

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Translation of Culture and the Culture of Translation

Kalin Koev lives in Santander. He is a poet, photographer and translator from Spanish and Portuguese to Bulgarian and vice verse. His paper analyses two methods of literary translations. The first method tries to carry away one cultural reality into another and here the paraphrase is inevitable. In this respect the article considers St. Jerome’s, St. Cyril’s and Martin Luther’s translations of the Bible which broaden the borders of translation as a cultural phenomenon and gives a beginning of new cultural realities and processes. The second method aims to achieve literal transferring of the original text. The most famous examples illustrating this mode of translation are Nabokov’s translation of Eugene Onegin and Francis William Newman’s translation of the Iliad which are very skeptically accepted by the readers. The paper states the hypothesis that the translation has to adapt one cultural reality into another and sometimes the translation is better than the original.

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Превод на културата и културата на превода

В статията се разгледани двата начина да се превежда едно литературно произведение. Единият търси пренасянето на една културна реалност в друга при който перифразата е неизбежна, вторият търси дословната вярност към оригинала и неговия автор. Анализирани са примери за културното въздействие на преводи на значими произведения, при които са приложени споменатите два начина да се превежда. Във връзка с първия начин са обсъдени преводите на библията, на свети Йероним, на свети Константин Кирил Философ и на Мартин Лутер, всички те разширяват границата на превода като културно явление и дават начало на нови културни реалности и процеси. Дадени са примери и за втория начин да се превежда при които, въпреки големите усиля и литературния авторитет на преводачите Франсис Нюман и Владимир Набоков, резултатът е скептично приет от публиката. Накрая се застъпва идеята, че художественият превод трябва да се стреми да адаптира една културна реалност към друга и че в този процес на адаптиране преводът няма защо да е по-лош от оригинала, а в определени случаи и по-добър от него.

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Poetry by Lyudmila Mindova

Lyudmila Mindova (1974) is a Bulgarian poet, literary scholar and translator. She is an author of many books of poetry and theoretical studies. Her poems are included in anthologies of world poetry.

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Стихове от Людмила Миндова

Людмила Миндова е родена през 1974 г. в Русе. Автор е на поетичните книги „Блус по никое време“ (2009), „Тамбос“ (2014) и „Животът без музика“ (2016), на литературоведските „Гласът на барока. Иван Гундулич и хърватската барокова норма“ (2011) и „Другата Итака. За дома на литературата“ (2016), както и на „Роман за името“ (2017). Нейни стихотворения са превеждани на различни езици и са включвани в няколко антологии на световната поезия. Преводач на художествена литература от бившето югославско пространство, досега в неин превод са публикувани над петнайсет книги на известни съвременни творци, сред които Данило Киш, Дубравка Угрешич, Йосип Ости, Алеш Дебеляк, Томаж Шаламун...

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The Birth of the Tabloid Man.

Gojko Bozovic (1972) is a serbian poet, literary critic and chief editor of the Belgrade publishing house Archipelago. In this text he presents the withdrawal of the “public man” from the public scene and his replacement from the so-called “tabloid man”. The author considers this as a result of the invasion of the intimacy into the public space, and establishing the spectacle as a main form of communication and the entertainment as a supreme value. This is considered as a consequence of the marginalization of the high culture and the role of the middle class in the society.
The presented essay is translated from Serbian to Bulgarian by Sonya Andonova.

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Раждането на таблоидния човек.

Текстът разглежда оттеглянето на публичния човек от обществената сцена и замяната му с т.нар. таблоиден човек. Авторът разглежда тази промяна като резултат от въвеждането на интимното в публичното пространство, установяването на зрелището като основна форма на комуникация и забавлението като върховна ценност, което пък е резултат от маргинализацията на високата култура и ролята на средната класа в обществото.
Представеният текст е в превод на Соня Андонова

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YOGA: THE BASIS OF THE SUKHAVATIVYUHA-MANDALA (part 2)

Abstract

Pictorial representation of Amitayurdhyana-sutra aims at relieving a person from mental tension. It is based on the philosophy and practice of Yoga for attaining liberation from suffering. One can gain the benefits of chanting, listening or beholding its pictorial representation of the sutra like Queen Vaidehi; who listens to the words of the Buddha. By doing that his mind would become clear and focused on the ultimate reality.

Key words: Yoga, Buddhism, mandala, samathi, ultimate reality

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YOGA: THE BASIS OF THE SUKHAVATIVYUHA-MANDALA (part 1)

Abstract

Pictorial representation of Amitayurdhyana-sutra aims at relieving a person from mental tension. It is based on the philosophy and practice of Yoga for attaining liberation from suffering. One can gain the benefits of chanting, listening or beholding its pictorial representation of the sutra like Queen Vaidehi; who listens to the words of the Buddha. By doing that his mind would become clear and focused on the ultimate reality.

Key words: Yoga, Buddhism, mandala, samathi, ultimate reality

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Beyond the Borders of the Nation-State - refugees and their Rights

Abstract: The article analyzes the difficulties faced by modern nation - states trying to deal with the problems of refugees. Undoubtedly the fact of the great numbers of refugees is a factor that complicates the situation, but many of the questions posed by the phenomenon are related to political values, concepts and traditions that are severely provoked. I explore the idea of Agamben of understanding the problem as biopolitical problem and I look at his criticism and that of Arendt and Rancière of the "Declaration of Human Rights". The idea that the phenomenon of "refugee" requires rethinking of basic political concepts is the subject of analyzes in my work.

Key words: refugee, human rights, nation-state, citizen

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The Problem of the "Ontological Dependence" in Quine's Philosophy

Abstract. The aim of the present paper is to compare two basic figures of the analytic philosophy: Quine and late Wittgenstein. What is to be argued here is that these two authors have many theses in common and they realize a turn within the analytic tradition. Among their followers are Sellars, Ostin, Searl, etc.

Keywords: linguistic turn, paradigm, reference, ontolology, conceptual scheme, representationalism, foundationalism

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Religion and tolerance

Abstract: In this article, the question of the religion-tolerance relation is discussed in general terms - in terms of the division of religions as inclusive and exclusive. The main question is whether this opposition, being too conditional and by itself exclusive, is real. The conclusion is that the more inclusive one religion is, the more exclusive it turns to be and vice versa. Exclusiveness is a peculiarity of each religion on its formal and institutional level whereas in the inner mystical level they all are inclusive.

Key words: tolerance, inclusive and exclusive religions

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THE „MIGRANT" OF BULGARIAN „LEFT"AND LEFT-WING MIGRANTS

Abstract: The article interprets conventional public images of the "migrant" in European and Bulgarian context and shows that for xenophobic Bulgarian Left, as well as Bulgarian and European extreme Right and transnational capitalism the existence of left-wing migrants is unwanted.

Key words: migrant, left, Bulgarian, European, capitalism, liberal

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The migratory pressure on the European Union: Causes and Prospects

Abstract: The article analyses the migratory potential of the countries in Africa and the Middle East as a source of migratory pressure on the European Union. The first part focuses on the factors explaining the magnitude and the peculiarities of this migratory potential. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of the age structure, the increasing shortage of employment for the new generations and the lack of resources for the growing population in Africa and the Middle East. In the second part of the article are formulated four perspectives of the migratory pressure on the EU: 1/ The migratory pressure will increase over the next decade; 2/ The differentiation between the refugees and the economic migrants will become more and more difficult; 3/ The migratory pressure will include in itself potential for Islamist terrorism, motivated by the crisis of the life perspectives of the young people in Africa and the Middle East; 4 / Middle East' and African migrants in Europe will support dual and conflict loyalties (to the old and the new homeland), which will cause concern among the "local" European population. Finally the article draws the conclusion that in this complex situation the EU faces a double challenge - to save the refugees and to save himself.

Keywords: Demographic transitions, migration pressure, push and pull factors, youth bulges, Africa and Middle East, European Union, migration policy

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TRENDS OF CRISIS AND DISINTEGRATION OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACY IN THE ERA OF THE DIGITAL CAPITALISM

Summary: The world today is in a large-scale financial and economic, refugee, social, ideological, geopolitical crisis as a result of the failure of neoclassical and neoliberal economic policies established after the 1970s. There is also a crisis of the international system of one global hegemon created after the 1990s. We have on the one side a trend of oligarchization of the democracy as a result of dependencies between political and economic elites, and on the other hand - trends of isolationism, populism, authoritarianism which find a fertile ground in a time of fear of all the crises, the image of the clear enemy and the illusions that there are easy decisions. The liberal democracy became possible as a result of the communication technologies of the Second industrial revolution and the rise of the social state. However now in conditions of sharp contradictions of the neoliberal capitalism and the rise the technologies of the Fourth industrial revolution it is in a state of decline and severe crisis.

Key words: Digital technologies, Industrial revolution, digital capitalism, digital sovereignty, mixed reality, rational choice

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PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY AND CATCH-UP DEVELOPMENT

Abstract: Starting point of the article is the Hegel's idea for historical and non-historical nations. The first nations are most developed and pave the way in history being models for development of the second ones which should take the same road. That means that there is a common universal history and undeveloped nations should do the same as the developed have done. However the periods of crises give rise ideas that there are many roads in the history. Such trend could be observed now in a time of growing geopolitical multipolarity and signs of deglobalization.

Key terms: historical nations, non-historical nations, philosophy of history, catch-up development, universal models, theories of modernization, developmental state, postmodernity

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Has the inference its own system? A new look at Kant's transcendental dialectic

Abstract: This article is dedicated to Kant's exceptional achievement in transcendental logic of Critique of pure reason - the inference as a pure and common logical form, not just the syllogism, is founded and deduced in its own logical formations. This result is accomplished on the basis of two main transformations. The first one is the incorporating the construction of unconditioned and its concepts in the structure of inference which allows Kant to solve the problem for the general logical function of the inference. The second connects the logical inference functions with the system of judgment and in such direction establishes these functions as extension and completion of the basic logical possibilities of the judgment. With that Kant also offers the stunning idea for the whole theoretical and structural integrity of logical thought-forms.

Kew words: Kant, transcendental dialectic, concepts of the unconditioned in the inference structure, the system of inference

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Italian haiku poets

Abstract: The paper examines the history of Italian haiku. It is emphasizes that we live in the era of media, where the uppermost value is communication, and poetry is bound to lose ground and relevance. However the interest in haiku has been increasing recently. Some organizations and projects related to haiku are discussed. A gallery of portraits of Italian haiku poets is presented, including biographies and samples of haiku poems.

Key words: Italian poetry, Italian haiku, Haiku organizations.

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Love, Perfection, Beauty, Truth and Self-realization in the Initiatic Path of Samael Aun Weor

Resume: The paper is an exposition of the main ideas of the book The Perfect Matrimony by Samael Aun Weor. According to him life by itself is an amazing experience that is based on unitotal understanding. Within the delicious feeling of sex, man finds his own path to creative comprehension. Sex is the vital function of the Cosmos. Thanks to it, everything lives and breathes. Man and woman gathered together in the solemn copula become divine creatures of indescribable nature. To live is to have universal consciousness. The grand fusion of religion is revealed within the incarnation of Word, which, Weor said, is one hundred percent sexual. Cosmic Christ and Sexual Magic form the basics of all teachings within the whole corners of the entire universe.

Key words: sacred sexuality, sexual regeneration, direct experience of reality, synthesis doctrine, supraconsciousness, sanctity, universal religion

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Su Nu Jing and the Tianxia Supreme Path

Abstract: The paper presents the philosophical implication of the ancient treatises on Daoist sexual practices. The meaning of the concepts of yin and yang as well as of the three kinds of energy are explained in both the theoretical and practical sence. These explanations should serve as an introduction to the translation of Su Nu Jing, one of the most popular scriptures on this topic.

Key words: Daoist sexual practices, yin and yang, qi

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The Weber's spirit of capitalism - a precursor to the risky society. About the creditworthy person - the "hero" of early and late modernity

Abstract: The creditworthy person is the real "hero" of our time, but he isn't a discovery of modernity. In 1905 the father of sociology Max Weber "discovered" the creditworthy individual to be the bearer of the capitalism spirit. "The spirit of capitalism is the creditworthy person," Weber writes in his main work "The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism" and admits that the true measures and characteristics of the spirit of capitalism were set in the 18th century by one of the founding fathers of USA, Benjamin Franklin. Under the conditions of late modernity the creditworthy person again has a fundamental role in our society considered as a risky society in accordance with the definition, given by Urlich Beck in "The Risky Society - On the Way to Another Modernity".

Key words: Max Weber, spirit of capitalism, risky society

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Comparison between the ideas about the Ultimate Reality in the Teachings of Daoism and Buddhism

Abstract: The aim of this article is to make a short comparison between the main concepts in the two most popular Eastern philosophies after giving a short description of both. The core conclusion of the work is that the Western perception is finding it extremely difficult to think "outside of the box" and therefore hard to understand the Eastern intentions.

Keywords: East, West, Daoism, Buddhism, Ultimate reality, concept, reason, language, expressing, metaphysic, nature

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Concepts of Chaos in Old Greek and Old Chinese Thinking

Annotation: In this paper, the basic points of the concepts of Chaos as developed in Old Greece and Old China are compared. The main idea is that in Greek thought Chaos is a term for the cosmological beginning, prior to the order of Cosmos, while in the Chinese thought Chaos is a synonym to the unnamed and undifferentiated Ultimate reality. Therefore, while the Greek concept of Chaos represents the shift from mythological to rational thinking, the Chinese one is connected with ancient mystical practices for achieving this Ultimate reality that could not be grasped within the means of logic.

Key words: Chinese philosophy, comparative philosophy, Chaos

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Ideas about the Attitude to the Other - VI-XVI centuries

Abstract: The article makes an attempt to analyze the IDEA of the OTHER within the frames of Proto-globalization. The question of how to live in the conditions of uncertainty created by the presence of the Other has become extremely acute in the XVIth century when Europe has faced the unknown "Other" in America, India, China, Africa. This question is also a current, topical issue, because globalization requires an even greater intensity and permanence to continuously live in the company of the Other.

Key words: Oter, Otehrness, proto-globalization

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he Influence of Herman Lotze on Gottlob Frege

Annotation

The paper reveals in broader lines the influence which Herman Lotze had on young Frege. Several ideas propounded by Lotze and later defended and developed by Frege are into focus: namely, the anti-psychologism, or objectivism, in logic; the context principle; and the broader view of logicism which Lotze maintained in a somewhat weaker version.

Key words: Lotze, Frege, objective content of ideas, logicism

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Medias in Totalitarian Society

This article explores one of the most powerful methods, used by totalitarian regimes to control the population. This often involves large-scale of lies, manipulation of the opinion, censorship and various techniques of propaganda. The current text also refers to the modern media tools such as the internet to show ways to counteract manipulation and the fabrication of opinions. As the third level of these reflections is the question of the opposition nature-nurture, nature-law and nevertheless - the difference between human interests and human rights.

Key words: Communication, manipulation of the opinion, social media, propaganda, mindcontrol, censorship, nature, nurture, law, human rights, interests.

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Language, thinking, education

Abstract: The text consists of 27 fragments written between 2014 and 2017. These are reflections devoted to the principles of humanities and humanitarian education and the necessary conditions for the development of the scholar. To the end, the focus is particularly on the study of Antiquity and classical education.

The fragments are grouped thematically in seven sections, with the following headings: "Language", "The Gift and Its Enhancement", "The University and Humanities", "The Method", "Free Thought", "Intellectuality and Virtue", "Antiquity and Education".

Key words: humanities, language, education, Antiquity

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History of Haiku Poetry in Italy

Abstract: The paper examines the history of Italian haiku. It is emphasizes that we live in the era of media, where the uppermost value is communication, and poetry is bound to lose ground and relevance. However the interest in haiku has been increasing recently. Some organizations and projects related to haiku are discussed. A gallery of portraits of Italian haiku poets is presented, including biographies and samples of haiku poems.

Key words: Italian poetry, Italian haiku, Haiku organizations.

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Rain Drops in a Glass of Wine

Abstract: The article is a compendium of the development of modern Haiku. The Shomon School and the Nippon-ha (Japanese School) have been briefly analysed. The paper surveys two lines in the development of haiku after World War II: the Kyoshi-Line, in which the beauty of Nature is described and the Hekigoto-Line, which has added to perception also knowledge. In conclusion it is formulated that a universal nexus between traditional and modern Haiku is the aesthetic category “yugen” – the pure life beyond comprehension, the elegant and timeless beauty, the “ingeniously created ambiguity”.

Key words: history of haiku, traditional haiku (dento), modern haiku (gendai), perception, knowledge

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ISSA AND PROSTITUTES: HAIKU PORTRAITS OF EARLY MODERN JAPAN

Abstract: Japanese haiku master Kobayashi Issa (1763-1828) considered beggars, peasants, orphans, and even ethnic minority outcastes, the Ainu, to be worthy subjects in his one-breath sketches: not looked down upon but rather appreciated as human beings. As a male poet acculturated in the male-dominant Japan of his era, did Issa’s penetrating sympathy for fellow creatures extend also to the economically, socially, and—in some cases—physically enslaved women of his time? An examination of his haiku about prostitutes—from the highest class courtesans of the Yoshiwara down to the lowest grade of streetwalker—reveals that, while there are exceptions, for the most part his haiku portraits of prostitutes coax readers toward deeper understanding and compassion.

Key words: poetry, haiku, Kobayashi Issa, haiku portraits of prostitutes.

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Waterfalls and Fountains in Haiku and in Western Poetry

Abstract: This article tries to answer two questions: first, why are civilization and its main symbol “the city” opposed to Nature in the West, while they are not confronted in the East; and second, in what way does this divergence between the Eastern and the Western cultures develop corresponding to different levels of Western poetry and haiku. The investigation proves that the primary contradiction – anthropocentrism versus cosmocentrism – reveals itself at different levels and raises other contradictions, such as: linguistic code versus pictorial code; metaphor understood in a narrow literary sense versus kigo; personification versus animism.

Key words: poetry, haiku, nature, city, Western culture, Eastern culture.

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Gademer’s Hermeneutics and the Christian Dogma of the Trinity and Incarnation

Abstract: The paper studies some key concepts of Gadamer’s hermeneutics which have a religious origin. It tries to show that the postmetaphisical thinking – before its reflections on religion – is determined by the religious tradition in which its main representatives grew up. In the case of Gadamer this tradition is protestant Christianity. In postmetaphisical perspective the thinking couldn’t be detached from the tradition and the language wherein it was formed and accomplished.
Keywords: hermeneutics, interpretation, postmetaphisical thinking, protestant Christianity

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Philosophy as a Double, Triple and N-Number Mimesis +- 2500-years Mimesis

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present philosophy as an imitation of reality and to consider it as a "mimesis" of the existing. This way of thinking oviesly opposes to the opinion that philosophy is pure science and, as an alternative, it treats it as a unity of science and art - science as far as it explores things and art so much that it interprets them subjectively. As a result of that the article ends with another definition of man. Man as a subjectively-interpreting reality being, man as the constant imitator – of the nature, of the world itselfs, of God, of the language, of the other imitators.
Keywords: imitation, mimesis, philosophy and science, existing, being

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On Liars and Lies

Abstract: Some notable views on lies, deceptions and related paradoxes are briefly considered. Lying is seen to be a combination of intention and untruth, embodied in liars and lies.
Keywords: truth, paradox, semiotics

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Globalism and Nationalism – Face to Face

Abstract: This essay tries to analyse briefly globalism, nationalism and multicultural model. It considers the relation between the national idea and globalization. The paper put an accent on the changes that globalization causes to our social reality and to human lives.
Keywords: globalism, nationalism, multicultural model

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Ontology of the Old Age

Abstract: In this article, the main problem raised is the subjective and ontological experience of aging, the problem between mind and body, and the way in which everything (whether living or not) "becomes" because of aging. I try to put a clear boundary between the way in which aging, as the stage of reaching old age, appears on the one hand in the non-living, on the other, in the living things. The ontological statement is that aging reveals itself as one of the basic reason of beingness at all and that we can understand it only through awareness of our own attitude towards it.
Keywords: aging, beingness, old age

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Humanistic Aspects of Christian Modernism of Nikolai Berdyaev

Abstract: The paper reflects on some of the most significant aspects of the Berdyaev’s Christian modernism. It analyses his concept of human creativity, his unorthodox interpretation of Trinitarian doctrine and his categorical negation of Christian dogma of hell. The article claims that Berdyaev’s unorthodox ideas aim to unite Christianity and modern philosophy in a humanistic attempt to confirm the human dignity and freedom.
Keywords: humanism, human freedom, Trinitarian dogma, creativity

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Philosophical Education as a Prerequisite for Understanding and Defining Worldviews

Abstract: The paper considers the predominant significance of the approaches of philosophical education. It put an accent on the work with philosophical texts. In this regard the article develops the hypothesis that this work brings to one of the main educative competence which is the ability of interpretation of phlosophical texts.
Keywords: sense, imagination, interpretation, understanding, erudition

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Religion, ethics and scientific knowledge in the post-secular society: A case study of the stem cell controversy. Part 1.

Abstract: This paper compares and contrasts conflicting religious perspectives on the moral status of the human embryos and their use in stem cell research derived from major monotheistic religions such as Catholicism, Judaism and Islam. I examine the validity of such religious arguments in debates on stem cell research and science policy more broadly through a critical analysis of Jurgen Habermas’s theory of the post-secular society, particularly the claim that the clash between science and religion in contemporary liberal democracies could be offset by adopting a new concept of ethical citizenship. This normative perspective mandates epistemic flexibility by both religious and secular citizens who ought to willfully engage in complimentary learning processes in order to transcend the inherent limitations of both non-reflexive religious beliefs and narrow secularist worldviews. My analysis of the role of religion in the stem cell controversy suggests that the value positions of participants in public deliberations are deeply entrenched and ideological differences often translate into conflicting epistemic claims about science. I argue that a meaningful dialogue between science and religious traditions on the issue is largely dependent on how compatible are scientifically derived assessments of embryonic status with the respective religion’s fundamental theological tenets about the beginning of personhood. It is also contingent on the degree of openness of each religious tradition to both rival traditions and scientific knowledge. Additionally, I illustrate how the stem cell controversy is not reducible to the conflict between religion and scientific knowledge on the value of human embryonic life, around which stem cell debates worldwide have often been framed, by undertaking a close examination of three bioethical issues central to the debate: (1) secular perspectives on the contested moral status of the human embryo; (2) the ethics of human cloning technology; and (3) concerns about the exploitation of women as major tissue donors in the global stem cell bioeconomy.
Keywords: Stem cell research, religious perspectives on the moral status of the human embryo, bioethics, science policy, post-secularism

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Women's status in Chinese society

Summary:The aim of the article is to present an overview of the changes in women's status in Chinese society throughout the years. The method implemented is historico-analytic with emphasis on the reasons for undertaking necessary changes concerning the place of women in economic and social life. Special attention is paid to the changes in marital relations, especially under the reign of the Chinese Communist Party, and the liberty gained by Chinese women which contributed to their heightened position in society and stronger self-esteem.

Keywords: Chinese women, women's status, women's submission, marital relations in China

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Two Nuances of (Not) Justice: Social-Economic and Cultural

Abstract: The study proposes an analysis of two different views on justice in the social space. One shows the importance and place of identity as well as its relation to "recognition policy", and the other is related to socio-economic space and the concept of justice as impartiality in the distribution of basic goods.

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The End of Art - Chronicle of a Death Foretold Many Times

Abstract: The article follows the tendency to very critical and sometimes illegitimate attitude towards art, reaching its natural ending in Benjamin's „The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". The paper compares his view with the positions of some of his contemporaries, who also work on the problems of art. The aim is to demonstrate the ambiguity of Benamin's conclusions and to show that the lethal diagnosis is overstated and the final decision is inappropriate because, as it is known, " Ars longa, vita brevis."

Kеy words: Benjamin, art, original, reproduction, Ortega y Gasset, mass.

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Art as a Complement to Religion and Realm of the Spiritual

Abstract: Modernity and Postmodernity have witnessed secularization of the Western world and ultimate rationalization of thought. However, the rationalistic approach towards epistemological and ethical questions that characterizes Modernity has proven insufficient. Modern artists and philosophers directly or indirectly oppose the one-sided rationalistic view of the world and claim that the main subject and purpose of art is revelation of spiritual essences, connection with metaphysical reality. Eternal truths, Rothko claims, are the subject matter of all good art. This texts considers the modern tendency to associate art with spirituality in terms of themes, purpose and the role of the artist. I refer to contemporary philosophers and artists to elucidate the complex relationship between religion, art and spirituality today. I also explore the view that art is a kind of spiritual practice that can be compared to religious commitments. At the same time, art does not fully substitute religion. A crucial distinction is that art is inclusive, allowing agnostics and atheists to have spiritual experiences, while religion is exclusive. This however doesn't mean that art has priority in facilitating one's spiritual growth. Along with that, the paper aims at elucidating the role of art in individual and social life.

Keywords: modernity, artists, art, religion, secularization

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The Superhuman and his Cry / or How Kazantzakis Read Nietzsche /

Abstract: In this article, I'm trying to draw a line of continuity between the metaphysics of Friedrich Nietzsche and his Greek disciple - the famous author Nikos Kazantzakis. The main quest is centred in the character of Alexis Zorbas and the philosophical novel "Askitiki", which in my opinion brings this metaphysical core to its limits.

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Stefan Popov: The Philosophy of the Country

Abstract. The following text presents the personality and philosophy of Stepan Popov, Bulgarian emigre (1906-1989). The first comment is on his Bulgarian period when he was one of the leaders of the rightist socio-political movement "The Third Generation". More attention is paid on his philosophy of history expressed mainly in his book „Der Wille zur Gestalt", 1970. The article analyzes some of the basic philosophical-historical concepts such as nation, national character, people, state, etc. The stress is put on the author's concept of the Bulgarian idea as the essence of his philosophy of native land.

Keywords: Stephan Popov, philosophy of history, philosophy of native land, the Third Generation, the Bulgarian idea

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ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY AND AUSTRIAN SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS

Abstract: This article discusses the influence of Aristotelian philosophy both on the Austrian School of Economics and on the German Historical School, as well the battle between these two German-language schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It examines the formation and development of methodological views of Carl Menger, the founder of Austrian School, in clash with this competitive group and under the influence of Austrian philosopher Franz Brentano, who continues the dissemination of Aristotle's ideas in late nineteenth century catholic Austria. Then it briefly explores the demand of Eugen Bоhm-Bawerk, the second great name of the Austrian School, on conceptual purity. Finally, it presents the argument of Ludwig von Mises, the most prominent twentieth-century Austrian economist, whit philosophers of the Vienna Circle, and his clearly Aristotelian understanding of human action and praxeology.

Key words: Aristotle, Austrian School of Economics, German Historical School, Karl Menger, Franz Brentano, Eugen Boem-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, Vienna Circle

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Wittgenstein's Tractatus as a Constructivist Work

Summary:The paper seeks to investigate some of the sources which contributed to the specifically constructivist character of the earlier philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as we find it developed in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Three main sources are briefly overviewed: Russell's constructivist analysis and logical atomism, Hertz's 'Mechanics' and the in-born engineering talents of young Wittgenstein. A general view underlies the whole paper, namely that the atomistic picture of the world displayed by Wittgenstein at the beginning of the Tractatus was most congenial and consistent with the 'constructivist' view of language and propositions.

Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Hertz, objects, Hertz's 'Mechanics'

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Cantor's Continuum Hypothesis and its Transfinite Grounding (Part 1)

Abstract: The present paper will expose Cantor's Theory of transfinite numbers, and more specific his Continuum Hypothesis, on transfinite grounding - upon the constructing of the linear continuum c as "the pure continuous number-domain", with the words of Dedekind. For this purpose, we will unfold Cantor's grounding that cardinality of the continuum c is equal to the cardinality of the sets of natural numbers - N and the rational numbers - Q as basic dimensions in n-dimensionality of the continuum. This is a construction, which poses the known number sets as basic and initial dimensions of the continuum c. These sets are also taken in their inclusion to one another as proper subsets to each other and to the set of real numbers - R. From here, we can deduce the Continuum Hypothesis formula with producing the next Aleph-numbers and to propose a new version of generalized Continuum Hypothesis. Also this will provide the solution and interpretation of Aleph-0 as a number - with its own number value upon the continuum c and as a number of the complex processes and entities in reality.

Going even more further, we can postulate the intensity of an infinite set: as its own ability to be raised to power, or covered, with transfinite cardinal number, in particular to the least transfinite number Aleph-0. So, namely on the intensity of the infinite sets, continuity can be defined and connected with the dimensionality of the continuum. And from here we can formulate the Aleph-enumerability and omega-enumerability of infinite sets as the suggestion of grounding the enumerability of the infinite sets.

All this leads also to the construction of transfinite numbers orders, in this construction we can develop them as higher and higher number classes with increasing cardinalities. These transfinite numbers orders can provide the density of "the whole absolutely infinite aggregate of numbers", with Cantor's formulation. With all this, the new transfinite numbers, introduced by Cantor, are demonstrated as powerful instrument for describing and investigating the reality to the very boundaries of its physical and conceptual comprehension.

Key words: Continuum Hypothesis, Cantor, transfinite numbers, Aleph-0, Theory of numbers, logic of infinity.

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The introduction of the "I" body into the philosophic discourse of L. Feuerbach

This article is devoted to the radical turn accomplished by L. Feuerbach into German classical philosophy. The philosopher breaks with the principles of idealism by introduction of new anthropological approach. Putting emphasis on human body and emphasizing the dialogical nature of consciousness allows him to express a number of ideas that begin to develop in different disciplines - philosophy, personal, social psychology, etc. - in the twentieth century. Feuerbach points out the inhomogeneous character of the human "Self," which is always sexually defined. It depends both on the connection with the particular, sensible Other, as well as on the emotions and needs that the person experiences. Human "Self" is inhomogeneous also because it changes over time. The dialogical nature of consciousness allows Feuerbach to offer a new understanding of conscience. There is nothing supernatural in the latter, because its voice always represents the protest of the injured or offended Other.

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Nietzsche's health geography and the body theme

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explain Nietzsche's reflections on the human body and to relate these reflections to the other key themes in his philosophy.

Keywords: Nietzsche, body, geobiography

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Soul and body in a love quartet

Abstract: The paper analyzes some anthropological aspects of love and love-related relationships in the famous novel The Idiot, by Fyodor Dostoevsky. The love in the love quartet, experienced by Prince Lef Nicolaievitch Muishkin, Nastasia Philipovna, Parfen Rogojin and Aglaya Epanchina is stamped by passions and paroxysms: sufferance, compassion, adoration, pride, joy, self-umiliation, self-destruction, happiness. Here the love is split between body and soul, sufferance and happiness, subjection and freedom, life and death. The body-soul relation and split is especially emphasized. The soul sufferance is analyzed as influencing the body sufferance and the self-destruction. The passionate love is seen as an expression of vitality, of deep and magic relation between man and women, oscillating between freedom and subjugation, joy and sadness. Those aspects of human essence, interpreted in the novel, are put in anthropological perspective.

Keywords: love, love quartet, passions, body, soul, sufferance, compassion, happiness, freedom.

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The senses and war, a touch on the touch

Abstract: The article examines the human sensorium as historically and culturally bound. Special attention is paid to the functioning of the basic senses of the soldiers in the trenches of the First World War. An emphasis is placed on the touch. Two factors are analyzed that cause the high activity of this sense in the front-life conditions - the new body experience and the acute thirst for consolation and human proximity.

Key words: history of the senses, smell, touch, sight, hearing, taste, the senses in the war

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The limits of my anima means the limits of my world

Abstract: In the twentieth century, body research stopped being extremely biological-medical alone. The employment and representations of the body became a subject of new approaches, originally from anthropology and history. These approaches have taken in the body as a social and civilization product, a bearer and generator of meanings and therefore not of a general and neutral nature. The contemporary French historians were inspired by the work of Nobert El., The Civilizing Process, pointing out to the gradual self-discipline of the body by imposing the rules of good behaviour as well as by the work of M. Foucault who demonstrated the body's interference with power and domination, exploring the techniques of control and oversight in modern Western societies. Within these limits, the sick body, the body that hurts, the gestures, all the care and sprucing up, the pleasure and delight, sexuality, the body that is disciplined and obeys rules, the body that is being exercised, became various views of the history of the body that have given rise to scientific research. The History of the Body is a history of the material spontaneity and civilization diversity. A primary element of identity, the embodiment of the ego, the deceptive immediacy and "naturalness", our body is the ground of history, its blood and flesh. In other words, the body is our prison, but at the same time the body is our world. The body is us.In the work here presented, the author observes the history of the body - how the body has created the world we are living in.

Keywords: body, anima, lie, language, civilization

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The Reproductive Body and the Recaptured Womanhood in the Period of the Late Socialism in Bulgaria

Abstract: The article analyses the pro natal policies of late socialism in Bulgaria. It compares the early communist practices and ideology focused on the ideal figure of woman shock worker with those of the late communist regime oriented towards the favoring of maternity. This accent on the role of woman as a mother changes the emancipatory politics of the regime and ultimately leads to recapturing of femininity of socialist women.

Keywords: reproduction, womanhood, bio politics, pro natal policies

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Russell's theory of types as a solution to the semantic and theoretic-multiple paradoxes

Russell’s Theory of Types as Solution to the Semantical and Theory of Sets Paradoxes

Abstract:

The paper represents Russell’s Type theory as a way to solve semantic and set theoretic paradoxes. A remarkable feature of this theory is that it is proposed as a resolution of both of these groups of paradoxes – the other popular proposals are directed only to one of these groups: either to the semanticparadoxes or to the paradoxes of set theoretic. It is contended that for this to be possible a price has to be paid which is both ontological (the acceptance of the existence of the abstract entities of propositional functions and propositions) and methodological (setting this ontology as a basis of logic).

Keywords: Russell, Type theory, semantic paradoxes, paradoxes in set theory

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Logical fictions and Constructions: Russell and the Relational Perception of the Objective Time

Logical Fictions and Constructions: Russell and the Relational View of Objective Time

Abstract:
The paper present the chronology of Russell's attempts to develop a method for treating the moments of time as logical constructions, derived from the temporal relations of precedence and simultaneity between sets of events. It is organized as follows: (§1) introduces the key terminological distinctions between objective and subjective time, correspondingly between absolute and relational theories of time, (§2) discusses the relation between these two pairs of terms, along with the merits of the opposed conceptions of time; (§3) presents the various reasons, motivating Russell's suspicions that these are in fact the absolute and the relational conception of time are alternative, and that it is possible to formulate a consistent and internally coherent relational theory of time which differs essentially from the absolute conception, (§4) juxtaposes the different approaches to the formal deduction of the properties of the temporal series, which Russell has developed in the period 1913-1948 and concludes with some brief remarks on the inter-relations between logic, ontology and epistemology, as Russell has conceived them in his works.
Keywords: Bertrand Russell, time order, relational theory of time

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BURTRAND ROSSEL AND LOGICAL CONSTRUCTION THE PHYSICAL SITES (1911-1914)

Bertrand Russell and the Logical Construction of Physical Objects (1911 - 1914)

Abstract:
The paper discusses Russell’s method of ‘logical construction’ of physical objects (matter) tracing its origin to the years 1911 – 1914. The influence upon Russell on the part of Whitehead and his invention of a method to represent points and moments and Wittgenstein’s skepticism is revealed. The influence of the British classical empiricists upon Russell’s thought is also discussed in both contexts: (1) of the view of the inferred physical objects from sense data, and (2) of a ‘threat’ to the way common sense and physical science conceives matter and material objects.
Key words: Russell, Whitehead, sense data, acquaintance, logical construction,

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The notion of "logical space" in Wittgenstein's Logic-philosophical treatise

The Concept of ‘Logical Space’ in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Abstract:
The current paper presents an attempt at clarifying the meaning of the words ‘logical space’ in the Tractatus 1.13 ‘The facts in logical space are the world’. This is achieved though exploring the concepts of ‘state of affairs’, ‘possible state of affairs’, ‘existing state of affairs’, ‘the existence and non-existence of states of affairs’, ‘fact’, ‘positive fact’, ‘negative fact’.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Tractatus, logical space, state of affairs, possible world, truth-maker, reality.

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The Relationship Between Reference and Existence within Russell's Theory of Labeling

The Relation Between Reference and Existence in Russell’s Theory of Denoting
Abstract:
In this article, we will look at Russell's theory of descriptions and Strawson‘s critics on it. The main accent is on utterances that include certain definite descriptions that do not referrer to anything. The analysis requires us to focus our attention to the distinction between denotation and meaning because it is a key part of Russell’s and Strawson's arguments. We will put this problem in the context of other authors who share opinions on the matter: Geach, Austin, Donnellan, and Searle. The purpose of this text is to show that Russell has made an error analyzing these statements in saying that the use of definite descriptions implies existence.
Key words: Russell, reference, existence, denotation, Strawson,

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"Platonic Realism" and the philosophical logic project

Platonic Realism and the Project of Philosophical Logic
Abstract:
The article is based on the main problems that the Russel's onthology (platonic realism) generates. The extreme realism that the philosopher allows is a fundament of his philosophical logic. From another point of view, persisting on this kind of realism leads to unsolvable problems on the field of philosophical logic.
Key words: Russell, philosophical logic, Platonic realism, logical form, Wittgenstein

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Mathematics of Quality, Preference Logic and the Rationality of Desire

Abstract:
This essay introduces and strives to show the untenability of the (somewhat unjustly named) “dogma of Aristotelianism”. (§1) lists the principal tenets of the Aristotelian dogma and examines to what extent they are attributable to Aristotle, (§2) analyzes the first part of the dogma – the claim that mathematics is the study if quantity and hence is irrelevant to the study of qualitative structures, (§3) reviews briefly the concept of semiorder and discusses the possibility to interpret it as the foundation of the mathematical treatment of qualities, (§4) traces the genetic links between the algebraic theory of semiorders and the formal elaboration of the so-called preference logic, while (§5) develops on this basis a somewhat controversial claim, relating to the last part of the Aristotelian dogma – (ir)rationality of desire.
Keywords: philosophy of mathematics, semiorders, logic of preference, rationality.

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Post-Feminism in the Web 2.0 era

Postfeminism in the Age of Web 2.0
Abstract:
The text focuses on the public manifestations of female gender identity in the context of social network Facebook. The new myth of femininity in social networks includes mixture of new stereotypes about housework, “new age” practices, healthy life, technology and aesthetics of everyday life. The paper investigates the new meaning of gender roles and their levels of use in the public sphere.
Key words: media, social media, gender, postfeminism, popular culture

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Gnostic Discourses on the Modern Concept of Man

Gnoseological Discourse on the Modern Notion of Man

Abstract:
The paper is developing the thesis that the contemporary philosophical situation can be characterized by an enhanced interest in anthropological issues. The text therefore proceeds to place under analysis various gnoseological discourses on man. The views of Paul Ricoeur and Evandro Aggazzi on man as subject of philosophy are considered in detail.
Key wods: anthropology, Riceour, Aggazzi, concepts on man

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DAODAZZIN: VARIATIONS AND VARIABILITY

INTERPRETATIONS OF DAODEJING

Abstract:
The paper aims to reveal the reasons for different perceptions of one of the fundamental texts of Daoism, Daodejing. It points out that fluidity and relativity are essential characteristics of the Chinese vision of reality and that this vision requires a corresponding language. Daodejing is a text, which simultaneously presents both the theoretical background of this vision and its practical application in language. Therefore its linear interpretation is not only impossible, it is incorrect.
Key words: Chinese philosophy, Daoism, dao, comparative thinking

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Philosophical Apotheosis of Truthlessness

Philosophical Аpotheosis of Groundlessness

Abstract:
This philosophical work presents an aphoristic approach towards the sublime amplitude of philosopher’s task in life. The author gives his own view of the various labors needed to be undertaken for the sake of the philosophical goal.
Key words: apotheosis, groundlessness, philosophy.

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Confucianism - a tradition of changing China

Confucianism – Tradition in the Change of China
Abstract:
The paper discusses the role of Confucianism in today’s development of China. The influence of the teaching of ‘Master Kun’ is sought both on the level of the individual and the society as a whole. Emphasis is put on the changes which China is undergoing and the perspectives for the near future.
Key words: Confucius, China, the East, rituals

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Didero's paradoxical aesthetics. Is there any kind of objective "essence" of art? Realism in the Enlightenment

The Paradoxical Aesthetics of Denis Diderot: Is There Any Objective ‘Essence’ of Art? Realism in Enlightenment
Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to go deeper into Diderot's studies of the origin of beauty. The very word "aesthetics" – derived from the Greek word “αίσθησης” and means sensation, perception or sense experience — concerns itself with the study of art and beauty. As a philosopher Diderot seeks to understand the principles that underlie our value judgments: What is beauty? Is it objective in any way? How is aesthetic pleasure related to perception? What is an artist? What is called talent or genius? What makes something be art? And isn’t it beauty just a perception of relations? Nevertheless this article has as its purpose to reveal part of the French aesthetics of the eighteenth century. Therefore, it passes through a number of philosophers who are deal themselves with the nature of beauty аs Plato, Augustine, Christian Wolf, Jean-Pierre Cruze, Fr. Hutchison.
Key words: history of philosophy, history of arts, realism, Diderot, аesthetic beauty, essence of the genius.

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STATE SOVEREIGNMENT IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA

National Sovereignty in the Era of Globalization

Abstract:
The report studies the transformation and the collapse of national sovereignty in the era of globalization. An essential attention is paid to the current foreign policy that the national states take and the position the political elite takes. Mentioned are the most significant problems that are caused by the lack of autonomous foreign policy.
The proposals made by the main theoretical perspectives on globalization are reviewed.
Keywords: Globalization, national sovereignty, foreign policy, elite, national states, society.

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DIGITAL CHALLENGES BEFORE THE POLITICAL ELITE IN THE US DURING THE CANDIDATE-PRESIDENT CAMPAIGN 2016 YEAR

DIGITAL CHALLENGES OF THE POLITICAL ELITE IN USA DURING THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN IN 2016

Abstract:
The article examines the presence of Presidential Candidates on the Internet space during the US 2016 Presidential Campaign. The Internet is becoming an important tool for communication between ordinary people and between politicians. It is increasingly used as a field for political races and ''struggles''. Attention is given to different challenges faced by politicians and their teams as a result of using the opportunities of the digital technologies. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are being used not only to present candidates, their vision of developing the US society over the next 5 years, but are also being used to criticize, attack and even insult towards their political opponent. In this context, it is important for politicians to have the necessary digital competence and relevant online behavior.
Key words: political elite, presidential campaign, presidential candidate, Internet, social network, Facebook, Twitter, cyber-attack.

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THE POLITICAL PROJECT OF GOTFRID LYNNIC

Abstract: The article tries to present almost unexplored in the Bulgarian philosophical and political science literature views of one of the most prominent representatives of the early Enlightenment - German philosopher, scientist, encyclopedist, politician and diplomat Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

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The Universal Language: Descartes's Skepticism and Leibniz's Optimism

Abstract: The paper is a commentary to the translation of the famous letter of 20th November 1629 written by Descartes to Father Mersenne on the possibility, or rather impossibility, for universal language to be constructed. Descartes states his sceptic position that without the 'true philosophy' which should provide the primitive ideas out of which all thoughts can be constructed, and without firm knowledge of the order in which our thoughts go through the mind he has no hope to ever see such language in use. Leibniz, on the contrary, optimistically invents his theory of 'blind thought' (cognitatio caeca) believing that it removes the difficulties raised by Descartes. Lastly, the paper surveys in brief the influence of Leibniz's Characteristica universalis on Frege and the production of his first masterpiece Concept-script (Begriffsschrift), 1879.

Key words: Characteristica universalis, blind thought, Descartes, Leibniz, Hobbes

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Paradoxes of Realism in the Analytical Ontology of Art

Abstract: This article addresses some of the core problems related of realism about art objects. The discussion is limited to the two most general forms of fictional realism: the physical objects hypothesis, and the platonic abstractionism. I contend that while being objects (and not universals), artworks are neither just physical nor they are abstract. In the first part of the article, I outline the most prominent arguments against the physical objects hypothesis without ruling the hypothesis completely out. In the second part of the article, I discuss the two basic paradoxes related to abstractionism about art objects: the paradox of creation and the paradox of standards. The article aims at preparing the ground for a nominalist mixed theory of art objects with both physical and mental components in which the precise kind of ontological dependence of artworks upon concrete objects and events will have the final word.

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The Space in Haiku

Abstract: The paper seeks to answer the question what is the space in or of haiku especially in terms of the city as a topos. The answer of this question leads to many pairs of oppositions: internal-external, conscious-unconscious, natural-artificial, sacred-profane, etc. The paper however outlines that haiku is connected to a philosophy of non-duality that is going beyond opposition. Therefore its space is unfolding on the fine gap between oppositions, in the place where the natural and the artificial, the internal and the external are smoothly transforming into each other. On the basis of different examples the paper reveals how the different plans of the inner and outer, human, urban and nature spaces communicate with each other forming the sounding, deep echoing spaces of haiku and of the eternal depths of our being.

Key words: haiku, space, non-duality

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EVENING OF THE POINT

Antoaneta Nikolova was born in 1961 in Sofia. She graduated in philosophy at the Sofia University "Kliment Ohridski" and is a lecturer in Eastern philosophy at SWU "Neofit Rilski". He is the author of six poetry books as well as the philosophical and poetic study "The Language of the Void" (Mediterranean Aquarium, 2003). Co-writer with Sofia Katarova on Anthology with Old Chinese Landscape Lyrics "Poetry of the Mountains and Waters" (Stigmata, 2003), poems by the Buddhist poet and monk Hanshan "Verses of the Cold Mountain" ("East-West", 2013), as well as selected poems by one of the most famous Chinese poets Li Bai, "The Odeon of Heaven" (East-West, 2014). Her poems are published in anthologies and magazines in German, English, Hungarian, Japanese and Russian. He is a member of the Bulgarian Writers Association, the Haikou Club "Sofia" and the World Haiku Association.

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Repressive Society and the Utopia of Sexual and Political Liberation at Herbert Marcuse {1}

The Repressive Society and the Utopia of the Sexual and Political Liberation according Herbert Marcuse

Abstract: The article analyses Marcuse's ideas of repressive society and the power of Eros. The accent is also put on his conception of the mass culture as an ideology of industrial civilization and on the opposite vision of the high culture as one of the modes of the great refusal to the values and norms of the repressive society. The concepts of mass and high culture are analysed in the context of Marcuse's distinction of basic and surplus repression.

Keywords:repressive society, basic and surplus repression, mass culture, great refusal

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What is „this"?

Astract

The paper addresses the question of whether Strawson’s claim that ordinary language has no exact logic entails a view according to which it is in ordinary language’s nature to be ‘illogical’. It is first explained where the traditional idea of an exact, language-independent logic comes from, i.e. the idea of a logic which underlies ordinary languages and governs their logical use and which lack – if Strawson’s assumption is right – would leave ordinary languages being ‘illogical’ insofar as there would be nothing to eliminate their logical imperfections. Secondly, it is shown that it is inherent to language – to human language in contrast to animal ones – to be ‘logical’, because language games are typically introduced, explained, learned, and played out in a practice of giving and asking for reasons , which means, so to speak, in a ‘logical space’. Thus the fact that ordinary language has no exact logic – in the sense that there is no one-to-one correspondence between its (grammatico-)syntactic and its (logico-)semantic sentence forms – does not exclude the possibilities for it to be used in a logical manner.


Key words: metaphisics, thinking, framed feature model

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Are ordinary languages illogical?

ABSTRACT:

The paper addresses the question of whether Strawson’s claim that ordinary language has no exact logic entails a view according to which it is in ordinary language’s nature to be ‘illogical’. It is first explained where the traditional idea of an exact, language-independent logic comes from, i.e. the idea of a logic which underlies ordinary languages and governs their logical use and which lack – if Strawson’s assumption is right – would leave ordinary languages being ‘illogical’ insofar as there would be nothing to eliminate their logical imperfections. Secondly, it is shown that it is inherent to language – to human language in contrast to animal ones – to be ‘logical’, because language games are typically introduced, explained, learned, and played out in a practice of giving and asking for reasons , which means, so to speak, in a ‘logical space’. Thus the fact that ordinary language has no exact logic – in the sense that there is no one-to-one correspondence between its (grammatico-)syntactic and its (logico-)semantic sentence forms – does not exclude the possibilities for it to be used in a logical manner.

Key words: Strawson, ordinary language, logicality, logical space of reasons.

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Is Life Existing ?: J. E. Moore and D. Peers

ABSTRACT:

My goal in this article is to present and compare two articles, written respectively by G. E. Moore and D. Pears, with identical name ‘Is Existence a Predicate?". First, I will try to trace the connection between the main ideas and to show whether there is continuity between them, and then to point out certain confusions and uncertainties. In conclusion, I would like to say that I think Pears was unable to refine the idea that "exists" is not the predicate, and that his thesis at best is only applicable to referential use of indexical singular terms.

Key words: Pears, Moore, predicate, referent, indexical

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The paradox of the sentenced to death

ABSTRACT

After presenting a possible classification of paradoxes in general, a particular paradox is considered in the paper. It is maintained that there are no logical fallacies in the argumentation of the paradox but rather that there is a mistake of not taking into account all possible consequences of the premises. Nonetheless the conclusion is that the problem presented by the paradox is not resolved by showing that mistake, and it is suggested that because of this the paradox should be considered very seriously and its importance is comparable with the liar paradox.

Key words: paradox, liar paradox, logical fallacy, argumentation

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Frege: Life - Creativity - Age (Part One)

ABSTRACT

This is the first chapter of the book on Frege's philosophy of language. The chapter reveals the private and university life of Frege, his ups and downs as a thinker and inventor of the first version of modern logic. Special emphasis is put on the episode related to the famous Russell's paradox which ended for considerable time Frege's work on logic and philosophy of arithmetic. The chapter ends with discussing the political and moral convictions and views of Frege expounded in his fam ous Diary of 1925.

Key words: Frege, Russell paradox, modern logic, logical notation, Frege's diary

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Advertising of Consumer Electronics in Bulgaria1930-1945. Aspects of its Effects

Abstract: The paper analyses different aspects of the Bulgarian print advertising in the period 1930-1945. The main accent is put on the advertising of consumer electronics (radio receivers and gramophones). The thesis defended in the paper is that the language, the symbols, the product presentation, the images, the communication with the recipients and the style of advertisement are very different than those of the contemporary advertising environment. The analyzed adverbs could be found in books, dedicated to radiotechnics, electrical engineering, telewriters and electronics; in popular science and technical journals and also in some other papers and magazines.

Keywords: Bulgarian print media advertising, history of print advertising, old print advertising, old technics advertising, advertising strategies, informative advertising, graphic advertising

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The “Existential Freedom” of Nikolai Berdyaev and the Shackles of the Society, Technology and Sex

Abstract: The paper analyses the philosophical and religious ideas of Nikolai Berdyaev about existential freedom applied in the context of his views of the society, technology and sex. In this sense the article also focuses on other important Berdyaev’s concepts – those of objectivation, androgyny, humanism and dehumanization.

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Research of the Characteristics of the Society that Influence the Radicalization and Terrorism

Abstract: The article presents the political and psychological analysis of the problem of the terrorism in view of the threats to national security. Solving this problem should not be done by military means and methods, and through understanding and elimination of psychological and political reasons for his birth.

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A Structuralist Exercise: in honour of Georges Dumezil (1898-1986)

Abstract: Georges Dumezil's trifunctional hypothesis is considered as a subject of various attempted revisions and extensions. It appears that in its original form there is enough logical coherence to resist modifications.

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Religion between Reason and Feelings: Immanuel Kant and Rudolf Otto

Abstract: The world of religion is often partitioned between the two main human abilities, feeling and reason. The experiencing of sacred places, objects, people, etc. undoubtedly involves intense feelings. But the understanding of this experience and the ability to classify it presumes thinking. During the Enlightenment and rational critique of religion began a series of reductionist attempts to relegate the religion only to reason. The purpose of this paper is to explicate one such attempt by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, and also to display an opportunity to outdo it by the German theologian and philosopher Rudolf Otto, author of one of the most famous theological books of the 20th century “Das Heilige”, 1917.

Keywords: sacred places, religion and reason, Rudolf Otto, Immanuel Kant

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The Living Memory and the Nonliving Bodies in Biographical Narratives of Death

Abstract: The present paper focuses on the individual and collective representations of the afterlife in the context of the recent developments of the death study, which blend psychological constructivist and social constructionist approaches. The latter could be applied to representations of “heaven”, “hell”, “nothingness” among others in culture, as well as to the „traces“ of the presence of the dead in the reality of the living people – from the expectations for one’s own funeral and for the contents of the posthumous memory to the projections of the dead bodies such as „encounters with spirits“ and fear of worms. The analysis of these representations relies on a specific interdisciplinary terminology, flexible enough to describe the intertwinement of various types of socialization, (non)religious beliefs, cultural practice and biographical trajectories. It introduces notions such as posthumous reputations, postselfs and postbodies.

Based on a sample of 60 biographical interviews of men and women (75 years old and over) from UK, Bulgaria and Romania and turning to the terminology of the psychological constructivism and the social constructionism this paper discusses the construction of the nonliving body and living memory of the deceased person. It shows how the gaining of existential meaning of the death presupposes an exchange and interchange of cultural models of mourning and personal experiences, of public instructions and individual strategies for coping with the loss of the innermost image of the loved ones and the fear of the disintegration and decay of the dead body.

Keywords: death study, posthumous reputations, postbodies, postselfs

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The Euroscеpticism and the Thomas Theorem

Abstract: In the article the Euroscepticism is seen as a mixture of distrust in the EU institutions, rebellion against the status quo and pessimism about the future of the EU. The article analyzes the factors that contribute to expanding the influence of Euroscepticism - the presentism, i.e. the dictate of the present over the past and the future; the nationalism as nostalgia for clearly delineated borders; the crises in the functioning of the EU. The article briefly outlines several Euroscepticism's manifestations - electoral apathy, support for nationalist parties, and mistrust towards the EU institutions. Euroscepticism is treated on the one hand as a consequence of the crises in the EU and on the other as a factor in deepening the crisis. Euroscepticism is both a result of the crises and their root. Thomas theorem ("If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences") serves as an explanation of the role of Euroscepticism in the deepening the crisis in the EU. Incorrectly defined situation of the EU generates destructive impacts on his future.

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Disintegration of the Universal in the Global Era

Abstract: This paper raises questions about an invisible characteristic of the globalization – the lack of universality. There is a deep crisis in the very heart of human rationality -- crisis both ontological and epistemological: crisis of conceptuality. The contemporary individual has lost his in-dividable essence because now he is incapable of making identification and self-identification. The crisis is deeper than the crises of postmodern thinking, because it is a crisis in a crisis.

Key words: globalization, identification, self-identification, postmodern, concept

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Sexuality in the Socialist Discourses in Bulgaria: the Silence and the Illness

Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to analyse the presence and absence of sex and erotica in the public discourses in Bulgaria in the socialist period. First part of the paper reflects on the censorship of sexuality as a mean of its subjection. In its second part the article studies the usage of the metaphor of illness from the communist regime. The metaphor of illness is showed as an important element of the communist disciplinary practices. The article focuses on its importance for the communist constructions of the ideal human body.

Keywords: metaphor of illness, body-machine, body-organism, censorship of sexuality

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Derrida's Deconstruction and the Judaic God who writes alone

Abstract: The paper reflects on Derrida's views on deconstruction in the context of Judaic tradition. It focuses on the Jewish relation to the Holy Scripture and Judaic emphasis on the written words. In this sense some ideas of Cabala are analysed. The article puts accent on the idea of infinite interpretation of Holy words in Cabala and lays stress on its influence upon Derrida.

Keywords: deconstruction, cabala, infinite interpretation

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TANGO - FROM DIALITY TO UNITY

All spiritual practices of the East aimed at reaching the rest physical and mostly mental. Similarly, the Tango can be defined as a type of spiritual practice, along the lines of the swing with a sword in Aikido or meditation in motion. Tango provides a clear expression of the merger of the two principles in nature, the two opposites--male and female--in one in a natural and extremely aesthetically appealing, minimalist way – like the simplicity of modification in Japanese painting, imbued by Zen.
Key words: Tango, Tao, Zen, Duality, Unity, Meditation

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The East - West dialogue in two of Regis Wargnier movies

This article is viewing the theme of the dialogue East-West through the prism of art. For this aim two of the director's Régis Wargnier movies are chosen for consideration. 
His cinemanovel  East-West ( EST - OUEST, 1999) is a classically based on the dramaturgy of the narrative cinema. The choice of this form is not an accidental one because his creative goal is to understand the complicated human destinies that are tragical subjects of influance of the dominant social relationships.  In this case the destiny of a whole generation that became a victim of the political reallity afther World War II in Europe is realised. 
The next work of Wargnier, Indochinaq ( Indochine, 1992) is build according to strictly dated historical facts skillfully interweaved with the cultural, political and everyday characteristics of the time and place.
Key words: ideology, culture, identity,,fate, life.

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STATES OF MIND AT YOGI AND SHAMANIC PRACTICES

The aim of the report is to highlight the similarities and differences between shaman’s and Yogi’s states of consciousness. Тheir characteristics вill be examined as follows; philosophical system, a system of rituals, value for the practitioner, different varieties of the practices worldwide. What immediately makes impression to the investigator, is not so much the emphasis on similarities, but on the remarkable fact that the differences between yoga and shamanism are complementary. Crystallization of this supplement slowly but surely lead to the realization of a more complete picture of the sacred in the world of two of the oldest techniques for a consciousness change.
Key words: Yoga, shamanism, consciousness, techniques, states of mind

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"THE COMPANY OF WOLVES" - "SEEING IS BELIEVING" or The Visual-Birth Experiment of Angela Carter

Angela Carter creates fiction that is highly intertextual and very difficult to fit in a specific genre. The unquestionable label for Carter’s fiction (influenced or not by postmodern tendencies) is experimental - the author plays with conventions in every aspect of her works: character, plot, form, genre. Her collection of stories “The Bloody Chamber” (1979) is an example of such resume. The focus is on the story “The Company of Wolves”, adapted for the big screen with Carter as the screenwriter. This text aims at comparing “word” and “image”, story and film, scrutinizing expressive techniques used in both media. Problems in adaptation faced by film are discussed in detail in accordance to text specifics. In order to accomplish its goals this text observes texts and contexts in the body of Angela Carter’s work and beyond.
Key words: Carter, film, experiment, wolves

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The Islam and the Women on the Balkans

Откъс от главата “Ислямът и жените на Балканите" на книгата “Мюсюлманските общности на Баланите: посткомунистически трансформации”, публикувана от издателство “Критика и хуманизъм”, 2016,  в превод от английския оригинал “Rediscovering the Umma: Muslims in the Balkans between Nationalism and Transnationalism” (Oxford University Press, 2013).
Key words: Eastern philosophy, Daoism, dao, comparative thinking

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THE RELIGIOUS CLASH BETWEEN ISLAM AND CATHOLICISM IN THE WORK OF MICHEL HOUELLEBECQ

The point of the text is to outline one of the main topics in the work of the French writer Michel Houellebecq – the conflict between two worlds and two religions: East (in the face of Islam) and West (represented through Catholicism and the European decadence from the late XIX and early XX century). The arguments according to which Houellebecq interprets the Islam and the Catholicism are displayed and analysed. His literature work is inscribed in the current intercultural issues and debates on the civilisation clash between two more and more different in their basis cultures - the European and the Islamic one.
The thesis of Houellebecq about the incapability of the Islam to get incorporated into the civilizational cultural and religious model of Western Europe is defended in accordance with the line of his thought in the novels “The Possibility of an Island”, “Submission”, “Platform,” and “Elementary particles.
Key words: Catholicism, Islam, European decadence, French literature, Crisis

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AGYEYA'S 'SHEKHAR EK JIVANI': THE WESTERN INFLUENCE

S.H. Vatsyayan Agyeya, a pioneer in introducing modern sensibility to the post Chhayawadi Hindi literature, is heavily influenced by Western literary aesthetics, fiction, poetry and ideologies. In his first and most famous novel Shekhar Ek Jivani (Shekhar : A Biography) the influence of the West is sufficiently evident. (This novel has been translated into Bulgarian). When a prominent Indian writer like Agyeya reveals such an acute consciousness of the Western influence in his writing process, it leads to various possibilities. In this article an attempt is made to explore the shades, contradictions and enrichment that is born from this literary union. I have also examined whether the influence of the West on Agyeya leads to assimilation into the mainstream Hindi novel writing or this venture by the author leads to a separate/parallel stream created by subverting the former.
Key words: Hindi literature, Western literary aesthetics, Vatsyayan Agyeya

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HE ADMIRATION FOR THE POLITICAL ORDER IN PERSIA IN THE DIALOGUE OF PLATO "ALCIBIADES"

The dialogue “Alcibiades” offers an excellent opportunity for the participant to speak exactly on the topic of the conference, because in the conversation between the elderly Socrates and the young Alcibiades the main problem is precisely this one: what should learn a young man,,in what values and how should he be educated, in order to become a really good statesman. The young Alcibiades intends to become a politician. It is easy to become a political figure, but this does not necessarily mean, that he will become a good ruler and true statesman, Socrates holds. In order to make his dream come true Alcibiades has to learn a lot, to understand and to contemplate on various questions, insist Socrates and as examples points to some of the traditions in the royal court of Persia and to some of the political and educational practices there, which are strongly idealized in the optics of Plato.
Key words: political education and formation of a future statesman; political order; monarchy and politeia; Persia and Athens; justice and just; the self-knowledge – highest aim of the philosopher and the politician-statesman

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THE YOUNG/NEW POETRY OF THE 1980s BETWEEN THE WEST AND THE EAST

The paper considers a specific aspect of young/new poetry of 1980s, especially typical of its collective language – its situated between and in both disparate poetical-philosophical Weltanschauungs – in course of western Anglo-Saxon “high” Modernism and the eastern zen sensitiveness. Despite of its opposite, both enters into the Bulgarian poetry simultaneously just during the 1980s… But all this is only the big subject matter. The situation in its details is more dynamical and relative. And just this dynamic is object of research study. The problem is examined both in diachronous literary-historical and synchronous poetical aspects. From the other hand – both in universal socio-cultural, philosophical, and cultural historical context and in the context of the Bulgarian poetic tradition.
Key words: young/new poetry of 1980s; late socialism; Anglo-Saxon Modernism; Zen; „deep figurativeness”; counterculture of the 1950-60s; the Аpril Poetry and Quiet Lyric.

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PARALLELS OF THE 'YIN-YANG' CONCEPT IN EUROPEAN CULTURE (The Western Reception of the Ancient Chinese Symbolism)

This paper explores some Western receptions of the Chinese concepts ‘yin – yang’ and their philosophical reflection as а primordial symbolic system. The assumption of the underlying homology in the Universe as a whole suggests that there are related orders of events, analyzed in the so called ‘correlative thinking’ in Early China. The holistic view draws systematic correspondences between various levels of reality, e.g. the human, the world of nature and the cosmic unity. According to the theorists of quantum mechanics Heisenberg and Bohr there can be found striking analogies between Ancient Daoist thought and the principle of complementarity, concerning fundamental subatomic relatedness. C.G. Jung calls the Daoist approach the ‘synchronistic way’ – Yijing (the cosmological Book of Changes) involves the study and classification of events wherein meaningful interdependence transcends space, time and causality as a determining factor. Very close to the model of The Great Ultimate, representative for the yin - yang relationship, virtual particles in atomic physics correspond with one another in some basic aspect, even in some cases their identities are contained one within the other.
Key words: Eastern philosophy, modern science, synchrony, yin, yang, Dao, taiji

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The Islamic veil: Western Perspective

The article examines the reasons for the political, cultural and anthropological confrontations in the West on the occasion of the Islamic dress code.
Key words: burqa, veil, dress code, fashion, body

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E MEETING OF EAST AND WEST IN THE ETHICS OF REFERENCE FOR LIFE (To the 140th Anniversary of Albert Schweitzer)

The paper is dedicated to the 140th Anniversary of Albert Schweitzer. The main thesis is that the fundamental principle of Schweitzer’s ethics – Reverence to Life – symbolizes the ‘meeting’ between Western (European) and Eastern (Indian) thinking. Specific emphasis is put on the image of Schweitzer as the European mind influenced by the Indian norm of Ahimsa.
Key words: Albert Schweitzer, Reverence for life, Ahimsa

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"WEST" WITHIN PHILOSOPHICAL-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

The paper describes and analyzes some philosophical-historical approaches toward West as type of civilization, regional culture, cultural areal, that possesses a universal historical perspective. The critical and analytical approaches of M. Weber, A. Toynbee and Assen Ignatov are described. The “capitalist spirit”, the western rationalism, militarism, secularism are emphasized and criticized. The capacity of the West to be open, dynamic, to self-transform itself is analyzed within the framework of its potential historical universality.

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About the Impact of Shinto and Zen on Haiku

This article is about the impact of Shinto and Zen on Haiku. It aims to add another touch to the theme of the impact of Shinto and Zen on Haiku poetry. The author considers the Haiku problem from the point of spiritual paths. And the main thesis is that one can not speak of the influence of a separate spiritual tradition on Haiku, because the very essence of the Japanese is multi-layered, enriched with the intertwining of the Shinto, the local tradition, with Zen, the introduced tradition. Other influences such as: an era preceding Haiku creative works, influences of personalities, etc. are being considered. The article examines the period of creation of this art and analyzes the prerequisites and the reason for its occurrence. Key facts about the Shinto and Zen traditions are presented which show how and where these spiritual paths intertwine and form a unique pathway called Zen. The conclusion is that the Japanese Buddhist is a born Japanese, which means that he generally carries a shin. And the influence of Shinto and Zen on Haiku can be seen in the given and analyzed examples of Haiku.

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Historical roots and modern trends in the field of AI; Why process approach is necessary to progress

Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a renown subject which has been studied for almost a century. In brief, the subject famously began with Turing and his thought experiment: The Turing Test, furthered by others such as Searle with his Chinese room experiment, and explored by a plethora other philosophers and scientists. Modern technology is developing at an exponential rate and currently shows no signs of plateau. It becomes consistently more important in our daily lives. If we keep thinking in this direction, we can imagine a near future where artificially intelligent agents and humans interact through human language, we already have speech recognition in our mobile phones. Our smart machines are becoming more intelligent and are likely to soon be capable of simple thought. There is a real need of a new method, a new philosophy to answer the modern world's questions. It is my belief that in a collaboration between Philosophy of AI and process philosophy these answers can be obtained.

This paper aims to outline some of the historical and modern prerequisites for the development of new philosophical methodology to address the question of artificial intelligence. Briefly, the historical foundations of artificial intellect thinking have been explored starting from ancient times and going through the era of Romanticism, reaching to the present day. Here are some of the most up-to-date and current topics in 2017, as well as the positions of prominent scientists, technologists, developers and computer specialists. Presented in the second part of the paper are some of the modern tendencies in the philosophy of artificial intelligence; why the classical philosophical methods no longer work so well in examining the problems, what they miss and how they could be supplemented. The third part proposes using the approach of process philosophy as most relevant to the contemporary situation. Further discussed is the renowned founder of process philosophy, the mathematician and philosopher Alfred Whitehead, as well as some of his points of view relevant to the current paper. Other positions of modern philosophers such as William James, who support Whitehead's views, are considered as part of examining a new philosophical methodology to artificial intelligence.

Keywords: philosophy, artificial intelligence, AI, philosophy of AI, philosophy of artificial intelligence, process philosophy, pragmatism, epistemology, ontology, Alfred Whitehead, William James, Margaret Boden, John Searl, Vesselin Petrov.

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Social Engineering in China

Summary: The social engineering may sound as a new science for understanding the social patters and human behavior as members of the state, but it's roots can be found way in the past. Political philosophers like Confucius onward offered their understanding, analyses and prescription for implying social order. During the long and colorful history of China the notion for society and its development and relations has changing, but in some strange way kept its basic values, founded since ancient times. Even now, when China is the second world economy, the government initiates a program for control and social engineering over its subjects, that is nothing but reform of old Confucius idea for maintaining the social order using education and ethical conduct.

Keywords: Social engineering, Confucius, Chinese society, Education, Social credit, Women Status

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Haiku - Between Creativity and Dogmatism

Generally, the article argues over the issue what haiku is according to contemporary perceptions, how far the poet's freedom stretches in a poetry of strict cannon - and to what extent the proclaimed rules serve artistic creativity or turn into a dogma which poses limitations to the artistic process. It briefly touches upon metaphor, the presence of abstract notions, the rhythm of 5-7-5 syllables and so on. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts.

Key words: haiku, rules, creativity

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Reality and Reflections in the Western Short Poems and Haiku

The theme of Reality reflections in the poetic text has numerous projections in different levels of philosophical and literary science. The aim of the present work is the study from one viewpoint connected to the shortest Western poetic forms and Haiku. There is a special focus on a dialogue between East and West.

Keywords: Far East; West; haiku; aphorism, proverb, one line poem.

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Reality and Reflection in Far East Thought

The aim of the paper is to discuss what concepts of far Eastern thought correspond to such concepts of the Western thought as "reality" and "reflection". In order to answer this question the three main teachings of Chinese thought, Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism, are briefly analysed. The conclusion is that Chinese thought reveals the world in terms of change, transformation and mutual dependence. Therefore, its aesthetics is not based on an opposition between some independent and objective reality and some independent subject reflecting it. Rather it is based on complementarity and mutual response of inner and outer, permanence and change, openness and closeness. Its main characteristics are mutuality and co-creation that transform both aspects of the process.

Key words: Chinese philosophy, reality, reflection, change, response, haiku

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Why There Is Something Rather Than Nothing" - Laozi and Parmenides - a comparative analysis

The purpose of this article is to compare the Western and the Eastern approach of the philosophical question 'Why Being is there rather than Non-Being?' For the goals of our work we use two fundamental names of the history of philosophy - Laozi and Parmenides. The article compares the thoughts of the two philosophers concerning the ontological aspects of this problem. The text follows the words of the two texts and finds some basic similarities and differences. It seems that both Laozi and Parmenides agree that Being and Dao are metaphysical conditions for existence itself. They are not static but dynamic and however transcendent they might seem to be, they do present in the world we perceive. The ontological approach of the metaphysical problem of Being and Non-Being is revealed through specific metaphors which are object of analysis in this work.

Key words: boundary, ontology, nothing, emptiness, Dao, Doxa, Aletheia, Parmenides, Laozi

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The Yin-Yang Concept in the Light of the Contemporary Field Theory

Abstract: This paper explores some western receptions of the Chinese concepts yin and yang and their philosophical reflection as а primordial symbolic system. The assumption of the underlying homology in the Universe as a whole suggests that there are related orders of events, which are connected in a non-local, a-causal manner. Jung calls the Taoist approach the 'synchronistic way' - Yijing (the cosmological Book of Changes) involves the study and classification of events wherein meaningful interdependence transcends space, time and causality as a determining factor. Very close to the model of The Great Ultimate, representative for the yin - yang relationship, virtual particles in atomic physics correspond with one another in some basic aspect, even in some cases their identities are contained one within the other.

Key words: Eastern philosophy, modern science, synchrony, yin, yang, Dao, taiji.

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Prana in Atharvaveda

Abstract: The present study traces back the meanings of the word prana – “breath”, “breathing”, “life force” in the context of Atharvaveda. In Atharvaveda prana is often associated with life and longevity, with breathing and breath, with the maintenance of life, with seeing, hearing, power and offspring. prana is the master of all living and non-living and controls the whole universe. He is the observer of everything. By wind or air, the breath prana is connected to the whole universe. The disappearance of pranas leads to death, and on this conception are based some of the spells for eliminating enemies by drawing their breath away.

On the basis of the meanings of the word prana in the studied excerpts from Atharvaveda, a semantic map of the word was created. For comparison with the Bulgarian language, a semantic map of the word дишам – “to breath”, was also created.
Key words: prana, veda, Atharvaveda

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YOGA: THE BASIS OF THE SUKHAVATIVYUHA-MANDALA (part 1)

Pictorial representation of Amitayurdhyana-sutra aims at relieving a person from mental tension. It is based on the philosophy and practice of Yoga for attaining liberation from suffering. One can gain the benefits of chanting, listening or beholding its pictorial representation of the sutra like Queen Vaidehi; who listens to the words of the Buddha. By doing that his mind would become clear and focused on the ultimate reality.

Key words: Yoga, Buddhism, mandala, samathi, ultimate reality

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YOGA: THE BASIS OF THE SUKHAVATIVYUHA-MANDALA (part 2)

Abstract

Pictorial representation of Amitayurdhyana-sutra aims at relieving a person from mental tension. It is based on the philosophy and practice of Yoga for attaining liberation from suffering. One can gain the benefits of chanting, listening or beholding its pictorial representation of the sutra like Queen Vaidehi; who listens to the words of the Buddha. By doing that his mind would become clear and focused on the ultimate reality.

Key words: Yoga, Buddhism, mandala, samathi, ultimate reality

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Исторически корени и съвременни тенденции в изследването за изкуствен интелект и защо той се нуждае от процесуален подход

Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a renown subject which has been studied for almost a century. In brief, the subject famously began with Turing and his thought experiment: The Turing Test, furthered by others such as Searle with his Chinese room experiment, and explored by a plethora other philosophers and scientists. Modern technology is developing at an exponential rate and currently shows no signs of plateau. It becomes consistently more important in our daily lives. If we keep thinking in this direction, we can imagine a near future where artificially intelligent agents and humans interact through human language, we already have speech recognition in our mobile phones. Our smart machines are becoming more intelligent and are likely to soon be capable of simple thought. There is a real need of a new method, a new philosophy to answer the modern world's questions. It is my belief that in a collaboration between Philosophy of AI and process philosophy these answers can be obtained.

This paper aims to outline some of the historical and modern prerequisites for the development of new philosophical methodology to address the question of artificial intelligence. Briefly, the historical foundations of artificial intellect thinking have been explored starting from ancient times and going through the era of Romanticism, reaching to the present day. Here are some of the most up-to-date and current topics in 2017, as well as the positions of prominent scientists, technologists, developers and computer specialists. Presented in the second part of the paper are some of the modern tendencies in the philosophy of artificial intelligence; why the classical philosophical methods no longer work so well in examining the problems, what they miss and how they could be supplemented. The third part proposes using the approach of process philosophy as most relevant to the contemporary situation. Further discussed is the renowned founder of process philosophy, the mathematician and philosopher Alfred Whitehead, as well as some of his points of view relevant to the current paper. Other positions of modern philosophers such as William James, who support Whitehead's views, are considered as part of examining a new philosophical methodology to artificial intelligence.

Keywords: philosophy, artificial intelligence, AI, philosophy of AI, philosophy of artificial intelligence, process philosophy, pragmatism, epistemology, ontology, Alfred Whitehead, William James, Margaret Boden, John Searl, Vesselin Petrov.

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Социалното инженерство в Китай

Summary: The social engineering may sound as a new science for understanding the social patters and human behavior as members of the state, but it's roots can be found way in the past. Political philosophers like Confucius onward offered their understanding, analyses and prescription for implying social order. During the long and colorful history of China the notion for society and its development and relations has changing, but in some strange way kept its basic values, founded since ancient times. Even now, when China is the second world economy, the government initiates a program for control and social engineering over its subjects, that is nothing but reform of old Confucius idea for maintaining the social order using education and ethical conduct.

Keywords: Social engineering, Confucius, Chinese society, Education, Social credit, Women Status

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За влиянието на шинто и дзен върху хайку

Abstract
This article is about the impact of Shinto and Zen on Haiku. It aims to add another touch to the theme of the impact of Shinto and Zen on Haiku poetry. The author considers the Haiku problem from the point of spiritual paths. And the main thesis is that one can not speak of the influence of a separate spiritual tradition on Haiku, because the very essence of the Japanese is multi-layered, enriched with the intertwining of the Shinto, the local tradition, with Zen, the introduced tradition. Other influences such as: an era preceding Haiku creative works, influences of personalities, etc. are being considered. The article examines the period of creation of this art and analyzes the prerequisites and the reason for its occurrence. Key facts about the Shinto and Zen traditions are presented which show how and where these spiritual paths intertwine and form a unique pathway called Zen. The conclusion is that the Japanese Buddhist is a born Japanese, which means that he generally carries a shin. And the influence of Shinto and Zen on Haiku can be seen in the given and analyzed examples of Haiku.

Абстракт
Настоящата статия има за цел да добави още един щрих към темата за влиянието на шинто и дзен върху хайку поезията. Авторът разглежда хайку-проблематиката от позицията на духовните пътеки. А основната теза е, че не може да се говори еднозначно за влиянието на отделна духовна традиция върху хайку, защото самата същност на японеца е многопластова, обогатена с преплитането на шинто, местната традиция, с дзен, привнесената традиция. Разглеждат се и други влияния като: епоха, предшестващи хайку творчески произведения, влияния на личности и др. Докладът разглежда периода на създаване на това изкуство и анализира предпоставките и причината за появата му. Изведени са основни факти за шинто и дзен традициите, които показват как и къде тези духовни пътеки се преплитат и образуват един уникален път, наречен дзен. Заключението е, че японският будист е роден японец, което означава, че той по принцип носи в себе си шинто. А влиянието на шинто и дзен върху хайку се вижда в дадените и анализирани примери на хайку-стихове.

Ключови думи: шинто, дзен, хайку.

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Хайку - между творчеството и догматизма

Generally, the article argues over the issue what haiku is according to contemporary perceptions, how far the poet's freedom stretches in a poetry of strict cannon - and to what extent the proclaimed rules serve artistic creativity or turn into a dogma which poses limitations to the artistic process. It briefly touches upon metaphor, the presence of abstract notions, the rhythm of 5-7-5 syllables and so on. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts.

Key words: haiku, rules, creativity

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Реалност и отражения в западните кратки форми и хайку

The theme of Reality reflections in the poetic text has numerous projections in different levels of philosophical and literary science. The aim of the present work is the study from one viewpoint connected to the shortest Western poetic forms and Haiku. There is a special focus on a dialogue between East and West.

Keywords: Far East; West; haiku; aphorism, proverb, one line poem.

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Реалност и отражение в далекоизточната мисъл

The aim of the paper is to discuss what concepts of far Eastern thought correspond to such concepts of the Western thought as "reality" and "reflection". In order to answer this question the three main teachings of Chinese thought, Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism, are briefly analysed. The conclusion is that Chinese thought reveals the world in terms of change, transformation and mutual dependence. Therefore, its aesthetics is not based on an opposition between some independent and objective reality and some independent subject reflecting it. Rather it is based on complementarity and mutual response of inner and outer, permanence and change, openness and closeness. Its main characteristics are mutuality and co-creation that transform both aspects of the process.

Key words: Chinese philosophy, reality, reflection, change, response, haiku

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„Защо има нещо, а не нищо?" - Лаодзъ и Парменид - сравнителен анализ

The purpose of this article is to compare the Western and the Eastern approach of the philosophical question 'Why Being is there rather than Non-Being?' For the goals of our work we use two fundamental names of the history of philosophy - Laozi and Parmenides. The article compares the thoughts of the two philosophers concerning the ontological aspects of this problem. The text follows the words of the two texts and finds some basic similarities and differences. It seems that both Laozi and Parmenides agree that Being and Dao are metaphysical conditions for existence itself. They are not static but dynamic and however transcendent they might seem to be, they do present in the world we perceive. The ontological approach of the metaphysical problem of Being and Non-Being is revealed through specific metaphors which are object of analysis in this work.

Key words: boundary, ontology, nothing, emptiness, Dao, Doxa, Aletheia, Parmenides, Laozi

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Концепцията за Ин и Ян в светлината на съвременната теория на полето

Abstract: This paper explores some western receptions of the Chinese concepts yin and yang and their philosophical reflection as а primordial symbolic system. The assumption of the underlying homology in the Universe as a whole suggests that there are related orders of events, which are connected in a non-local, a-causal manner. Jung calls the Taoist approach the 'synchronistic way' - Yijing (the cosmological Book of Changes) involves the study and classification of events wherein meaningful interdependence transcends space, time and causality as a determining factor. Very close to the model of The Great Ultimate, representative for the yin - yang relationship, virtual particles in atomic physics correspond with one another in some basic aspect, even in some cases their identities are contained one within the other.

Key words: Eastern philosophy, modern science, synchrony, yin, yang, Dao, taiji.

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Прана в Атхарваведа

Abstract: The present study traces back the meanings of the word prana – “breath”, “breathing”, “life force” in the context of Atharvaveda. In Atharvaveda prana is often associated with life and longevity, with breathing and breath, with the maintenance of life, with seeing, hearing, power and offspring. prana is the master of all living and non-living and controls the whole universe. He is the observer of everything. By wind or air, the breath prana is connected to the whole universe. The disappearance of pranas leads to death, and on this conception are based some of the spells for eliminating enemies by drawing their breath away.
On the basis of the meanings of the word prana in the studied excerpts from Atharvaveda, a semantic map of the word was created. For comparison with the Bulgarian language, a semantic map of the word дишам – “to breath”, was also created.
Key words: prana, veda, Atharvaveda

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Статутът на жената в Китай

Summary:The aim of the article is to present an overview of the changes in women's status in Chinese society throughout the years. The method implemented is historico-analytic with emphasis on the reasons for undertaking necessary changes concerning the place of women in economic and social life. Special attention is paid to the changes in marital relations, especially under the reign of the Chinese Communist Party, and the liberty gained by Chinese women which contributed to their heightened position in society and stronger self-esteem.

Keywords: Chinese women, women's status, women's submission, marital relations in China

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Два нюанса на (не)справедливостта: социално-икономически и културен

Abstract: The study proposes an analysis of two different views on justice in the social space. One shows the importance and place of identity as well as its relation to "recognition policy", and the other is related to socio-economic space and the concept of justice as impartiality in the distribution of basic goods.

Keywords: John Rawls, Charles Taylor, justice, recognition policy, identity

Резюме: Темата предлага анализ на два различни възгледа за справедливостта в социалното пространство. Единият показва важността и мястото на идентичността, както и връзката й с „политиката на признаване, а другият е свързан със социално-икономическото пространство и концепцията за справедливостта като безпристрастност при разпределението на основни блага.

Ключови думи: Джон Ролс, Чарлз Тейлър, справедливост, политика на признаване, идентичност

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Краят на изкуството - хроника на една многократно предизвестявана смърт

Abstract: The article follows the tendency to very critical and sometimes illegitimate attitude towards art, reaching its natural ending in Benjamin's „The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". The paper compares his view with the positions of some of his contemporaries, who also work on the problems of art. The aim is to demonstrate the ambiguity of Benamin's conclusions and to show that the lethal diagnosis is overstated and the final decision is inappropriate because, as it is known, " Ars longa, vita brevis."

Kеy words: Benjamin, art, original, reproduction, Ortega y Gasset, mass.

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Art as a Complement to Religion and Realm of the Spiritual

Abstract: Modernity and Postmodernity have witnessed secularization of the Western world and ultimate rationalization of thought. However, the rationalistic approach towards epistemological and ethical questions that characterizes Modernity has proven insufficient. Modern artists and philosophers directly or indirectly oppose the one-sided rationalistic view of the world and claim that the main subject and purpose of art is revelation of spiritual essences, connection with metaphysical reality. Eternal truths, Rothko claims, are the subject matter of all good art. This texts considers the modern tendency to associate art with spirituality in terms of themes, purpose and the role of the artist. I refer to contemporary philosophers and artists to elucidate the complex relationship between religion, art and spirituality today. I also explore the view that art is a kind of spiritual practice that can be compared to religious commitments. At the same time, art does not fully substitute religion. A crucial distinction is that art is inclusive, allowing agnostics and atheists to have spiritual experiences, while religion is exclusive. This however doesn't mean that art has priority in facilitating one's spiritual growth. Along with that, the paper aims at elucidating the role of art in individual and social life.

Keywords: modernity, artists, art, religion, secularization

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Въведение към „Сън и екзистенция" на Лудвиг Бинсвангер

С текста си „Сън и екзистенция" Лудвиг Бинсвангер, потомствен швейцарски психиатър, приятел на Фройд и последовател на Хайдегер, поставя началото на екзистенциалната психоанализа: направление, което днес печели все повече внимание сред привържениците на историзирането и контекстуализирането на рефлексията над човека и на работата с него.

„Въведението" на Мишел Фуко към текста на Бинсвангер е първият му влиятелен теоретичен текст, в който той набелязва пътя към една антропология на въображението чрез изследване на съня като негово условие за възможност и сблъсква въображение и въображаемо в опит да стигне до конституиращия смисъла и субекта момент, до момента на абсолютната свобода.

Тази книга събира двата текста с убеждението, че пробивите им ще послужат на психолози, психиатри, психотерапевти, философи, антрополози, рефлексивни социолози, културни теоретици, историци и литературоведи. Но преди всичко ще послужат на онзи, който се вълнува от своето „себе си". Както и на обичащите красиви текстове, които правят границата между теория и фикция невидима, а на човешкото съществуване придават неочаквани измерения.

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Фигури на културата / Фигури на властта

Това е първият от три тома ръкописи, представящи Веберовия принос от 1909-1914 г. към замисления от него мащабен проект Основи на социалната икономика. Следващите два тома ще бъдат посветени на социология на правото и на т.нар. социална икономика.

Достигали до нас през годините като принадлежащи към композирания и озаглавен от Веберовите издатели корпус на Стопанство и общество, днес тези ръкописи се публикуват като автономни книги в рамките на Пълни събрани съчинения. В съгласие с тази политика издаваме настоящия том, в който се обсъждат отношенията между видовете общности, стопанството и правото през формиращата сила на политическите общности и през посредническата работа на „културния елит".

Този том е ценен източник за социолози и социални философи, икономисти, юристи, политолози и историци, важно помагало в курсовете по социология на социалните общности и по други социални и хуманитарни дисциплини.

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Свръхчовекът и неговият вик /или как Казандзакис чете Ницше/

Abstract: In this article, I'm trying to draw a line of continuity between the metaphysics of Friedrich Nietzsche and his Greek disciple - the famous author Nikos Kazantzakis. The main quest is centred in the character of Alexis Zorbas and the philosophical novel "Askitiki", which in my opinion brings this metaphysical core to its limits.

Key words: Nikos Kazantzakis, Friedrich Nietzsche, Zorba the Greek, Ascesis

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Стефан Попов: Философия на родината

Abstract. The following text presents the personality and philosophy of Stepan Popov, Bulgarian emigre (1906-1989). The first comment is on his Bulgarian period when he was one of the leaders of the rightist socio-political movement "The Third Generation". More attention is paid on his philosophy of history expressed mainly in his book „Der Wille zur Gestalt", 1970. The article analyzes some of the basic philosophical-historical concepts such as nation, national character, people, state, etc. The stress is put on the author's concept of the Bulgarian idea as the essence of his philosophy of native land.

Keywords: Stephan Popov, philosophy of history, philosophy of native land, the Third Generation, the Bulgarian idea

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Аристотелианската философия и австрийската икономическа школа

Abstract: This article discusses the influence of Aristotelian philosophy both on the Austrian School of Economics and on the German Historical School, as well the battle between these two German-language schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It examines the formation and development of methodological views of Carl Menger, the founder of Austrian School, in clash with this competitive group and under the influence of Austrian philosopher Franz Brentano, who continues the dissemination of Aristotle's ideas in late nineteenth century catholic Austria. Then it briefly explores the demand of Eugen Bоhm-Bawerk, the second great name of the Austrian School, on conceptual purity. Finally, it presents the argument of Ludwig von Mises, the most prominent twentieth-century Austrian economist, whit philosophers of the Vienna Circle, and his clearly Aristotelian understanding of human action and praxeology.

Key words: Aristotle, Austrian School of Economics, German Historical School, Karl Menger, Franz Brentano, Eugen Boem-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, Vienna Circle

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Wittgenstein's Tractatus as a Constructivist Work

Summary:The paper seeks to investigate some of the sources which contributed to the specifically constructivist character of the earlier philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as we find it developed in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Three main sources are briefly overviewed: Russell's constructivist analysis and logical atomism, Hertz's 'Mechanics' and the in-born engineering talents of young Wittgenstein. A general view underlies the whole paper, namely that the atomistic picture of the world displayed by Wittgenstein at the beginning of the Tractatus was most congenial and consistent with the 'constructivist' view of language and propositions.

Keywords: Wittgenstein, Russell, Hertz, objects, Hertz's 'Mechanics'

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Хипотезата за континуума на Кантор и нейното трансфинитно обосноваване (част 1)

Abstract: The present paper will expose Cantor's Theory of transfinite numbers, and more specific his Continuum Hypothesis, on transfinite grounding - upon the constructing of the linear continuum c as "the pure continuous number-domain", with the words of Dedekind. For this purpose, we will unfold Cantor's grounding that cardinality of the continuum c is equal to the cardinality of the sets of natural numbers - N and the rational numbers - Q as basic dimensions in n-dimensionality of the continuum. This is a construction, which poses the known number sets as basic and initial dimensions of the continuum c. These sets are also taken in their inclusion to one another as proper subsets to each other and to the set of real numbers - R. From here, we can deduce the Continuum Hypothesis formula with producing the next Aleph-numbers and to propose a new version of generalized Continuum Hypothesis. Also this will provide the solution and interpretation of Aleph-0 as a number - with its own number value upon the continuum c and as a number of the complex processes and entities in reality.

Going even more further, we can postulate the intensity of an infinite set: as its own ability to be raised to power, or covered, with transfinite cardinal number, in particular to the least transfinite number Aleph-0. So, namely on the intensity of the infinite sets, continuity can be defined and connected with the dimensionality of the continuum. And from here we can formulate the Aleph-enumerability and omega-enumerability of infinite sets as the suggestion of grounding the enumerability of the infinite sets.

All this leads also to the construction of transfinite numbers orders, in this construction we can develop them as higher and higher number classes with increasing cardinalities. These transfinite numbers orders can provide the density of "the whole absolutely infinite aggregate of numbers", with Cantor's formulation. With all this, the new transfinite numbers, introduced by Cantor, are demonstrated as powerful instrument for describing and investigating the reality to the very boundaries of its physical and conceptual comprehension.

Key words: Continuum Hypothesis, Cantor, transfinite numbers, Aleph-0, Theory of numbers, logic of infinity.

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Репродуктивното тяло и възвърнатата женственост в периода на късния социализъм в България

Abstract: The article analyses the pro natal policies of late socialism in Bulgaria. It compares the early communist practices and ideology focused on the ideal figure of woman shock worker with those of the late communist regime oriented towards the favoring of maternity. This accent on the role of woman as a mother changes the emancipatory politics of the regime and ultimately leads to recapturing of femininity of socialist women.

Keywords: reproduction, womanhood, bio politics, pro natal policies

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The limits of my anima means the limits of my world

Abstract: In the twentieth century, body research stopped being extremely biological-medical alone. The employment and representations of the body became a subject of new approaches, originally from anthropology and history. These approaches have taken in the body as a social and civilization product, a bearer and generator of meanings and therefore not of a general and neutral nature. The contemporary French historians were inspired by the work of Nobert El., The Civilizing Process, pointing out to the gradual self-discipline of the body by imposing the rules of good behaviour as well as by the work of M. Foucault who demonstrated the body's interference with power and domination, exploring the techniques of control and oversight in modern Western societies. Within these limits, the sick body, the body that hurts, the gestures, all the care and sprucing up, the pleasure and delight, sexuality, the body that is disciplined and obeys rules, the body that is being exercised, became various views of the history of the body that have given rise to scientific research. The History of the Body is a history of the material spontaneity and civilization diversity. A primary element of identity, the embodiment of the ego, the deceptive immediacy and "naturalness", our body is the ground of history, its blood and flesh. In other words, the body is our prison, but at the same time the body is our world. The body is us.In the work here presented, the author observes the history of the body - how the body has created the world we are living in.

Keywords: body, anima, lie, language, civilization

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Сетивата и войната, акцент върху докосването

Abstract: The article examines the human sensorium as historically and culturally bound. Special attention is paid to the functioning of the basic senses of the soldiers in the trenches of the First World War. An emphasis is placed on the touch. Two factors are analyzed that cause the high activity of this sense in the front-life conditions - the new body experience and the acute thirst for consolation and human proximity.

Key words: history of the senses, smell, touch, sight, hearing, taste, the senses in the war

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Душа и тяло в един любовен квартет

Abstract: The paper analyzes some anthropological aspects of love and love-related relationships in the famous novel The Idiot, by Fyodor Dostoevsky. The love in the love quartet, experienced by Prince Lef Nicolaievitch Muishkin, Nastasia Philipovna, Parfen Rogojin and Aglaya Epanchina is stamped by passions and paroxysms: sufferance, compassion, adoration, pride, joy, self-umiliation, self-destruction, happiness. Here the love is split between body and soul, sufferance and happiness, subjection and freedom, life and death. The body-soul relation and split is especially emphasized. The soul sufferance is analyzed as influencing the body sufferance and the self-destruction. The passionate love is seen as an expression of vitality, of deep and magic relation between man and women, oscillating between freedom and subjugation, joy and sadness. Those aspects of human essence, interpreted in the novel, are put in anthropological perspective.

Keywords: love, love quartet, passions, body, soul, sufferance, compassion, happiness, freedom.

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Здравната геобиография на Ницше и темата за тялото

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explain Nietzsche's reflections on the human body and to relate these reflections to the other key themes in his philosophy.

Keywords: Nietzsche, body, geobiography

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Въвеждането на телесността на „Аз"-а във философския дискурс на Л. Фойербах

This article is devoted to the radical turn accomplished by L. Feuerbach into German classical philosophy. The philosopher breaks with the principles of idealism by introduction of new anthropological approach. Putting emphasis on human body and emphasizing the dialogical nature of consciousness allows him to express a number of ideas that begin to develop in different disciplines - philosophy, personal, social psychology, etc. - in the twentieth century. Feuerbach points out the inhomogeneous character of the human "Self," which is always sexually defined. It depends both on the connection with the particular, sensible Other, as well as on the emotions and needs that the person experiences. Human "Self" is inhomogeneous also because it changes over time. The dialogical nature of consciousness allows Feuerbach to offer a new understanding of conscience. There is nothing supernatural in the latter, because its voice always represents the protest of the injured or offended Other.

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СТИХОВЕ Ваня Вълкова

Магистър от НХА, Ваня Вълкова работи като визуален и мултимедиен художник. В момента учи втора магистратура в СУ ,,Педагогика и семиотика на изобразителното изкуство''.
Ваня има поетични публикации в ,,Нова социална поезия'', ,,Литературен свят'', ,,Литер Нет'', както и текстове в harta-bg.info и НСП.

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Веска Гювийска

Веска Гювийска е родена в гр. Дупница. Работи като преподавател в катедра "Педагогика" на ЮЗУ "Н. Рилски" - Благоевград. Нейни стихове са превеждани на сърбохърватски, руски и английски. През 2004-2005 г. печели номинация "Кой кой е в човешкото различие" на Американския биографичен институт. Издала е стихосбирките: "Реквием за едно глухарче" (1994), "Перото бяло, перото черно" (1999), "И други тихи неща" (2004), "Трепти, захожда" (2008), "Бог е винаги другаде" (2014). Член на СБП.

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Зорница Харизанова - хайга и фото хайку

Зорница Харизанова е родена на 19.08.1969 г. в гр. София. Интересите й са насочени в областта на далекоизточната философия, изкуство, поезия и художествена фотография. От 2011 г. е член и секретар на Български хайку съюз, а от 2017 г. член на Британското хайку общество. Редактор в сп. „Хайку свят”.
Има публикации в български и международни хайку издания. Носител е на: Първа награда за хайку на XI Международен фестивал „Мелнишки вечери на поезията” (2010) и на Втора награда на XV-то му издание през 2014 г.; Грамота от европейската Топ 100 класация за най-креативни хайку автори през 2011 г.; Отличия от Петия (2012), Шестия (2014) и Седмия (2015) национален конкурс за хайку на свободна тема; Отличия от Първия национален конкурс за хайку и сенрю „Носачи на вятър” (2016); Отличиe от Първия европейски конкурс за хайку в Италия (2016); Отличия от “World Haiku Review” (2017); Първа, Втора и Трета награда на Първия национален конкурс за фотохайга „Сезони” (2011) и др. В периода 2010-2012 г. и 2016 г. нейни хайга са включени в класацията на 11 ежемесечни хайку конкурса на Световната хайку асоциация в Япония (WHA) и публикувани на сайта й.

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СЪВРЕМЕННИТЕ МИГРАЦИОННИ ВЪЛНИ КЪМ ЕВРОПА- СБЛЪСЪК НА ЦИВИЛИЗАЦИИ ИЛИ БОРБА ЗА РЕСУРСИ?

MODERN MIGRATION WAVES TO EUROPE - A CLASH OFCIVILIZATIONS OR A STRUGGLE FOR RESOURCES?

Abstract:
The European migration crisis is considered by many as the greatest challenge that Europe has faced since the fall of the Iron curtain.The lack of consensus at the management level concerning the causes of the crisis and the ways to overcome it, in turn, highlights the contradictions between individual EU-Member States. This paper has its goal in examining the new key elements of the refugee crisis and whether it can be considered as an expected consequence of a clash of the Muslim and Western civilizations, or whether we should look elsewhere, in the eternal struggle for recourses and as its result the more growing social inequality.
Keywords: Migration crisis, clash of civilizations, globalization, integration, multiculturalism, climate change, noosphere.

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ДИГИТАЛНИ ПРЕДИЗВИКАТЕЛСТВА ПРЕД ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЯ ЕЛИТ В САЩ ПО ВРЕМЕ НА КАНДИДАТ-ПРЕЗИДЕНТСКА КАМПАНИЯ 2016 ГОДИНА

DIGITAL CHALLENGES OF THE POLITICAL ELITE IN USA DURING THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN IN 2016

Abstract:
The article examines the presence of Presidential Candidates on the Internet space during the US 2016 Presidential Campaign. The Internet is becoming an important tool for communication between ordinary people and between politicians. It is increasingly used as a field for political races and ''struggles''. Attention is given to different challenges faced by politicians and their teams as a result of using the opportunities of the digital technologies. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are being used not only to present candidates, their vision of developing the US society over the next 5 years, but are also being used to criticize, attack and even insult towards their political opponent. In this context, it is important for politicians to have the necessary digital competence and relevant online behavior.
Key words: political elite, presidential campaign, presidential candidate, Internet, social network, Facebook, Twitter, cyber-attack.

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ДЪРЖАВЕН СУВЕРЕНИТЕТ В ЕРАТА НА ГЛОБАЛИЗАЦИЯ

National Sovereignty in the Era of Globalization

Abstract:
The report studies the transformation and the collapse of national sovereignty in the era of globalization. An essential attention is paid to the current foreign policy that the national states take and the position the political elite takes. Mentioned are the most significant problems that are caused by the lack of autonomous foreign policy.
The proposals made by the main theoretical perspectives on globalization are reviewed.
Keywords: Globalization, national sovereignty, foreign policy, elite, national states, society.

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Парадоксалната естетика на Дидро. Съществува ли каквато и да билa обективна "същност" на изкуството? Реализмът в Просвещението

The Paradoxical Aesthetics of Denis Diderot: Is There Any Objective ‘Essence’ of Art? Realism in Enlightenment
Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to go deeper into Diderot's studies of the origin of beauty. The very word "aesthetics" – derived from the Greek word “αίσθησης” and means sensation, perception or sense experience — concerns itself with the study of art and beauty. As a philosopher Diderot seeks to understand the principles that underlie our value judgments: What is beauty? Is it objective in any way? How is aesthetic pleasure related to perception? What is an artist? What is called talent or genius? What makes something be art? And isn’t it beauty just a perception of relations? Nevertheless this article has as its purpose to reveal part of the French aesthetics of the eighteenth century. Therefore, it passes through a number of philosophers who are deal themselves with the nature of beauty аs Plato, Augustine, Christian Wolf, Jean-Pierre Cruze, Fr. Hutchison.
Key words: history of philosophy, history of arts, realism, Diderot, аesthetic beauty, essence of the genius.

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Конфуцианството - традиция в промяната на Китай

Confucianism – Tradition in the Change of China
Abstract:
The paper discusses the role of Confucianism in today’s development of China. The influence of the teaching of ‘Master Kun’ is sought both on the level of the individual and the society as a whole. Emphasis is put on the changes which China is undergoing and the perspectives for the near future.
Key words: Confucius, China, the East, rituals

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Философски Апотеоз на Безпочвеността

Philosophical Аpotheosis of Groundlessness

Abstract:
This philosophical work presents an aphoristic approach towards the sublime amplitude of philosopher’s task in life. The author gives his own view of the various labors needed to be undertaken for the sake of the philosophical goal.
Key words: apotheosis, groundlessness, philosophy.

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ДАОДЪДЗИН: ВАРИАЦИИ И ВАРИАТИВНОСТ

INTERPRETATIONS OF DAODEJING

Abstract:
The paper aims to reveal the reasons for different perceptions of one of the fundamental texts of Daoism, Daodejing. It points out that fluidity and relativity are essential characteristics of the Chinese vision of reality and that this vision requires a corresponding language. Daodejing is a text, which simultaneously presents both the theoretical background of this vision and its practical application in language. Therefore its linear interpretation is not only impossible, it is incorrect.
Key words: Chinese philosophy, Daoism, dao, comparative thinking

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Гносеологически дискурси върху модерното понятие за човека

Gnoseological Discourse on the Modern Notion of Man

Abstract:
The paper is developing the thesis that the contemporary philosophical situation can be characterized by an enhanced interest in anthropological issues. The text therefore proceeds to place under analysis various gnoseological discourses on man. The views of Paul Ricoeur and Evandro Aggazzi on man as subject of philosophy are considered in detail.
Key wods: anthropology, Riceour, Aggazzi, concepts on man

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Постфеминизмът в ерата на Уеб 2.0

Postfeminism in the Age of Web 2.0
Abstract:
The text focuses on the public manifestations of female gender identity in the context of social network Facebook. The new myth of femininity in social networks includes mixture of new stereotypes about housework, “new age” practices, healthy life, technology and aesthetics of everyday life. The paper investigates the new meaning of gender roles and their levels of use in the public sphere.
Key words: media, social media, gender, postfeminism, popular culture

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Перформативни казвания

ПРЕВОДИ

В настоящия брой предлагаме два интересни философски текста на съвременни философи - Дейвид Луис и Джон Остин. Преводът е дело на доц. д-р Анна Бешкова от кат. „Логика, етика и естетика”, Философски факултет, СУ „Св. Климент Охридски”, София

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ЕЗИЦИ И ЕЗИК

ПРЕВОДИ

В настоящия брой предлагаме два интересни философски текста на съвременни философи - Дейвид Луис и Джон Остин. Преводът е дело на доц. д-р Анна Бешкова от кат. „Логика, етика и естетика”, Философски факултет, СУ „Св. Климент Охридски”, София

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Mathematics of Quality, Preference Logic and the Rationality of Desire

Abstract:
This essay introduces and strives to show the untenability of the (somewhat unjustly named) “dogma of Aristotelianism”. (§1) lists the principal tenets of the Aristotelian dogma and examines to what extent they are attributable to Aristotle, (§2) analyzes the first part of the dogma – the claim that mathematics is the study if quantity and hence is irrelevant to the study of qualitative structures, (§3) reviews briefly the concept of semiorder and discusses the possibility to interpret it as the foundation of the mathematical treatment of qualities, (§4) traces the genetic links between the algebraic theory of semiorders and the formal elaboration of the so-called preference logic, while (§5) develops on this basis a somewhat controversial claim, relating to the last part of the Aristotelian dogma – (ir)rationality of desire.
Keywords: philosophy of mathematics, semiorders, logic of preference, rationality.

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„Платоническият реализъм“ и проектът за философска логика

Platonic Realism and the Project of Philosophical Logic
Abstract:
The article is based on the main problems that the Russel's onthology (platonic realism) generates. The extreme realism that the philosopher allows is a fundament of his philosophical logic. From another point of view, persisting on this kind of realism leads to unsolvable problems on the field of philosophical logic.
Key words: Russell, philosophical logic, Platonic realism, logical form, Wittgenstein

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Връзката между референция и съществуване в рамките на Ръселовата теория за обозначаването

The Relation Between Reference and Existence in Russell’s Theory of Denoting
Abstract:
In this article, we will look at Russell's theory of descriptions and Strawson‘s critics on it. The main accent is on utterances that include certain definite descriptions that do not referrer to anything. The analysis requires us to focus our attention to the distinction between denotation and meaning because it is a key part of Russell’s and Strawson's arguments. We will put this problem in the context of other authors who share opinions on the matter: Geach, Austin, Donnellan, and Searle. The purpose of this text is to show that Russell has made an error analyzing these statements in saying that the use of definite descriptions implies existence.
Key words: Russell, reference, existence, denotation, Strawson,

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Понятието за „логическо пространство“ в Логико-философския трактат на Витгенщайн

The Concept of ‘Logical Space’ in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Abstract:
The current paper presents an attempt at clarifying the meaning of the words ‘logical space’ in the Tractatus 1.13 ‘The facts in logical space are the world’. This is achieved though exploring the concepts of ‘state of affairs’, ‘possible state of affairs’, ‘existing state of affairs’, ‘the existence and non-existence of states of affairs’, ‘fact’, ‘positive fact’, ‘negative fact’.
Keywords: Wittgenstein, Tractatus, logical space, state of affairs, possible world, truth-maker, reality.

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Бъртранд Ръсел и логическото конструиране на физическите обекти (1911 - 1914)

Bertrand Russell and the Logical Construction of Physical Objects (1911 - 1914)

Abstract:
The paper discusses Russell’s method of ‘logical construction’ of physical objects (matter) tracing its origin to the years 1911 – 1914. The influence upon Russell on the part of Whitehead and his invention of a method to represent points and moments and Wittgenstein’s skepticism is revealed. The influence of the British classical empiricists upon Russell’s thought is also discussed in both contexts: (1) of the view of the inferred physical objects from sense data, and (2) of a ‘threat’ to the way common sense and physical science conceives matter and material objects.
Key words: Russell, Whitehead, sense data, acquaintance, logical construction,

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Логически фикции и конструкции: Ръсел и релационното схващане за обективното време

Logical Fictions and Constructions: Russell and the Relational View of Objective Time

Abstract:
The paper present the chronology of Russell's attempts to develop a method for treating the moments of time as logical constructions, derived from the temporal relations of precedence and simultaneity between sets of events. It is organized as follows: (§1) introduces the key terminological distinctions between objective and subjective time, correspondingly between absolute and relational theories of time, (§2) discusses the relation between these two pairs of terms, along with the merits of the opposed conceptions of time; (§3) presents the various reasons, motivating Russell's suspicions that these are in fact the absolute and the relational conception of time are alternative, and that it is possible to formulate a consistent and internally coherent relational theory of time which differs essentially from the absolute conception, (§4) juxtaposes the different approaches to the formal deduction of the properties of the temporal series, which Russell has developed in the period 1913-1948 and concludes with some brief remarks on the inter-relations between logic, ontology and epistemology, as Russell has conceived them in his works.
Keywords: Bertrand Russell, time order, relational theory of time

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Ръселовата теория на типовете като решение на семантичните и теоретико-множествените парадокси

Russell’s Theory of Types as Solution to the Semantical and Theory of Sets Paradoxes

Abstract:

The paper represents Russell’s Type theory as a way to solve semantic and set theoretic paradoxes. A remarkable feature of this theory is that it is proposed as a resolution of both of these groups of paradoxes – the other popular proposals are directed only to one of these groups: either to the semanticparadoxes or to the paradoxes of set theoretic. It is contended that for this to be possible a price has to be paid which is both ontological (the acceptance of the existence of the abstract entities of propositional functions and propositions) and methodological (setting this ontology as a basis of logic).

Keywords: Russell, Type theory, semantic paradoxes, paradoxes in set theory

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Religion, ethics and scientific knowledge in the post-secular society: A case study of the stem cell controversy. Part 1.

Abstract: This paper compares and contrasts conflicting religious perspectives on the moral status of the human embryos and their use in stem cell research derived from major monotheistic religions such as Catholicism, Judaism and Islam. I examine the validity of such religious arguments in debates on stem cell research and science policy more broadly through a critical analysis of Jurgen Habermas’s theory of the post-secular society, particularly the claim that the clash between science and religion in contemporary liberal democracies could be offset by adopting a new concept of ethical citizenship. This normative perspective mandates epistemic flexibility by both religious and secular citizens who ought to willfully engage in complimentary learning processes in order to transcend the inherent limitations of both non-reflexive religious beliefs and narrow secularist worldviews. My analysis of the role of religion in the stem cell controversy suggests that the value positions of participants in public deliberations are deeply entrenched and ideological differences often translate into conflicting epistemic claims about science. I argue that a meaningful dialogue between science and religious traditions on the issue is largely dependent on how compatible are scientifically derived assessments of embryonic status with the respective religion’s fundamental theological tenets about the beginning of personhood. It is also contingent on the degree of openness of each religious tradition to both rival traditions and scientific knowledge. Additionally, I illustrate how the stem cell controversy is not reducible to the conflict between religion and scientific knowledge on the value of human embryonic life, around which stem cell debates worldwide have often been framed, by undertaking a close examination of three bioethical issues central to the debate: (1) secular perspectives on the contested moral status of the human embryo; (2) the ethics of human cloning technology; and (3) concerns about the exploitation of women as major tissue donors in the global stem cell bioeconomy.
Keywords: Stem cell research, religious perspectives on the moral status of the human embryo, bioethics, science policy, post-secularism

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Философската образованост като условие за осмисляне и определяне на светогледни нагласи

Abstract: The paper considers the predominant significance of the approaches of philosophical education. It put an accent on the work with philosophical texts. In this regard the article develops the hypothesis that this work brings to one of the main educative competence which is the ability of interpretation of phlosophical texts.
Keywords: sense, imagination, interpretation, understanding, erudition

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Хуманистични аспекти на християнския модернизъм на Николай Бердяев

Abstract: The paper reflects on some of the most significant aspects of the Berdyaev’s Christian modernism. It analyses his concept of human creativity, his unorthodox interpretation of Trinitarian doctrine and his categorical negation of Christian dogma of hell. The article claims that Berdyaev’s unorthodox ideas aim to unite Christianity and modern philosophy in a humanistic attempt to confirm the human dignity and freedom.
Keywords: humanism, human freedom, Trinitarian dogma, creativity

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Онтология на старостта

Abstract: In this article, the main problem raised is the subjective and ontological experience of aging, the problem between mind and body, and the way in which everything (whether living or not) "becomes" because of aging. I try to put a clear boundary between the way in which aging, as the stage of reaching old age, appears on the one hand in the non-living, on the other, in the living things. The ontological statement is that aging reveals itself as one of the basic reason of beingness at all and that we can understand it only through awareness of our own attitude towards it.
Keywords: aging, beingness, old age

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Глобализъм и национализъм – лице в лице

Abstract: This essay tries to analyse briefly globalism, nationalism and multicultural model. It considers the relation between the national idea and globalization. The paper put an accent on the changes that globalization causes to our social reality and to human lives.
Keywords: globalism, nationalism, multicultural model

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За Лъжците и Лъжите

Abstract: Some notable views on lies, deceptions and related paradoxes are briefly considered. Lying is seen to be a combination of intention and untruth, embodied in liars and lies.
Keywords: truth, paradox, semiotics

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Философията като двойно, тройно и N-брой подражания +-2500-годишно подражание

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present philosophy as an imitation of reality and to consider it as a "mimesis" of the existing. This way of thinking oviesly opposes to the opinion that philosophy is pure science and, as an alternative, it treats it as a unity of science and art - science as far as it explores things and art so much that it interprets them subjectively. As a result of that the article ends with another definition of man. Man as a subjectively-interpreting reality being, man as the constant imitator – of the nature, of the world itselfs, of God, of the language, of the other imitators.
Keywords: imitation, mimesis, philosophy and science, existing, being

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Музей на гадостта. Из романа на Светислав Басара "Ангелът на атентата".

Предложеният текст е откъс от романа на Светислав Басара „Ангелът на атентата“, публикуван през 2015 г. от издателство „Лагуна“. Романът е посветен на атентата в Сараево през 1914 г., послужил за повод за избухването на Първата световна война. Духът на австро-унгарския ерцхерцог Франц Фердинанд диктува спомените си на своя посмъртен и също безтелесен секретар Фердинанд Бертолд. В този невъзможен диалог Франц Фердинанд споделя размишленията си за атентата в Сараево, неговите причини и последици. Чрез духа на мъртвия ерцхерцог, Светислав Басара не прощава на никого – от иронията му не могат да се изплъзнат император Франц Йосиф, Фройд, Гьоте, Вагнер, Хитлер и други колоси на своето време.

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Херменевтиката на Гадамер и християнският догмат за Троицата и Въплъщението

Abstract: The paper studies some key concepts of Gadamer’s hermeneutics which have a religious origin. It tries to show that the postmetaphisical thinking – before its reflections on religion – is determined by the religious tradition in which its main representatives grew up. In the case of Gadamer this tradition is protestant Christianity. In postmetaphisical perspective the thinking couldn’t be detached from the tradition and the language wherein it was formed and accomplished.
Keywords: hermeneutics, interpretation, postmetaphisical thinking, protestant Christianity

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Информационната политика и петата свобода - свободно движение на данни

Abstract: The fifth freedom is motivated as a consequence of the information society and the development of mobile communications as an opportunity to remove barriers to the transfer of data in the fields of health, security, banking and transport. This seems entirely in the spirit and direction of European integration. But these 4 spheres have different regulation and concern sectors at different stages of development, with the most sensitive being the civil liberties.

Some European leaders believe that data transfer regulation can help address the issue of controlling new migration.

The introduction of fifth freedom is unlikely to be a solution, but it could ease the control of the processes that are taking place. However, it would be difficult to define the boundary between public information and a personal data base.

Key words: fifth freedom, information policy, migration, personal date base, European union, mobile communications

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Перфектната матримония от Самаел Аун Веор, представена от Георги Дивилски

Resume: The paper is an exposition of the main ideas of the book The Perfect Matrimony by Samael Aun Weor. According to him life by itself is an amazing experience that is based on unitotal understanding. Within the delicious feeling of sex, man finds his own path to creative comprehension. Sex is the vital function of the Cosmos. Thanks to it, everything lives and breathes. Man and woman gathered together in the solemn copula become divine creatures of indescribable nature. To live is to have universal consciousness. The grand fusion of religion is revealed within the incarnation of Word, which, Weor said, is one hundred percent sexual. Cosmic Christ and Sexual Magic form the basics of all teachings within the whole corners of the entire universe.

Key words: sacred sexuality, sexual regeneration, direct experience of reality, synthesis doctrine, supraconsciousness, sanctity, universal religion

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Су’нюдзин и Върховният път на Поднебесната, представени от Антоанета Николова

Abstract: The paper presents the philosophical implication of the ancient treatises on Daoist sexual practices. The meaning of the concepts of yin and yang as well as of the three kinds of energy are explained in both the theoretical and practical sence. These explanations should serve as an introduction to the translation of Su Nu Jing, one of the most popular scriptures on this topic.

Key words: Daoist sexual practices, yin and yang, qi

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Веберовият дух на капитализма - предвестник на рисковото общество. За кредитоспособния човек - „героят" на ранната и късна модерност

Abstract: The creditworthy person is the real "hero" of our time, but he isn't a discovery of modernity. In 1905 the father of sociology Max Weber "discovered" the creditworthy individual to be the bearer of the capitalism spirit. "The spirit of capitalism is the creditworthy person," Weber writes in his main work "The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism" and admits that the true measures and characteristics of the spirit of capitalism were set in the 18th century by one of the founding fathers of USA, Benjamin Franklin. Under the conditions of late modernity the creditworthy person again has a fundamental role in our society considered as a risky society in accordance with the definition, given by Urlich Beck in "The Risky Society - On the Way to Another Modernity".

Key words: Max Weber, spirit of capitalism, risky society

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Сравнение на разбирането за Висшата реалност в даоизма и будизма

Abstract: The aim of this article is to make a short comparison between the main concepts in the two most popular Eastern philosophies after giving a short description of both. The core conclusion of the work is that the Western perception is finding it extremely difficult to think "outside of the box" and therefore hard to understand the Eastern intentions.

Keywords: East, West, Daoism, Buddhism, Ultimate reality, concept, reason, language, expressing, metaphysic, nature

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Понятието Хаос в старогръцкото и древнокитайското мислене

Annotation: In this paper, the basic points of the concepts of Chaos as developed in Old Greece and Old China are compared. The main idea is that in Greek thought Chaos is a term for the cosmological beginning, prior to the order of Cosmos, while in the Chinese thought Chaos is a synonym to the unnamed and undifferentiated Ultimate reality. Therefore, while the Greek concept of Chaos represents the shift from mythological to rational thinking, the Chinese one is connected with ancient mystical practices for achieving this Ultimate reality that could not be grasped within the means of logic.

Key words: Chinese philosophy, comparative philosophy, Chaos

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Идеи за отношението към Другия - VI-XVI век

Abstract: The article makes an attempt to analyze the IDEA of the OTHER within the frames of Proto-globalization. The question of how to live in the conditions of uncertainty created by the presence of the Other has become extremely acute in the XVIth century when Europe has faced the unknown "Other" in America, India, China, Africa. This question is also a current, topical issue, because globalization requires an even greater intensity and permanence to continuously live in the company of the Other.

Key words: Oter, Otehrness, proto-globalization

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Влиянието на Херман Лоце върху Готлоб Фреге

Annotation

The paper reveals in broader lines the influence which Herman Lotze had on young Frege. Several ideas propounded by Lotze and later defended and developed by Frege are into focus: namely, the anti-psychologism, or objectivism, in logic; the context principle; and the broader view of logicism which Lotze maintained in a somewhat weaker version.

Key words: Lotze, Frege, objective content of ideas, logicism

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Медиите в тоталитарното общество

This article explores one of the most powerful methods, used by totalitarian regimes to control the population. This often involves large-scale of lies, manipulation of the opinion, censorship and various techniques of propaganda. The current text also refers to the modern media tools such as the internet to show ways to counteract manipulation and the fabrication of opinions. As the third level of these reflections is the question of the opposition nature-nurture, nature-law and nevertheless - the difference between human interests and human rights.

Key words: Communication, manipulation of the opinion, social media, propaganda, mindcontrol, censorship, nature, nurture, law, human rights, interests.

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Език, мислене, образование

Abstract: The text consists of 27 fragments written between 2014 and 2017. These are reflections devoted to the principles of humanities and humanitarian education and the necessary conditions for the development of the scholar. To the end, the focus is particularly on the study of Antiquity and classical education.

The fragments are grouped thematically in seven sections, with the following headings: "Language", "The Gift and Its Enhancement", "The University and Humanities", "The Method", "Free Thought", "Intellectuality and Virtue", "Antiquity and Education".

Key words: humanities, language, education, Antiquity

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История на хайку поезията в Италия

Abstract: The paper examines the history of Italian haiku. It is emphasizes that we live in the era of media, where the uppermost value is communication, and poetry is bound to lose ground and relevance. However the interest in haiku has been increasing recently. Some organizations and projects related to haiku are discussed. A gallery of portraits of Italian haiku poets is presented, including biographies and samples of haiku poems.

Key words: Italian poetry, Italian haiku, Haiku organizations.

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Капки дъжд в чаша вино - Кратко изложение на развитието на модерното хайку

Abstract: The article is a compendium of the development of modern Haiku. The Shomon School and the Nippon-ha (Japanese School) have been briefly analysed. The paper surveys two lines in the development of haiku after World War II: the Kyoshi-Line, in which the beauty of Nature is described and the Hekigoto-Line, which has added to perception also knowledge. In conclusion it is formulated that a universal nexus between traditional and modern Haiku is the aesthetic category “yugen” – the pure life beyond comprehension, the elegant and timeless beauty, the “ingeniously created ambiguity”.

Key words: history of haiku, traditional haiku (dento), modern haiku (gendai), perception, knowledge

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Исса и проститутките: хайку портрети от ранна модерна Япония

Abstract: Japanese haiku master Kobayashi Issa (1763-1828) considered beggars, peasants, orphans, and even ethnic minority outcastes, the Ainu, to be worthy subjects in his one-breath sketches: not looked down upon but rather appreciated as human beings. As a male poet acculturated in the male-dominant Japan of his era, did Issa’s penetrating sympathy for fellow creatures extend also to the economically, socially, and—in some cases—physically enslaved women of his time? An examination of his haiku about prostitutes—from the highest class courtesans of the Yoshiwara down to the lowest grade of streetwalker—reveals that, while there are exceptions, for the most part his haiku portraits of prostitutes coax readers toward deeper understanding and compassion.

Key words: poetry, haiku, Kobayashi Issa, haiku portraits of prostitutes.

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Водопади и фонтани в хайку и в западната поезия

Abstract: This article tries to answer two questions: first, why are civilization and its main symbol “the city” opposed to Nature in the West, while they are not confronted in the East; and second, in what way does this divergence between the Eastern and the Western cultures develop corresponding to different levels of Western poetry and haiku. The investigation proves that the primary contradiction – anthropocentrism versus cosmocentrism – reveals itself at different levels and raises other contradictions, such as: linguistic code versus pictorial code; metaphor understood in a narrow literary sense versus kigo; personification versus animism.

Key words: poetry, haiku, nature, city, Western culture, Eastern culture.

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Отвъд границите на националната държава - бежанците и техните права

Abstract: The article analyzes the difficulties faced by modern nation - states trying to deal with the problems of refugees. Undoubtedly the fact of the great numbers of refugees is a factor that complicates the situation, but many of the questions posed by the phenomenon are related to political values, concepts and traditions that are severely provoked. I explore the idea of Agamben of understanding the problem as biopolitical problem and I look at his criticism and that of Arendt and Rancière of the "Declaration of Human Rights". The idea that the phenomenon of "refugee" requires rethinking of basic political concepts is the subject of analyzes in my work.

Key words: refugee, human rights, nation-state, citizen

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Проблемът за „онтологическата относителност" във философията на У. О. Куайн

Abstract. The aim of the present paper is to compare two basic figures of the analytic philosophy: Quine and late Wittgenstein. What is to be argued here is that these two authors have many theses in common and they realize a turn within the analytic tradition. Among their followers are Sellars, Ostin, Searl, etc.

Keywords: linguistic turn, paradigm, reference, ontolology, conceptual scheme, representationalism, foundationalism

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Религия и толерантност

Abstract: In this article, the question of the religion-tolerance relation is discussed in general terms - in terms of the division of religions as inclusive and exclusive. The main question is whether this opposition, being too conditional and by itself exclusive, is real. The conclusion is that the more inclusive one religion is, the more exclusive it turns to be and vice versa. Exclusiveness is a peculiarity of each religion on its formal and institutional level whereas in the inner mystical level they all are inclusive.

Key words: tolerance, inclusive and exclusive religions

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„МИГРАНТЪТ" НА БЪЛГАРСКАТА „ЛЕВИЦА" И ЛЕВИТЕ МИГРАНТИ

Abstract: The article interprets conventional public images of the "migrant" in European and Bulgarian context and shows that for xenophobic Bulgarian Left, as well as Bulgarian and European extreme Right and transnational capitalism the existence of left-wing migrants is unwanted.

Key words: migrant, left, Bulgarian, European, capitalism, liberal

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Миграционният натиск върху Европейският съюз: причини и перспективи

Abstract: The article analyses the migratory potential of the countries in Africa and the Middle East as a source of migratory pressure on the European Union. The first part focuses on the factors explaining the magnitude and the peculiarities of this migratory potential. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of the age structure, the increasing shortage of employment for the new generations and the lack of resources for the growing population in Africa and the Middle East. In the second part of the article are formulated four perspectives of the migratory pressure on the EU: 1/ The migratory pressure will increase over the next decade; 2/ The differentiation between the refugees and the economic migrants will become more and more difficult; 3/ The migratory pressure will include in itself potential for Islamist terrorism, motivated by the crisis of the life perspectives of the young people in Africa and the Middle East; 4 / Middle East' and African migrants in Europe will support dual and conflict loyalties (to the old and the new homeland), which will cause concern among the "local" European population. Finally the article draws the conclusion that in this complex situation the EU faces a double challenge - to save the refugees and to save himself.

Keywords: Demographic transitions, migration pressure, push and pull factors, youth bulges, Africa and Middle East, European Union, migration policy

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ТЕНДЕНЦИИ НА КРИЗА И РАЗПАД НА ЛИБЕРАЛНАТА ДЕМОКРАЦИЯ В ЕПОХАТА НА ДИГИТАЛЕН КАПИТАЛИЗЪМ

Summary: The world today is in a large-scale financial and economic, refugee, social, ideological, geopolitical crisis as a result of the failure of neoclassical and neoliberal economic policies established after the 1970s. There is also a crisis of the international system of one global hegemon created after the 1990s. We have on the one side a trend of oligarchization of the democracy as a result of dependencies between political and economic elites, and on the other hand - trends of isolationism, populism, authoritarianism which find a fertile ground in a time of fear of all the crises, the image of the clear enemy and the illusions that there are easy decisions. The liberal democracy became possible as a result of the communication technologies of the Second industrial revolution and the rise of the social state. However now in conditions of sharp contradictions of the neoliberal capitalism and the rise the technologies of the Fourth industrial revolution it is in a state of decline and severe crisis.

Key words: Digital technologies, Industrial revolution, digital capitalism, digital sovereignty, mixed reality, rational choice

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ФИЛОСОФИЯ НА ИСТОРИЯТА И ДОГОНВАЩО РАЗВИТИЕ

Abstract: Starting point of the article is the Hegel's idea for historical and non-historical nations. The first nations are most developed and pave the way in history being models for development of the second ones which should take the same road. That means that there is a common universal history and undeveloped nations should do the same as the developed have done. However the periods of crises give rise ideas that there are many roads in the history. Such trend could be observed now in a time of growing geopolitical multipolarity and signs of deglobalization.

Key terms: historical nations, non-historical nations, philosophy of history, catch-up development, universal models, theories of modernization, developmental state, postmodernity

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Има ли умозаключението своя система? Един нов поглед към трансценденталната диалектика на Кант

Abstract: This article is dedicated to Kant's exceptional achievement in transcendental logic of Critique of pure reason - the inference as a pure and common logical form, not just the syllogism, is founded and deduced in its own logical formations. This result is accomplished on the basis of two main transformations. The first one is the incorporating the construction of unconditioned and its concepts in the structure of inference which allows Kant to solve the problem for the general logical function of the inference. The second connects the logical inference functions with the system of judgment and in such direction establishes these functions as extension and completion of the basic logical possibilities of the judgment. With that Kant also offers the stunning idea for the whole theoretical and structural integrity of logical thought-forms.

Kew words: Kant, transcendental dialectic, concepts of the unconditioned in the inference structure, the system of inference

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ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЯТ ПРОЕКТ НА ГОТФРИД ЛАЙБНИЦ

Abstract: The article tries to present almost unexplored in the Bulgarian philosophical and political science literature views of one of the most prominent representatives of the early Enlightenment - German philosopher, scientist, encyclopedist, politician and diplomat Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

It is formulated and argued that Leibniz creates a political proyect which keeps the spirit of his time, but is considerably ahead of that time wich outlines possible ways to build fairer and perfect political structure of society, and so - for the continuous progress of the mankind.

Key words: Political project, sovereign, state, union, progress

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Универсалният език: скептицизмът на Декарт и оптимизмът на Лайбниц

Abstract: The paper is a commentary to the translation of the famous letter of 20th November 1629 written by Descartes to Father Mersenne on the possibility, or rather impossibility, for universal language to be constructed. Descartes states his sceptic position that without the 'true philosophy' which should provide the primitive ideas out of which all thoughts can be constructed, and without firm knowledge of the order in which our thoughts go through the mind he has no hope to ever see such language in use. Leibniz, on the contrary, optimistically invents his theory of 'blind thought' (cognitatio caeca) believing that it removes the difficulties raised by Descartes. Lastly, the paper surveys in brief the influence of Leibniz's Characteristica universalis on Frege and the production of his first masterpiece Concept-script (Begriffsschrift), 1879.

Key words: Characteristica universalis, blind thought, Descartes, Leibniz, Hobbes

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Парадокси на реализма в аналитичната онтология на изкуството

Abstract: This article addresses some of the core problems related of realism about art objects. The discussion is limited to the two most general forms of fictional realism: the physical objects hypothesis, and the platonic abstractionism. I contend that while being objects (and not universals), artworks are neither just physical nor they are abstract. In the first part of the article, I outline the most prominent arguments against the physical objects hypothesis without ruling the hypothesis completely out. In the second part of the article, I discuss the two basic paradoxes related to abstractionism about art objects: the paradox of creation and the paradox of standards. The article aims at preparing the ground for a nominalist mixed theory of art objects with both physical and mental components in which the precise kind of ontological dependence of artworks upon concrete objects and events will have the final word.

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Пространството в хайку

Abstract: The paper seeks to answer the question what is the space in or of haiku especially in terms of the city as a topos. The answer of this question leads to many pairs of oppositions: internal-external, conscious-unconscious, natural-artificial, sacred-profane, etc. The paper however outlines that haiku is connected to a philosophy of non-duality that is going beyond opposition. Therefore its space is unfolding on the fine gap between oppositions, in the place where the natural and the artificial, the internal and the external are smoothly transforming into each other. On the basis of different examples the paper reveals how the different plans of the inner and outer, human, urban and nature spaces communicate with each other forming the sounding, deep echoing spaces of haiku and of the eternal depths of our being.

Key words: haiku, space, non-duality

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АНТОАНЕТА НИКОЛОВА: ВЕЧЕР НА ПОЕЗИЯТА

Антоанета Николова е родена през 1961 г. в София. Завършила е философия в СУ „Климент Охридски". Преподавател е по Източна философия в ЮЗУ „Неофит Рилски". Автор е на шест поетични книги, както и на философско-поетичното изследване "Езикът на Пустотата" (Колекция Аквариум Средиземноморие, 2003). Съпреводач заедно със София Катърова на антология със старокитайска пейзажна лирика "Поезия на планините и водите" (ИК „Стигмати", 2003), на стихове от будисткия поет и монах Ханшан „Стихове от Студената планина" (ИК „Изток-Запад", 2013), както и на избрани стихове на един от най-известните китайски поети Ли Бай „Прокуденият от небесата" (ИК „Изток-Запад", 2014). Нейни стихове са публикувани в антологии и списания на немски, английски, унгарски, японски и руски. Член е на Сдружение на български писатели, хайку клуб „София" и Световната хайку асоциация.

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Репресивното общество и утопията на сексуалното и политическо освобождение при Херберт Маркузе{1}

The Repressive Society and the Utopia of the Sexual and Political Liberation according Herbert Marcuse

Abstract: The article analyses Marcuse's ideas of repressive society and the power of Eros. The accent is also put on his conception of the mass culture as an ideology of industrial civilization and on the opposite vision of the high culture as one of the modes of the great refusal to the values and norms of the repressive society. The concepts of mass and high culture are analysed in the context of Marcuse's distinction of basic and surplus repression.

Keywords:repressive society, basic and surplus repression, mass culture, great refusal

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What is „this"?

Astract

The paper addresses the question of whether Strawson’s claim that ordinary language has no exact logic entails a view according to which it is in ordinary language’s nature to be ‘illogical’. It is first explained where the traditional idea of an exact, language-independent logic comes from, i.e. the idea of a logic which underlies ordinary languages and governs their logical use and which lack – if Strawson’s assumption is right – would leave ordinary languages being ‘illogical’ insofar as there would be nothing to eliminate their logical imperfections. Secondly, it is shown that it is inherent to language – to human language in contrast to animal ones – to be ‘logical’, because language games are typically introduced, explained, learned, and played out in a practice of giving and asking for reasons , which means, so to speak, in a ‘logical space’. Thus the fact that ordinary language has no exact logic – in the sense that there is no one-to-one correspondence between its (grammatico-)syntactic and its (logico-)semantic sentence forms – does not exclude the possibilities for it to be used in a logical manner.


Key words: metaphisics, thinking, framed feature model

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Нелогични ли са естествените езици?

ABSTRACT:

The paper addresses the question of whether Strawson’s claim that ordinary language has no exact logic entails a view according to which it is in ordinary language’s nature to be ‘illogical’. It is first explained where the traditional idea of an exact, language-independent logic comes from, i.e. the idea of a logic which underlies ordinary languages and governs their logical use and which lack – if Strawson’s assumption is right – would leave ordinary languages being ‘illogical’ insofar as there would be nothing to eliminate their logical imperfections. Secondly, it is shown that it is inherent to language – to human language in contrast to animal ones – to be ‘logical’, because language games are typically introduced, explained, learned, and played out in a practice of giving and asking for reasons , which means, so to speak, in a ‘logical space’. Thus the fact that ordinary language has no exact logic – in the sense that there is no one-to-one correspondence between its (grammatico-)syntactic and its (logico-)semantic sentence forms – does not exclude the possibilities for it to be used in a logical manner.

Key words: Strawson, ordinary language, logicality, logical space of reasons.

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Предикат ли e съществуването?: Дж. Е. Мур и Д. Пеърс

ABSTRACT:

My goal in this article is to present and compare two articles, written respectively by G. E. Moore and D. Pears, with identical name ‘Is Existence a Predicate?". First, I will try to trace the connection between the main ideas and to show whether there is continuity between them, and then to point out certain confusions and uncertainties. In conclusion, I would like to say that I think Pears was unable to refine the idea that "exists" is not the predicate, and that his thesis at best is only applicable to referential use of indexical singular terms.

Key words: Pears, Moore, predicate, referent, indexical

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Парадоксът на осъдения на смърт

ABSTRACT

After presenting a possible classification of paradoxes in general, a particular paradox is considered in the paper. It is maintained that there are no logical fallacies in the argumentation of the paradox but rather that there is a mistake of not taking into account all possible consequences of the premises. Nonetheless the conclusion is that the problem presented by the paradox is not resolved by showing that mistake, and it is suggested that because of this the paradox should be considered very seriously and its importance is comparable with the liar paradox.

Key words: paradox, liar paradox, logical fallacy, argumentation

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Фреге: живот - творчество - епоха (част първа)

ABSTRACT

This is the first chapter of the book on Frege's philosophy of language. The chapter reveals the private and university life of Frege, his ups and downs as a thinker and inventor of the first version of modern logic. Special emphasis is put on the episode related to the famous Russell's paradox which ended for considerable time Frege's work on logic and philosophy of arithmetic. The chapter ends with discussing the political and moral convictions and views of Frege expounded in his fam ous Diary of 1925.

Key words: Frege, Russell paradox, modern logic, logical notation, Frege's diary

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Рекламата на битова електроника в България 1930-1945 г. Аспекти на въздействията

Abstract: The paper analyses different aspects of the Bulgarian print advertising in the period 1930-1945. The main accent is put on the advertising of consumer electronics (radio receivers and gramophones). The thesis defended in the paper is that the language, the symbols, the product presentation, the images, the communication with the recipients and the style of advertisement are very different than those of the contemporary advertising environment. The analyzed adverbs could be found in books, dedicated to radiotechnics, electrical engineering, telewriters and electronics; in popular science and technical journals and also in some other papers and magazines.

Keywords: Bulgarian print media advertising, history of print advertising, old print advertising, old technics advertising, advertising strategies, informative advertising, graphic advertising

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Екзистенциалната свобода на Николай Бердяев и оковите на обществото, технологиите и пола

Abstract: The paper analyses the philosophical and religious ideas of Nikolai Berdyaev about existential freedom applied in the context of his views of the society, technology and sex. In this sense the article also focuses on other important Berdyaev’s concepts – those of objectivation, androgyny, humanism and dehumanization.

Keywords: existential freedom, Berdyaev and technology, objectivation, androgyny

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Изследване качествата на обществото, влияещи на радикализацията и тероризма

Abstract: The article presents the political and psychological analysis of the problem of the terrorism in view of the threats to national security. Solving this problem should not be done by military means and methods, and through understanding and elimination of psychological and political reasons for his birth.

Keywords: terrorism, national security

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Структуралистки упражнения в чест на Жорж Дюмезил (1898-1986)

Abstract: Georges Dumezil's trifunctional hypothesis is considered as a subject of various attempted revisions and extensions. It appears that in its original form there is enough logical coherence to resist modifications.

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Религията между разума и чувствата: Имануел Кант и Рудолф Ото

Abstract: The world of religion is often partitioned between the two main human abilities, feeling and reason. The experiencing of sacred places, objects, people, etc. undoubtedly involves intense feelings. But the understanding of this experience and the ability to classify it presumes thinking. During the Enlightenment and rational critique of religion began a series of reductionist attempts to relegate the religion only to reason. The purpose of this paper is to explicate one such attempt by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, and also to display an opportunity to outdo it by the German theologian and philosopher Rudolf Otto, author of one of the most famous theological books of the 20th century “Das Heilige”, 1917.

Keywords: sacred places, religion and reason, Rudolf Otto, Immanuel Kant

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Живата памет и не-живото тяло в биографични наративи за смъртта

Abstract: The present paper focuses on the individual and collective representations of the afterlife in the context of the recent developments of the death study, which blend psychological constructivist and social constructionist approaches. The latter could be applied to representations of “heaven”, “hell”, “nothingness” among others in culture, as well as to the „traces“ of the presence of the dead in the reality of the living people – from the expectations for one’s own funeral and for the contents of the posthumous memory to the projections of the dead bodies such as „encounters with spirits“ and fear of worms. The analysis of these representations relies on a specific interdisciplinary terminology, flexible enough to describe the intertwinement of various types of socialization, (non)religious beliefs, cultural practice and biographical trajectories. It introduces notions such as posthumous reputations, postselfs and postbodies.

Based on a sample of 60 biographical interviews of men and women (75 years old and over) from UK, Bulgaria and Romania and turning to the terminology of the psychological constructivism and the social constructionism this paper discusses the construction of the nonliving body and living memory of the deceased person. It shows how the gaining of existential meaning of the death presupposes an exchange and interchange of cultural models of mourning and personal experiences, of public instructions and individual strategies for coping with the loss of the innermost image of the loved ones and the fear of the disintegration and decay of the dead body.

Keywords: death study, posthumous reputations, postbodies, postselfs

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Евроскептицизмът и теоремата на Томас

Abstract: In the article the Euroscepticism is seen as a mixture of distrust in the EU institutions, rebellion against the status quo and pessimism about the future of the EU. The article analyzes the factors that contribute to expanding the influence of Euroscepticism - the presentism, i.e. the dictate of the present over the past and the future; the nationalism as nostalgia for clearly delineated borders; the crises in the functioning of the EU. The article briefly outlines several Euroscepticism's manifestations - electoral apathy, support for nationalist parties, and mistrust towards the EU institutions. Euroscepticism is treated on the one hand as a consequence of the crises in the EU and on the other as a factor in deepening the crisis. Euroscepticism is both a result of the crises and their root. Thomas theorem ("If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences") serves as an explanation of the role of Euroscepticism in the deepening the crisis in the EU. Incorrectly defined situation of the EU generates destructive impacts on his future.

Keywords: W. I. Thomas, self-fulfilling prophecy, historical memory, nationalism, crises, electoral apathy

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Разпадане на универсалното в глобалната епоха

Abstract: This paper raises questions about an invisible characteristic of the globalization – the lack of universality. There is a deep crisis in the very heart of human rationality -- crisis both ontological and epistemological: crisis of conceptuality. The contemporary individual has lost his in-dividable essence because now he is incapable of making identification and self-identification. The crisis is deeper than the crises of postmodern thinking, because it is a crisis in a crisis.

Key words: globalization, identification, self-identification, postmodern, concept

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Сексуалността в социалистическите дискурси в България: мълчанието и болестта

Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to analyse the presence and absence of sex and erotica in the public discourses in Bulgaria in the socialist period. First part of the paper reflects on the censorship of sexuality as a mean of its subjection. In its second part the article studies the usage of the metaphor of illness from the communist regime. The metaphor of illness is showed as an important element of the communist disciplinary practices. The article focuses on its importance for the communist constructions of the ideal human body.

Keywords: metaphor of illness, body-machine, body-organism, censorship of sexuality

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Деконструкцията на Дерида и юдейският Бог, който пише сам

Abstract: The paper reflects on Derrida's views on deconstruction in the context of Judaic tradition. It focuses on the Jewish relation to the Holy Scripture and Judaic emphasis on the written words. In this sense some ideas of Cabala are analysed. The article puts accent on the idea of infinite interpretation of Holy words in Cabala and lays stress on its influence upon Derrida.

Keywords: deconstruction, cabala, infinite interpretation

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ТАНГО – ОТ ДУАЛНОСТ КЪМ ЕДИНСТВО

All spiritual practices of the East aimed at reaching the rest physical and mostly mental. Similarly, the Tango can be defined as a type of spiritual practice, along the lines of the swing with a sword in Aikido or meditation in motion. Tango provides a clear expression of the merger of the two principles in nature, the two opposites--male and female--in one in a natural and extremely aesthetically appealing, minimalist way – like the simplicity of modification in Japanese painting, imbued by Zen.
Key words: Tango, Tao, Zen, Duality, Unity, Meditation

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ДИАЛОГЪТ ИЗТОК – ЗАПАД В ДВА ФИЛМА НА РЕЖИС ВАРНИЕ

This article is viewing the theme of the dialogue East-West through the prism of art. For this aim two of the director's Régis Wargnier movies are chosen for consideration. 
His cinemanovel  East-West ( EST - OUEST, 1999) is a classically based on the dramaturgy of the narrative cinema. The choice of this form is not an accidental one because his creative goal is to understand the complicated human destinies that are tragical subjects of influance of the dominant social relationships.  In this case the destiny of a whole generation that became a victim of the political reallity afther World War II in Europe is realised. 
The next work of Wargnier, Indochinaq ( Indochine, 1992) is build according to strictly dated historical facts skillfully interweaved with the cultural, political and everyday characteristics of the time and place.
Key words: ideology, culture, identity,,fate, life.

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СЪСТОЯНИЯ НА СЪЗНАНИЕТО В ЙОГИСТКИТЕ И ШАМАНСКИТЕ ПРАКТИКИ

The aim of the report is to highlight the similarities and differences between shaman’s and Yogi’s states of consciousness. Тheir characteristics вill be examined as follows; philosophical system, a system of rituals, value for the practitioner, different varieties of the practices worldwide. What immediately makes impression to the investigator, is not so much the emphasis on similarities, but on the remarkable fact that the differences between yoga and shamanism are complementary. Crystallization of this supplement slowly but surely lead to the realization of a more complete picture of the sacred in the world of two of the oldest techniques for a consciousness change.
Key words: Yoga, shamanism, consciousness, techniques, states of mind

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„В КОМПАНИТА НА ВЪЛЦИ” – “SEEING IS BELIEVING” ИЛИ ВИЗУАЛНО-СВОВЕСТНИЯТ ЕКСПЕРИМЕНТ НА АНДЖЕЛА КАРТЪР

Angela Carter creates fiction that is highly intertextual and very difficult to fit in a specific genre. The unquestionable label for Carter’s fiction (influenced or not by postmodern tendencies) is experimental - the author plays with conventions in every aspect of her works: character, plot, form, genre. Her collection of stories “The Bloody Chamber” (1979) is an example of such resume. The focus is on the story “The Company of Wolves”, adapted for the big screen with Carter as the screenwriter. This text aims at comparing “word” and “image”, story and film, scrutinizing expressive techniques used in both media. Problems in adaptation faced by film are discussed in detail in accordance to text specifics. In order to accomplish its goals this text observes texts and contexts in the body of Angela Carter’s work and beyond.
Key words: Carter, film, experiment, wolves

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ИСЛЯМЪТ И ЖЕНИТЕ НА БАЛКАНИТЕ

Откъс от главата “Ислямът и жените на Балканите" на книгата “Мюсюлманските общности на Баланите: посткомунистически трансформации”, публикувана от издателство “Критика и хуманизъм”, 2016,  в превод от английския оригинал “Rediscovering the Umma: Muslims in the Balkans between Nationalism and Transnationalism” (Oxford University Press, 2013).
Key words: Eastern philosophy, Daoism, dao, comparative thinking

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РЕЛИГИОЗНИЯТ СБЛЪСЪК МЕЖДУ ИСЛЯМ И КАТОЛИЦИЗЪМ В ТВОРЧЕСТВОТО НА МИШЕЛ УЕЛБЕК

The point of the text is to outline one of the main topics in the work of the French writer Michel Houellebecq – the conflict between two worlds and two religions: East (in the face of Islam) and West (represented through Catholicism and the European decadence from the late XIX and early XX century). The arguments according to which Houellebecq interprets the Islam and the Catholicism are displayed and analysed. His literature work is inscribed in the current intercultural issues and debates on the civilisation clash between two more and more different in their basis cultures - the European and the Islamic one.
The thesis of Houellebecq about the incapability of the Islam to get incorporated into the civilizational cultural and religious model of Western Europe is defended in accordance with the line of his thought in the novels “The Possibility of an Island”, “Submission”, “Platform,” and “Elementary particles.
Key words: Catholicism, Islam, European decadence, French literature, Crisis

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AGYEYA’S ‘SHEKHAR EK JIVANI’: THE WESTERN INFLUENCE

S.H. Vatsyayan Agyeya, a pioneer in introducing modern sensibility to the post Chhayawadi Hindi literature, is heavily influenced by Western literary aesthetics, fiction, poetry and ideologies. In his first and most famous novel Shekhar Ek Jivani (Shekhar : A Biography) the influence of the West is sufficiently evident. (This novel has been translated into Bulgarian). When a prominent Indian writer like Agyeya reveals such an acute consciousness of the Western influence in his writing process, it leads to various possibilities. In this article an attempt is made to explore the shades, contradictions and enrichment that is born from this literary union. I have also examined whether the influence of the West on Agyeya leads to assimilation into the mainstream Hindi novel writing or this venture by the author leads to a separate/parallel stream created by subverting the former.
Key words: Hindi literature, Western literary aesthetics, Vatsyayan Agyeya

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ВЪЗХИЩЕНИЕТО ОТ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЯ РЕД В ПЕРСИЯ СПОРЕД ПЛАТОНОВИЯ ДИАЛОГ „АЛКИВИАД“

The dialogue “Alcibiades” offers an excellent opportunity for the participant to speak exactly on the topic of the conference, because in the conversation between the elderly Socrates and the young Alcibiades the main problem is precisely this one: what should learn a young man,,in what values and how should he be educated, in order to become a really good statesman. The young Alcibiades intends to become a politician. It is easy to become a political figure, but this does not necessarily mean, that he will become a good ruler and true statesman, Socrates holds. In order to make his dream come true Alcibiades has to learn a lot, to understand and to contemplate on various questions, insist Socrates and as examples points to some of the traditions in the royal court of Persia and to some of the political and educational practices there, which are strongly idealized in the optics of Plato.
Key words: political education and formation of a future statesman; political order; monarchy and politeia; Persia and Athens; justice and just; the self-knowledge – highest aim of the philosopher and the politician-statesman

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MЛАДATA ПОЕЗИЯ НA 80-ТЕ МЕЖДУ ЗАПАДА И ИЗТОКА

The paper considers a specific aspect of young/new poetry of 1980s, especially typical of its collective language – its situated between and in both disparate poetical-philosophical Weltanschauungs – in course of western Anglo-Saxon “high” Modernism and the eastern zen sensitiveness. Despite of its opposite, both enters into the Bulgarian poetry simultaneously just during the 1980s… But all this is only the big subject matter. The situation in its details is more dynamical and relative. And just this dynamic is object of research study. The problem is examined both in diachronous literary-historical and synchronous poetical aspects. From the other hand – both in universal socio-cultural, philosophical, and cultural historical context and in the context of the Bulgarian poetic tradition.
Key words: young/new poetry of 1980s; late socialism; Anglo-Saxon Modernism; Zen; „deep figurativeness”; counterculture of the 1950-60s; the Аpril Poetry and Quiet Lyric.

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ПАРАЛЕЛИ НА КОНЦЕПЦИЯТА ЗА ‘ИН-ЯН’ В ЕВРОПЕЙСКАТА КУЛТУРА (Западната рецепция на древнокитайския символизъм)

This paper explores some Western receptions of the Chinese concepts ‘yin – yang’ and their philosophical reflection as а primordial symbolic system. The assumption of the underlying homology in the Universe as a whole suggests that there are related orders of events, analyzed in the so called ‘correlative thinking’ in Early China. The holistic view draws systematic correspondences between various levels of reality, e.g. the human, the world of nature and the cosmic unity. According to the theorists of quantum mechanics Heisenberg and Bohr there can be found striking analogies between Ancient Daoist thought and the principle of complementarity, concerning fundamental subatomic relatedness. C.G. Jung calls the Daoist approach the ‘synchronistic way’ – Yijing (the cosmological Book of Changes) involves the study and classification of events wherein meaningful interdependence transcends space, time and causality as a determining factor. Very close to the model of The Great Ultimate, representative for the yin - yang relationship, virtual particles in atomic physics correspond with one another in some basic aspect, even in some cases their identities are contained one within the other.
Key words: Eastern philosophy, modern science, synchrony, yin, yang, Dao, taiji

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БУРКАТА: ЗАПАДНИЯТ ПОГЛЕД

The article examines the reasons for the political, cultural and anthropological confrontations in the West on the occasion of the Islamic dress code.
Key words: burqa, veil, dress code, fashion, body

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СРЕЩАТА НА ИЗТОКА И ЗАПАДА В ЕТИКАТА НА ПРЕКЛОНЕНИЕ ПРЕД ЖИВОТА (към 140-годишнината от рождението на Алберт Швайцер)

The paper is dedicated to the 140th Anniversary of Albert Schweitzer. The main thesis is that the fundamental principle of Schweitzer’s ethics – Reverence to Life – symbolizes the ‘meeting’ between Western (European) and Eastern (Indian) thinking. Specific emphasis is put on the image of Schweitzer as the European mind influenced by the Indian norm of Ahimsa.
Key words: Albert Schweitzer, Reverence for life, Ahimsa

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„ЗАПАДЪТ“ ВЪВ ФИЛОСОФСКО-ИСТОРИЧЕСКА ПЕРСПЕКТИВА

The paper describes and analyzes some philosophical-historical approaches toward West as type of civilization, regional culture, cultural areal, that possesses a universal historical perspective. The critical and analytical approaches of M. Weber, A. Toynbee and Assen Ignatov are described. The “capitalist spirit”, the western rationalism, militarism, secularism are emphasized and criticized. The capacity of the West to be open, dynamic, to self-transform itself is analyzed within the framework of its potential historical universality.
Key words: philosophy of history, West, civilizations, religions, regional history, universal history

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КРАТКА ИСТОРИЯ НА АПРИОРНОСТТА

Abstract: In the current text the thesis of the presence of a dialectical moment in the historical development of the idea of the a priori. The concepts of Plato, Kant and Hartman, which have a key role in the development of the a priori,are chronologically presented . In the history of the idea of the a priori, the following dialectical movement is found: Plato describes the priori as objective, Kant reduces it to the subjective and rejustification of Hartman’s original position.
Key words: a priori, a posteriori, dialectic, historic development

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Влияние на икономическото учение на Адам Смит в романа „Евгени Онегин“

Abstract: The novel “Eugene Onegin” is analysed through the economical theory of Adam Smith. The research is literary, historical, but also philosophical as much as it turns to some thesis of the Russian anarchism. The displayed context is the one in which Pushkin uses the ideas of Adam Smith about the land, the profit and the private property. In summary is presented also the influence of the ideas of Smith and Marks over the novel of Pushkin and the changes from the middle 19th and early 20th century.

Key words: capital, serfdom, Russian anarchism, economical theory, gentry, political reforms

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Камбанарията и минарето: смислови сходства и различия

Abstract: The article compares the function and the meaning of the minaret and the bell tower. Despite their external similarity, the minaret and the bell tower have different religious sense. The minaret creates specific architectural silhouette of the temple. But additionally it uses the conceptual resources of the Tower of Babel and serves to impose territorial identification of Islam and to strengthen the unity of his followers.
Keywords: temple, minaret, bell tower, tower of Babel, menhir

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Етноси и политики: дебати и социални практики

Abstract: The paper analyzes varieties of aspects of “ethnos – politics” relation: notion of ethnos definitions in the contemporary debates; the ethic localism trends; the conflict generating factors; human rights issue; the legal aspects of the ethnic rights; the typology of the ethnic groups; the role of the state, etc.
Keywords: ethnos, ethnic groups, ethnic rights, ethnic conflicts

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Eтически и ценностни проблеми на науката

It is hard to find a more distinctive mark of modern society than the trust placed
in scientific knowledge. Science is regarded as perhaps the best exemplar
of objectivity, rationality, and progress in human affairs.i
Doppelt (Doppelt 2008: 303)

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През очите на дете: поетическото съзнание на Исса1

Abstract: The Japanese poet Kobayashi Issa (1763 - 1828) advocated a childlike state of consciousness for composers of haiku. This essay firstly examines Issa's aesthetic approach in the context of cultural antecedents, including Chinese Taoism and Japanese Pure Land Buddhism; and secondly it relates the approach to recent research in neuroscience concerning the development of the Default Mode Network (DMN). Issa's desire, expressed in one of his early poems, to become a child on New Year's Day can be understood as an attempt to return to a primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of the DMN or adult ego. The essay argues that this state of primary consciousness continues to be an important prerequisite for excellent haiku.

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Западни интерпретации на източния феномен хайку

Abstract: The different perception and reflection of the world have deep roots in the cultural heritage of Eastern and Western philosophy. Considering the differences between haiku and Western poetry we have to specify that Western poets use mainly metaphoric imagery while haiku poets use concrete imagery, expressed in simple language, and specific artistic devices which originate from Japanese language and culture. There are, however, three exceptions, which bring Eastern and Western poetry closer. They are:
- Surrealistic images
- Synesthesia
- Personification
They all are variants of metaphor understood in a narrow literary sense in view of the fact that there is transference of meanings. However they are used in different way in the East and in the West.
Key words: poetry, haiku, surrealistic images, synesthesia; personification

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Евгени Илиев Поезия

Евгени Илиев е роден през 1974 г. в град Гоце Делчев. Завършва библиотекознание в СУ „Климент Охридски“, където получава и магистърска степен по културна антропология. Публикувал е стихове и проза в „Литературен форум“, „Сега“, „Капитал“,„Грозни пеликани“ и др.

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Интернет – огледалото на човешката душа

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to analyze the phenomenon of the Internet using the techniques of philosophy, political science, sociology and psychology.I will try to shed light on aspects of global network, which are important for the development of nearly all societies today.

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Политическата трансформация на Еквадор в началото на ХХI век

Abstract: Since 2006 radical social changes have started in Ecuador. A decisive transformation in searching for a new idea and policy different from the Neoliberalism has begun. The transition into the third millennium is a time of crisis and protests. The Neoliberalism is the best form of government for the local oligarchy and transnational companies. The things changed on 15 January 2007, when the new president Rafael Correa dared to embark on a new path relying on changes in the socio-economic situation. External Correa's policy is very active in relation to international infrastructure projects and economic integration among the countries of the region, leading South America to the way of self development and a new political paradigm.

Keywords: South America, Ecuador, history, policy, modernity.

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Франц Брентано – специфика на психическите феномени

Abstract: The article views the problem for the psychic phenomena in the study of Franz Brentano. The way in which the philosopher differentiate it in his work Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt). Their specifics have been differentiated and the difference between physical and psychic phenomena has been shown. The doctrine of Brentano is interpreted as basic source of ideas for the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl which emerged in the beginning of 20th century.

Keywords: psychic phenomenon, psychology, intentionality, consciousness

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Екологичното съзнание и особеностите на източната мисловност

Abstract. The aim of the article is to outline some peculiarities of Orient mentality and their potential to form ecological consciousness. An important aspect of the ecological consciousness is the ecological attitude. It is defined as consisted of at least three aspects: attitude to nature, attitude to other human beings, and attitude towards the quantity of one’s own life.
Important ideas of Asian thought that can contribute to the development of ecological consciousness are discussed as a foundation for farther analysis. The conclusion is that ecology should not be simply a science but also a wisdom, spiritual experience and transformation.

Key words: deep ecology, ecological consciousness, Chinese thought

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Учението на В. И. Вернадски за ноосферата: наука или утопия?

Аbstract: The report presented the main ideas of V.I. Vernadsky, about the noosphere as a stage in the development of human culture (civilization). Reveals the internal contradictions of his concept - the pursuit of "naturalist" Vernadsky to perform scientific analysis of the formation and development of the "noosphere" as the highest stage in the geobiogenezis. Shows that even in shaping future socio-political implementations of noosphere society author manages to not leave the field of this analysis and does not pass into the field „philosophical and religious” utopianism.

Keywords: Noosphere, Science, Utopia.

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Политико-философският дискурс на границата между Халифата и тероризма - ИДИЛ

Abstract: On the 30th June 2014 the extremist organization "The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) has announced the establishment of a caliphate. With this act its the leaders not only has shooked the region and the world, but also they threw a strong challenge to the contemporary Islamic theologians. They formed the dogmatic case which brought to the surface the group as a real entity which has long struggled leadership among the other terrorist formations. After the announcement of the caliphate ISIL, it abolished "Iraq and the Levant" from its the name and became the only "The Islamic state", it does claiming their uniqueness to their competitors. This the terrorist organization has been a long history in Iraq. It has appeared on the map of extremist actors still living the former dictator Saddam Hussein. Its “birth date” is about 2000 and its the creator is the Jordanian Abu Musaab Zarqawi.

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Конфликтът между дигитална и реална демокрация (да помислим за делиберативната демокрация)

Abstract: To think about the DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY. The conflict between digital and real democracy - for thirty years now the digital-virtual public space is the undeniable and the influential factor which influences the human behavior and thinking. The digital democracy is part of this the digital-virtual space. This form of direct democracy has got itself the different dimensions: on the one hand, the representatives of a direct and a representative democracy are seek to influence through the electronic media and the digital channels of the representative and the direct democracy, which are a different, as well as the actual policy instruments to try to implement the specific applications of the digital media in a politics and for the government activities; on the other hand, the digital democracy has got twenty years of experience in the implementation of a digital democracy in the provision of information, of the online discussions and of to giving decision; furthermore, the digital-electronic democracy participates in the real politics. The digital democracy is being considered by the governments and the way to their orientation to the modern and the digital active of the civil society. The digital democracy is a kind of form theregulator of the real social democracy - eg. the issue of media freedom.

Keywords: deliberative democracy, digital-virtual public space, digital democracy, form of the direct democracy

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Политическа култура и социален ред

Abstract: The eternal problems of politics are what kind of institutions should be established,
i.e. what kind of social order should there be, and what is the permissible coercive power
of institutions that would ensure society will not break down, and hence human life become
impossible, how should institutions be changed, how can it be brought about that social
order should be perceived as a common good, by what means and in what way should social
order be maintained in society, etc. The problem of order in society is a fundamental political
one. Social action aimed at establishing or changing social order is political in nature.
Political action is public and its agents are institutional to some degree or other, whether
they be political parties, civic movements or groups of people claiming to express certain
values and/or interests. Political action is socio-normative not only because it is aimed at the creation, preservation or change of norms valid for society, but likewise because this action is itself dependent on norms and values.

Key words: values, socialization, social order, political culture, ideal type

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Поперианските начала на философската култура (70 години от създаването на „Отвореното общество и неговите врагове” и 20 години след Попър)

Abstract: The article attempts to reveal Popper’s views on philosophical culture. It is emphasized that according to Popper philosophy is a rational endeavour which came about with the first Milesian school of Thales and his pupils when they invented the critical discussion as a method to develop their theories. Therefore rationality seems to be the most essential attribute of philosophical culture apprehended as a specific attitude of mind and ability to reflect upon the world and man’s place in it. The consequences of adopting Popper’s critical rationalism are discussed with an emphasis on toleration and intellectual responsibility.

Key words: Popper, rationality, criticism, philosophical culture, Thales, Benda

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Светослав Коев Фотографии из цикъла "Улицата - шумове и мълчание"

Фотографии из цикъла "Улицата - шумове и мълчание"

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Поезия от Ли Бо

ЛИ БО (701-762) е един от най-известните китайски поети. Получава класическо конфуцианско образование, но е под силното влияние на даоизма. Харесва отшелническия живот. Пътува из цялата страна. Обикаля знаменитите планини, пътува по ждрелата на реките, по земите на древните царства Ци и Лу. Опитва се да заеме чиновническа служба, но много скоро се разочарова от този живот и напуска. Оставя изключително богато литературно наследство. Оказва въздействие върху цялата китайска поезия.

Стиховете са от подготвения в издателство „Изток-Запад“ сборник с поезия на Ли Бо.

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Джуандзъ за езика и света

Abstract: This article is an attempt to present some essential aspects of the authentic Chinese wisdom that is not based on rational and absolutist constructs as is the Western thought. It discusses the problem of the relation of language to the reality. Its main thesis derived from the Zhuangzi’s treatise is that language is not able to capture entities, it cannot reach or reflect the reality. The article presents the main difference in the philosophical premises of East and West – while the Western thought and logic is built on the idea of substance and entities, the Eastern thought penetrates the understanding of Void, the process of relativity.
Key words: Chinese philosophy, Zhuangzi, language, reality, void

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След 26 август 1914: 100 години с Хулио Кортасар

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the 100-year anniversary of Julio Cortazar and accentuates the great Argentinian's political legacy. The present text does not focus on the question whether Cortazar's political persuasions leave room for the social revolution, but rather on the revolutionary way of thinking that is embedded in the very poetics of any given work by this author. This poetics was constituted by means of expression such as repetition and the construction of parallel chronotopes.

Key words: revolution, Cortazar’s poetics, chronotopes, Gilles Deleuze

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Интеграционна теория за съзнанието

Abstract: The purpose of this article is a philosophical and privatescientific argumentation of the Integration theory of the nature of consciousness. In its development, the author draws mainly on two achievements of the East-European tradition in psychology and philosophy of the mind. These are L. S. Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory and A. Gavrilov’s Relational Hypothesis of the Mind, and through updating and synthesis with the modern neurophysiological concepts of the function of the brain, the author seeks an integrative defi nition of consciousness.

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Дипломатическата култура: два подхода при изследването й

Abstract. The article is focused on two possible approaches to investigate diplomatic culture. The first one implies the consideration of diplomatic culture as “encounter culture” and examines the consequences of this view. The second approach envisions diplomatic culture in its natural development and outlines different phases of its creation emphasizing on the ”classical diplomatic culture”. At the end conclusions are drawn related to the current state of diplomatic culture, the challenges with which it has to cope and the perspective of its survival and proliferation.

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Национална и европейска идентичност в сравнителен план

Abstract: Тhe study explores the character of the Supranational identity that is being created within the European Union. In order to understand the models that are used in its construction a comparative analysis between the National and European identity is proposed.

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Философия на любовта като път към божественото: щрихи от от “Руският Ерос”

Abstract: The paper describes some Russian philosophical interpretations of love /at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century/ as a sacral phenomenon and notion, a way towards God. The philosophical-anthropological approach of those authors analyzes love as metaphysical relation between man and woman, human being and nature, human being and society, human being and God.
Keywords: love, man, woman, God, society, nature.

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Феноменология и символиката на полуотвореното (1)

The article examines the problem of semi-openness on the basis of a G. Bachelard’s idea mentioned in his “Poetics of space”. Speech closes through meaning while through poetic expression it opens. Movements of "opening and closing are so numerous, so reversible, so tentative" that the philosopher suggests the following wording: "man is essentially semi-open being". In the article Bachelard's ideas are extended by analyzing examples from the field of belles-letters. They cover the existential meanings attributed to the half-open door, eyes, lips, and the so-called mixed objects - object-subjects, which according to the French philosopher open themselves like us and create a sense of intimacy. The idea of semi-openness can be associated from psychoanalytic point of view with melancholy and the accompanying splitting of the personality. It is therefore devoted considerable attention to the way in which psychoanalytic concept of "crypt" appears in the T. Gautier’s work.

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За пластическите достижения на художника Рабиндранат Тагор

Abstract: Rabindranath Tagore is one of the most remarkable and multifaceted personalities of India – a talented writer, poet, play-writer and musician. He was the first Nobel Laureate, both from India and Asia. In the last decade of his long and fulfilled life he was devoted to painting. It is not a hobby for him, but a natural continuation of his literary and spiritual interests. Tagore has penetrating eyes and flaming imagination. With true and genuine dedication he painted portraits, still lifes, landscapes, fantastic birds. As a highly concentrated and focused man, he walks the path from accidental scratching lines and spots on his manuscripts to realized high-impact compositions constructed with compelling sincerity and emotion. Even nowadays his paintings have modern look and impress with his brilliant performance. In the process of drawing Rabindranath Tagore was very vital. He created over 2500 paintings that are the pride of many galleries and museums not only in India but also around the world. In this study I analyze the achievements of Rabindranath Tagore as a painter which is a less known side of his life.

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Безглаголните хайку на Битието

Abstract: Non-verb haiku are studied on the base of 6 books of haiku poetry translated into Bulgarian. Some original Bulgarian haiku poems are also studied. Although non-verb haiku are a relatively small group as compared to verb-containing haiku, they reveal a rich semantic content. Interesting cases, such as haiku expressing movement and feelings, are analyzed together with the usual beingness and identification which non-verb sentences presuppose.

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Шок за Башьо: (някои) съвременни американски „хайку”

Abstract: Recent publications of experimental English-language haiku have raised a hotly debated question: Do such poems represent the avant-garde of 21st century haiku, or are they "haiku" only because a poet or editor claims that they are? This essay explores this question, beginning with a 17th-century haiku written by the Japanese master Matsuo Basho. An examination of Basho's poem shows that haiku has been an experimental genre since its inception that has required readers to fill in gaps by using their imaginations. However, when we compare Basho's poem with some recent postmodern English-language haiku, it soon becomes clear that poets are leaving so much to the reader's interpretation that their verses have ceased to function as haiku in the traditional sense. Whether these experiments represent the future of haiku or not haiku at all must be decided by poets, readers, editors, and critics. This essay attempts to begin this important inquiry.

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За някои особености на далекоизточната поезия и мисловност

Abstract: In the article the question of why in Far East shorts forms of poetry are developed is discussed. It analyses such specific for the Eastern thought concepts as response, synchronicity, dynamism, unity, naturalness and the way they are coded in the traditional poetry. The conclusion is that it is the three-lines form of haiku and the four-lines form of traditional Chinese verses that are the simplest and most efficient way for expression of Reality as it is revealed by the Eastern thought.

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Защо отворената врата изглежда затворена – един възможен отговор

Abstract:The theme of the unsaid in the poetic text has numerous projections in different plains of philosophy and literature. The aim of the present work is to study the unsaid from a viewpoint connected to the shortest poetic form, haiku, in which the unsaid develops its full potential. A dialogue between East and West is in focus in this research, searching for commonalities in the act of creation, regardless of the differences between Eastern and Western culture.
Key words: haiku, the unsaid, Eastern and Western philosophy

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Същност на контрафактичния анализ и приложението му при Дейвид Люис

The article "The Essence of Counterfactual Analysis and David Lewis Understanding of it" aims at outlining the essence of the counterfactuality and the ensuing counterfactual analysis, which became famous after the publication of Robert Fogel's book: "Railways and American Economic Growth: Essays in Interpretative in 1964. The text focuses on one of the "birth" places of the counterfactual issues - the causality as a particular field of logics - but also explores the David Lewes' views on the semantics of 'possible worlds' and its degree of similarity with the real one. The great majority of the philosophers who think that the causal facts need to be explained thought (or reduced to) the occurrence-facts together with the fundamental-law-facts, regulating the occurrences, are in favour of the approach that regards the counterfactual causality as the explanatory key to the issues.

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Измерения на отношението наука – свобода

Abstract: The objective of this work is to attempt to structure familiarity of scientific paradigms up to present days. Conversions thanks to which certain types of scientific artifacts have become the driving force of our lives. Of course it is normal to one to think this seems absurd at first, but you focus on the key factors of human life, we can easily assimilate trails marked by science.

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Шльонск и регионалните предизвикателства пред полската идентичност

Abstract: Article is a theoretical attempt to observe manifestations of contemporary regionalism in respect of modern doctrine of nationalism. Analysis is based on traditions and culture of Silesia, Poland. The main accent is put on tension that can be seen in attempts of practical political realization of aspirations for gaining autonomy for Silesia. History of observed region is presented as a battlefield where both national and regional ideologies look for and find their symbolic arguments. Article is focused on the question of people's identity and its political usages. Nowadays collective identity is a part of regionalist efforts people living in Silesia to be recognized as national minority because of their cultural and ethnical diversity.
Key words: Silesia, Poland, regionalism, nationalism, identity, national minority, ethnical minority, history

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Амнезията и реконструкциите на историческата памет: от идеологическите паметници на социализма към комерсиализацията на културния туризъм в посттоталитарна България

Abstract: In its first part the paper lays germanstress on the ideological nature of the socialistic cultural objects in Bulgaria. In this aspect subject of analysis are different socialistic guide-books, touristic brochures and photo-albums of Bulgaria where on the foreground ideological monuments are presented. The oblivion, the moving or the destruction of these monuments after 1989 are also analyzed. In its second part the paper focuses on the commercialization of the cultural tourism in Bulgaria after 1989. On the basis of Zygmunt Bauman’s figure of the “tourist” the consumer attitude towards lots of cultural-historical objects ande their close relation to the kitsch is studied.

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Реално и трансцедентално в учението на толтеките

Abstact: The article illuminates the philosophy of the Toltecs, based on the evolving human consciousness. The ancient practices allowed for the warrior-Toltec to expand his consciousness. Then he could “see” and realize the transcendental realities, thus they cease to be illusions, unreal and fantasies. The author puts an accent in the article on the “flying creatures” (voladores) that are described by the Nagual-mystics as beings feeding on human consciousness; that is accordingly the reason why the human mind could comprehend only the 3D reality. The human population has forgotten its spiritual nature due to the lack of energy and consciousness and developed an aggressive way of living. The cosmic energies emanating after 2012 will influence the human consciousness by allowing it to change its perceptions and remember its cosmic origin.

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Относителността въображаемо-реално в религиите

Abstract: The main thesis of the article is that in the fundament of the religion lays a specific kind of experience within which the believers claim to experience the Ultimate Reality. The presumptions of this thesis are based on the conclusions of transpersonal psychology. Here we may distinguish at least three disputable points: 1) although the religion is a complex phenomenon, its distinctive feature is a special kind of experience; 2) this experience can be explained as a transpersonal experience; 3) transpersonal experiences imply a different perceiving of the reality. This reality can receive different names, including “God” in terms of apophatics. The common conclusion of this kind of experience is that it is the Reality as it is while the reality perceived in daily experience is its illusive interpretation. In such a way the relation imaginative-real is reversed: the reality achieved through transpersonal experience is the Ultimate Reality, while the world of common experience is an illusion.
Key words: transpersonal experience, Ultimate Reality, Eastern religions.

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Материалното въображение и неговите измерения в пространството

Abstract: The article aims to examine the role of imagination as something that offers the possibility to transcend reality and, at the same time, as a means of penetrating into the singular, individual inner world of every Man. The text is based on the poetics of Gaston Bachelard and that is why the imagination is considered as an ontological possibility of the psyche. An object of research is the material imagination and its dimensions in space visualized by the image.

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Симулакрумният век

Abstract: Of course, everything could be easily explained by the unreserved adoption of the basic attitudes of the postmodern world. However, since the late 60-s, our world has become the world of the postmodern, and both its contents and stylistic evaluations, that are being applied to arts or culture (including Philosophy), require the interpretations through the simulacra matrix of the postmodernism and its metaphoric images of the events in history and culture. Thus, people, having nothing in common between each other, when sharing the meanings or the interpretations on any dominating texts, have lost any sense or understanding out of that semiotic puzzle.

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Семиотика на виртуалния образ в киноизкуството

This paper analyses the symbolism of virtual image as observed in two movies: “The Great Gatsby” (1974) directed by Jack Clayton and “The Rum Diary” (2011) directed by Bruce Robinson. In both movies the directors turn to using of reflections by mirror surfaces as well as of transparent images which are analogous to the virtual ones created by transparent surfaces. In the second of the mentioned cases the virtual images are situated in the room behind the reflecting surface among the real individuals and objects, creating in this way an impression of unreality. An entering to characters‘ inner world, in which their invisible remembrances, dreams or desires are placed, is a peculiarity of the symbolism of the virtual image. The scenes in which such images appear can be considered as hypograms according to Riffaterre‘s conception, i.e. they are of utmost significance for the understanding of the whole movie.

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За същността на иманентните и трансцедентни обекти във феноменологията на Едмунд Хусерл

The article analyzes the early work (before 1913) of Edmund Husserl. The main topic is the specifics of the immanent and transcendent objects. The immanent are seen as related to the consciousness and the analysis of essences. The transcendent – as incomplete and external from the consciousness'es view. The article also shows how Husserl overcomes the classical interpretations of image. The analysis is historically philosophical. It interprets Husserl's work through Wundt's and Brentano's psychological point of view.

Keywords: Phenomenology, Immanent and transcendent objects, Edmund Husserl, psychology, consciousness, image.

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“Живата метафора” на Рикьор като възможност за ново описване на реалността

The subject of this article is the notion of metaphor, used by Ricœur in the context of figure of speech, which taken out of the field of poetry and introduced to the language of philosophy, would facilitate overcoming the difficulties arising from the language of classical metaphysics. The idea of the metaphor aims at ending the dominating understanding of correspondence between reality and thinking. The metaphor represents the unity of reason and action.

Keywords: metaphor, identity, language, discourse, hermeneutics

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Религиозното тяло и ислямският дрес код

The human body is one of the main resources of religions as they practice em-bodiment of their spiritual aspirations. This paper makes a comparative analysis of expressions of religious believes through bodily signs (prayer-habits, dietary regimen, sleep deprivation, sexual abstinence, etc). The focus of the analysis is one of the manifestations of these religious bodily signs, especially in Islamic cultures - the control of the body through clothing. The Islamic dress code is seen as a manifestation of religious obligation, commitment to the religious community, gender status expression, sexual protection, and personal choice.

Key words: religious bodily signs, Islamic dress code, gender status expression

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Теорията на съзнанието на Аристотел Гаврилов – принос и противоречия

The purpose of this article is to examine the contribution of Aristotel Gavrilov, a representative of antirepresentationalism (or presentationism, in the terminology of the Bulgarian philosophical tradition). The significance of this contribution is determined not only by the fact that it is an original attempt to formulate an extended philosophical concept of the nature of consciousness but also an exceptional opportunity to explicate the main methodological shortcomings in solving the subject – object relations in the traditions both of the presentationism approach and the representationalism.

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Аспекти на киберсигурността в комуникационното общество

В статията се обосновава тезата, че проблемите на киберсигурността са едни от най-важните проблеми на съвременнния свят. На основата на схващането на киберсигурността като постигането на такова състояние на обществото, при което то ще може да предотврати и отрази заплахите и да осигури превъзходство в изграждането и функционирането на виртуалното (кибер) пространството, се очертават главните аспекти, съдържанието и механизмите на киберсигурността на комуникационното общество.

The paper defends the argument that the problem of the cybersecurity is one of the most important problems of the contemporary world. Cybersecurity is defined as the possibility of a society to prevent and reject the threats in cyberspace. On this basis the main aspects, the nature and the mechanisms of the cybersecurity in the communication society could be identified.

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Развитие на дигиталната компетентност у студентите

The investment in the "human capital" through the provision of a better education and development of skills and competencies corresponding to the new demands of the knowledge-based society and economy has been highlighted as one of the important priorities for Europe in the 21st century.
This paper discusses issues related to the effective use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the learning process, and the need to encourage and develop the information and digital literacy of students. The author focuses on the role of the new basic skills and competencies for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process of students and their adaptation to the requirements of the global and dynamic labor market.
The paper also includes an empirical component relating to studying the extent of the use of digital technologies by students at Southwest University, their level of acquiring necessary skills and competencies, and their motivation to increase their level of digital literacy in order to meet the constantly changing requirements of work and life in the digital society .

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Българските политици и Мрежата

This article analyzes the activity of Bulgarian politicians on the web, their skills to use new technologies in their political activity.

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Виртуализацията и фантомите на информационното общество

Virtualization is the replacement of real objects and actions by images and communications. Traditional institutions prescribe doing real things and real actions but people instead operate with virtual objects – images that make social institutions a kind of virtual reality. Political parties and other organizations lose their role in the struggle for power while virtual political power – image of candidates - becomes critically important. Capitalism and alter-social movements do not restore authenticity against imagery but find value in fluid authenticity.

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Дигиталните технологии и изобразителното изкуство

Through digital technologies and virtual reality, art has become extremely available. I will focus your attention specifically on oil art. Will be traced the image of man in the works of digital artists like: Maggie Taylor, Ricardo Fernandez Ortega, Sanna Tomac, Susan Madsen, Vicente Arnas, Eli Tiunine, Marco Escobedo, Danny Quirk and Adam Martinakis.

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Изкуството: фикция и/или реалност

The imaginary is present in human life and poetry expresses it by creating a fictional world. This world fills the gaps and shortcomings of the real world. Metaphor is a mean of escaping from the reality and a perfect form of spirituality, which closens real and imaginary life.

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За виртуалната природа на изкуството

The text briefly revises the etymological and the philosophical uses of the term "virtual". Virtual space and virtual time are the key components for the aesthetics of Susanne Langer in making the idea of a work of art both a symbol and a virtual object, where the audience gains an experience of the primordial nature. In the understanding of the conceptual feeling originating from the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead lies the key to the possibility of infinite interpretation of the eternal categories from the field of ethics and morality.

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КАК СЕ ПИШЕ ДОБРА ПОЕЗИЯ

Илеана Стоянова е от знатните възрожденски родове на Добри Чинтулов и Сава Доброплодни. Има висше образование по икономика, работи като икономически журналист в различни столични вестници. Живее и работи в София. Интересите й са в областта на изкуството - литература, музика и изобразително изкуство. Занимава се с поезия от най-ранна възраст. Автор на шест стихосбирки: "Милост е живота" (1990), "Руини и небеса" (1992), "Полонези" (1994), "На върха на зенита" (2008) ,"Любовна песен" (2009) и "Десет хиляди мига" (2011). През октомври 1995 г. участва в международния фестивал "Смедеревска песенна есен" в Сърбия. Нейни стихове са включени в двутомната библиофилска антология "Български поетеси. Избрано" (1997; съст. Блага Димитрова), както и в двуезичното (българо-френско) литературно списание "Български писмена". Има публикувани стихове в сп. "Пламък", сп. "Орфей", в. "Литературен вестник", в. "Словото днес" , в "Дума" ; електронно списание "Литернет" и др. Стиховете й са превеждани на френски, сръбски и македонски. Носител на трета награда в поетичния конкурс "Жената - любима и майка" - 2012 г.

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За Кант, Хегел и гения на Гьоте

Abstract: The main purpose of the text is to reveal some great delusions in the philosophical systems of two great philosophers. Greatness itself cannot be a sufficient proof of trueness, greatness depends on specific minds and spirits of its age. In this paper the author puts the idea for reconsideration. To reconsider Kant and Hegel's philosophy in order to prevent overreliance in authority. To reconsider Goethe's philosophy in order to find out the genius of the poet. It is time for philosophy to respect the evolution of thought and the progress of science and to upgrowth itself above any kind of dogmatism, because a genuine philosophy mostly requires freedom.

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Томас Бернхард и проблемът за немската идентичност в литературата след Втората световна война

Abstract: Thomas Bernhard's works are reviewed mostly through his novel "The Old Masters". The book attempts to derive a specific aesthetic method, typical for the novelistic heritage of the Austrian writer. The main topic is the destiny of Germany, which is shown in the context of post-war literature. The article reviews certain aspects of the so called antipatriotic literature, common for post-war Austria. The theory is supported by quotations from "The Old Masters", referring to Martin Heidegger's philosophical views.

Keywords: Austrian Literature, Thomas Bernhard, Austria, the old masters, Heidegger.

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Жената като „абсолютно другото" във философията

The Woman as the "Absolute Other" in E. Levinas's Philosophy

Abstract: The feminine (le feminin) and the woman hold a particular status in Levinas's works. Particular in the sense that like other key notions in his philosophy, they are characterized by the author himself as ambivalent, which on the other hand often renders their interpretation difficult and leads to ambiguous, sometimes mutually exclusive, interpretations. This duality is expressed in Levinas's treatment of both notions - on one hand they are the step stone to the French philosopher's focal theme about The Other, and on the other hand, they are seen as the "absolute alterity", thus drawing criticism stemming from the clearly manifested "man's writing" and the author's androcentric position.

keywords: The feminine, woman, ambiguity, the Other, alterity, androcentrism

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Being in Heidegger's Shoes

Abstract: Heidegger's comments about a pair of shoes painted by van Gogh are read with attention to their historical context.

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"Интелектуалецът и Другият"

Abstract: The paper analyzes main notions, ideas and values regarding the opposition between the Intellectual and the Other as described in the Jose Ortega Gasset's essay.

Keywords: Intellectual, Other, creative work, pragmatic attitude

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Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет и Бенедето Кроче – „рицарите” на „южния” либерализъм на ХХ век

Ortega y Gasset and Benedetto Croce: Two “Knights” of Twentieth-Century “Southern” Liberalism

Abstract: Several important aspects of the political philosophy of Ortega y Gasset and Benedetto Croce, the principal representatives of Liberalism during the first half of the twentieth century in Spain and Italy, respectively, are discussed in the present article. This parallel examination shows how, during the hardest period in the history of Liberalism, and notwithstanding their complicate and erratic individual stories as philosophers and persons, the two thinkers kept their loyalty to the principles of Liberalism; thus they contributed both to the theory and, what in our opinion is even more important, to the practical realisation of the liberal society.

Keywords: Politics, Liberalism, Freedom

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Мотивът за „кризата на Европа" във възгледите на Освалд Шпенглер и Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет

Abstract: The article is dedicated to one of the main philosophical subjects in the first quarter of the 20th century - the subject of the European crisis presented in the opinions of Oswald Spengler and José Ortega y Gasset. The paper analyses the Spengler's conception of the crisis in the context of his cyclic theory of the life and death of the cultural organisms. In this frame the European crisis is reflected as a period of an inevitable decline and ending of the European culture. In its second part the article studies the Ortega's point of view of European crisis in the perspective of his conception of the historical crises as a period of liberation of the dead forms of culture. In this context the crisis of Europe appears not as a decline but as a crucial moment in the European history.

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Светът на метафората

Abstract: As an universal principle of culture the metaphor is an opportunity for man to escape reality, to be free and to recreate a new desired world for himself. Through culture countless ways of playing the game, fantasy and freedom are revealed and all are man’s essence.

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Потенциалност и метафора (Един възможен „изместващ прочит" на разбирането на Ортега-и-Гасет за метафората)

Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to elaborate a "misreading" of Jose Ortega y Gasset's view on metaphors as an aesthetical possibility to escape from reality. Preserving the metaphorical tension in metaphorical action as a non-predetermined one will be taken into account in order with the conceptualization of the Aristotelian term dunamis. The term potentiality concerns infinity of speech as well as incompleteness of perception towards the things in the world. In addition, the problem of singularity appears here in relation with the metaphorical action.

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Ортега. Приноси към философията

Abstract: The article makes a sketch about the idea of human life, which is the fundamental concept of the philosophy of Ortega y Gasset, contrasting it with the notion of substance, as has been usually understood. The comparison is done in the context of the debate about the traditional matter of the philosophy, the question of being.

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Комплексен прочит на една комплексна мисловност

Abstract: The essay highlights the absolute necessity to read Ortega's thought with an open and complex mind. With an idealistic mind, looking for precise definitions, rigid classifications, final answers is possible to mix up the acceptance of the unpredictability and lack of precision of the reality with certain vagueness or contradiction in Ortega's work. Its urgent to leave the old idealism and assume that there is no precision in the reality so it couldn't be neither in the knowledge you can obtain from it.

Key words: Complexity/Complex thought; Idealism; Ortega y Gasset, sociology.

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Стивън Дън - Поезия

СТИВЪН ДЪН е роден през 1939 г. във Форест Хил, щат Ню Йорк. През 1962 г. получава бакалавърска степен по история от университетa Хофcтpа. От 1974 г. преподава в Ричард Стоктън колеж в Ню Джърси, където е заслужил професор по творческо писане. Той е автор на шестнадесет книги, включително “Pазлични часове”, която печели през 2001 г. наградата Пулицър за поезия. Негови стихотворения са публикувани в много списания, между които Атлантик, Новата република, Ню Йоркър.

Публикуваните стихове са в превод на Христина Керанова. От 2000 г. тя преподава писане, четене и английски като втори език в училища, колежи и университети в Атланта, щат Джoрджия. От 2012 г. преподава английски език в програмата за чужденци в университета в Дейтън, щат Охайо. Превежда българска и американска поезия и публикува преводи, разкази и есета в литературни списания.

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Познанието в Шопенхауеровия репрезентативен могел. Идеята за мигновеността на чистото познание

Abstract
The paper goal is to deliver a comment on the specifics of Schopenhauer’s idea of knowledge and the separation between the gnoseological knowledge and the knowledge of the pure subject. Accordingly, while referring to this problem, this paper will be exploring the idea of mediation of the knowledge of pure subject. In its essence the gnoseological knowledge, as described by Schopenhauer, is representation. In this sense, it is a subject to the a priori principle of sufficient reason and therefore of its forms – time and space, causality. The pure subject’s knowledge is beyond those forms, as explained by Schopenhauer, the pure knowledge is aesthetical knowledge, which goes beyond the intellect for a brief moment and by doing that reflects on the pure ideas themselves. Without taking up the discussion of Schopenhauer’s aesthetics here, we can nevertheless point out that the pure knowledge is strictly connected to this part of his philosophy.
Keywords: knowledge, pure subject of knowledge, individuation, principle of sufficient reason, representation

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Карл Маркс за религията: концептуален контекст и влияния

The paper analyses the main notions and the dynamics of Marx’s theory of religion in the light of the social spiritual and economic trends at his time, and especially as social critic, not as immanent religious critic. The analysis and the critic of religion are discussed within the framework of: the critic of the German speculative philosophy; the human production; the social relationships of alienation. This approach is placed by K. Marx within a social-historical context where the surmounting of the religious illusion involves perfecting societal relations and is linked with the rationality, transparency and humaneness of these relations. That philosophical trend strives to embody the transcendent in the immanent not only in thought but in reality as well. On this basis concrete practices are proposed for implementing this process: in the case of Marx this is the attainment of transparency and rationality in social relationships through scientific and technological progress and revolutionary change. The diversity of theoretical attitudes to the Marx’s theory and method and their influence are emphasized: M.Weber, E.Fromm, P.Tillich, S.Freud, etc.
Key words: Marx, religion, materialist philosophy, capitalism, alienation, social critic.

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Демаркационният проблем (поперианска лекция)

Аз твърдя, че философски проблеми съществуват и твърдя дори, че съм решил един от тях.
Карл Попър (Попър 1998: 123)

Според известен речник думата „демаркация” (demarcaton) има сложен произход от испанска, италианска или немска дума и означава „разграничавам, полагам граница (между)”. В английския език терминът demarcaton за пръв път се появява през 1816 г., но проблемът, който назовава, е далеч по-стар. В общи линии той се свежда до въпроса как да се разграничи науката от не-науката. „Не-наука” е събирателен термин, с който обхващаме както математика, логика и метафизика, така и астрология, алхимия и френология – с други думи, всякакви псевдо-, лъже-, пара-, квази- научни възгледи и теории, които „претендират да са научни, но не са, защото имитират науката”. (Стефанов 2007: 9). За философията на науката проблемът винаги е на дневен ред и дискусиите по него продължават и днес.

Карл Попър вероятно е философът, който през двайсети век най-много е допринесъл за решаването на демаркационния проблем. Решението на Попър е в основата на неговата философия на науката, но също и на неговата социална философия (Лозев 2000). В интелектуалната си автобиография „Безкрайното търсене” Попър ни е оставил интересно описание на ситуацията, в която за първи път осъзнава значението на проблема. Той е едва седемнайсет годишен, когато присъства на изнесената от Айнщайн лекция във Виенския университет през 1919 г. Младежът излиза от лекцията зашеметен, защото по думите му тя „далеч надминаваше моите разбирания” (Попър 1998: 38), но е най-силно впечатлен от „недвусмисленото твърдение на Айнщайн, че би сметнал теорията си за несъстоятелна, ако тя не издържи на определена проверка” (Попър 1998: 39).

Макар и млад, Попър долавя колко различен е подходът и отношението на Айнщайн към собствената му теория в сравнение с позицията на Маркс, Фройд и Адлер към създадените от тях „научни” теории. Готовността на Айнщайн да приеме възможния провал на своята теория Попър не открива нито в марксизма, нито в психоанализата, нито в индивидуалната психология. Защо са така различни тези „теории”? И справедливо ли е всички тях да именуваме с термина „научна теория”?

Размислите върху тази тема ще доведат след време философа Попър до създаването на първия му, и най-важен за неговата философия на науката, труд Logik der Forschung (Логиката на научното откритие), 1935.

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Между негативния и позитивния протест

Abstract. The author analyzes the first civil protest in Bulgaria from September 1987 until February 1988. It took place in Ruse and was caused by the pollution that a chemistry factory in the neighboring Romanian city of Giurgiu had constantly been producing since 1984 and Bulgarian authorities could not cope with it. The citizens of Ruse suffered not only from the pollution but also from the silence enforced on their problem in mass-media by the ruling Communist Party. Six ordinary women were encouraged, probably by the Soviet policy of “glasnost” and “perestroika”, to organize their acquaintances and friends to protest peacefully against the silence on the pollution of their town. They used formal and informal channels to persuade people and to prepare the slogans for the demonstration. Then the initiative was taken by the intellectuals from Sofia. Their activities as well as the repressions of the authorities transformed the civil protest into a political one. The role of the Soviet leader M. Gorbachov to discredit the Bulgarian leader by interfering with the Bulgarian-Romanian diplomatic debate on the pollution remained hidden for both country and capital eco-activists.

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Анатомия на един граждански протест в България в края на социализма: случаят „Русе"

Abstract. The author analyzes the first civil protest in Bulgaria from September 1987 until February 1988. It took place in Ruse and was caused by the pollution that a chemistry factory in the neighboring Romanian city of Giurgiu had constantly been producing since 1984 and Bulgarian authorities could not cope with it. The citizens of Ruse suffered not only from the pollution but also from the silence enforced on their problem in mass-media by the ruling Communist Party. Six ordinary women were encouraged, probably by the Soviet policy of “glasnost” and “perestroika”, to organize their acquaintances and friends to protest peacefully against the silence on the pollution of their town. They used formal and informal channels to persuade people and to prepare the slogans for the demonstration. Then the initiative was taken by the intellectuals from Sofia. Their activities as well as the repressions of the authorities transformed the civil protest into a political one. The role of the Soviet leader M. Gorbachov to discredit the Bulgarian leader by interfering with the Bulgarian-Romanian diplomatic debate on the pollution remained hidden for both country and capital eco-activists.

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Протестна мобилизация при популистка ситуация

Abstract. In recent years populism has become a question of present interest for both foreign and Bulgarian researchers. The paper aims to examine the following research question: How and to what extent populist situation motivates political participation in the form of a protest attitude. Here populist situation (Stefan Popov, Ivan Krystev, Petya Kabakchieva) means the context within which the motives of protest attitude would be examined. The paper draws attention to the perceptions of the absence of adequate political representation and the transformation in public sphere. The notion is based on the fact that these changes reflect the vigorous fragmentation of the society, so the common is transformed into a mechanical sum of individual demands and ideas (on concrete issues). On one hand, this decreases the options for effective collective actions; while on the other, it increases the influence of various populist trends, because populism successfully profits from the disappointment energy, rage and fear, thus transforming the latter into mobilizing power, used to oppose the political status quo through an appeal to the unappeased masses (Jean-Pierre Rioux).

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Май 1968: Образът на Дьо Гол в лозунгите, афишите и графитите

Abstract.French May 1968 is one of the most brilliant examples of civil protest in the modern history. For the first time in France, 10 million workers are out on the street, and within one day their number increased by one million. For the first time, the role of De Gaulle is call into question. The comprehensive study of the May events would be impossible without clarifying the role of slogans, posters and graffiti because they are one of the most authentic sources of this period and are an expression of the position of the French society as a civil society, which has ceased to be a "silent majority". The slogans weren’t "mass production" of party headquarters, but were made by the hand of the individual. Posters, created by the Popular Workshops, were an immediate response to the official position. The graffiti that filled the walls of hours were taken up by meetings and demonstrations, or embedded in posters. The purpose of this research is the study of the image of the General, established on the basis of these valuable historical documents.

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Темата за кризата на Европа и упадъка на мисленето във философските възгледи на Мартин Хайдегер

The topic of the European crisis and the decline of the thinking in the philosophy of Martin Heidegger

Gergana Naidenova

Abstract: The article discusses some main Heidegger‘s concepts and ideas in the context of the topic of the European crisis which appears in the philosophy in the end of 19 century and develops in the period between World Wars. The main question of the paper is the one: is the thematization of Heidegger‘s philosophy in this conceptual framework possible. With this purpose the Heidegger‘s criticism of the European philosophy that causes the dominance of science and technology, the concept of Das Man etc. are studied. The conclusion is that although the Heidegger‘s philosophy concerns not with political but with ontological problems there are some political implications of his thought.

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Утопията на сексуалното и политическо освобождение в „репресивната хипотеза“ на Херберт Маркузе и критиката й от страна на Мишел Фуко

The Utopia of the sexual and political liberation in the “repressive hypothesis” of Herbert Marcuse and its criticism on the part of Michel Foucault

Gergana Popova

In its first part the article discusses Marcuse’s ideas of the repressive society. The concepts of the false needs and false consciousness, the “performance principle” in the contemporary culture, the relation between eros and culture are studied. The article focuses on Marcuse’s idea of the distinction between the basic and surplus repression and on the historical nature of the surplus repression. The accidental, historical characteristic of the surplus repression enable the possibility for the new non-repressive civilization that could be formed on the principle of pleasure. In this process according Marcuse the sexuality plays a principal part. In its second part the article discusses Michel Foucault’s criticism on this theory defined by him as the “repressive hypothesis”. Foucault speaks ironically of the power that Marcuse gives to the sexuality and claims that the relationship between power and sexuality is much more complicated than is in the Marcuse’s scheme.

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Раждането на аналитичния метод: Джордж Мур и преодоляването на Кантовата философия

The Birth of Analytical Method: George Moore and the Overcoming of Kantian Philosophy
Kamen Lozev
ABSTRACT: The article is dedicated to a crucial moment in the philosophical development of George Moore during his work on his two dissertations, 1897-1898. It is argued that what has been later known as ‘the analytical method’ in philosophy came out largely as a result from Moore’s criticism of Kant and his deontological ethical theory. The main thrust of Moore’s critique of Kant is his accusation that Kant is too ‘subjective’ and too ‘psychological’ in his attempt to show the necessary connection between human will and freedom.

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Изначалният беззвучен звук: учението за АУМ и за четирите четвъртини на atman в „Мандукя упанишад”

The primordial soundless sound: the doctrine of AUM and of the four quarters of atman in Majdukya upanicad

Milena Bratoeva

The present paper is an attempt to interpret the doctrine about the four modalities of atman, encoded in the supreme sacred sound AUM, introduced in the Majdukya upanicad, belonging to the tradition of Atharvaveda and composed probably around 450 – 400 BC. The four states of the consciousness have been described in brief in the Majdukya, which consists of only twelve definitions (sutras). Despite of its briefness Majdukya upanicad is one of the most significant and in-depth texts among the so called “classical” upanicads. The Upanicad has attracted the attention of Gaudapada – one of the founder of advaita vedanta, who wrote a profound commentary on it. The fundamental idea of Majdukya is that atman, the Self, is identical to brahman, the Absolute, and that the essence of both of them is prajava, the primordial cosmic vibration.

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За изобразителните трансформации на музика в индийската култура

On Visual Transformations of Music in Culture of India

Ivanka Vlaeva

Abstract. There is a specific tradition in India – the miniature called ragamala (literally – a garland of ragas), which visualizes raga. It develops since the end of the 16th century. Exact iconographic moulds have been made through the centuries. Their aims are to express definite musical and aesthetic characteristics and to reflect the structure of the mode system and its elements in pictures. This research turns on the core of the unique ragamala. Some of the questions that the current study raises and looks into are: What kind of relations we can find between music and fine arts? In which way the structure of raga is transferred from the music to the miniature? The author describes her own observations on the contemporary continuity of the ragamala tradition in India and especially in Raghurajpur a heritage crafts village in Puri distric, Orissa. There are observed transformation from court art into folk forms.

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Тантра – пътят на познанието в епохата на Кали Юга

Tantra - the path of knowledge in the age of Kali Yuga

Nikolay Yankov

Summary: Despite sprouting from the same roots of the traditional indian world conception, through the years tantra has developed its own unique doctrine, which has often threatened the stability of the orthodox, thus becoming an inconvenient and eretical phenomenon due to its potential to break the established norms of conduct and encourage each individual no matter his caste background to experience the mystical unity with the divine. But even the most striking and extreme practices of tantra find their explanation and logic in the traditional indian thought. Even more, tantra has proved to be the only direct successor of the ancient vedic cult. Through the doctrine of tantra for the first time in aryan-dominated India the idea of the Divine Mother becomes so powerful that permeates into almost every sphere of indian life. As Andre Padoux says: „For the last thousand years what we think of hinduism is in fact pure tantrism“. And the rediscovery of the divine femenine power is very much related with the sensitivity of the contemporary age of Kali Yuga (Age of discord) – an age of materialization and desintegration of the values. As the authors of the tantras put it – this teaching is not a new teaching but a new revelation of the truth of the Vedas, addressed to the man of the Kali Yuga when the spiritual is hidden beneath the veil of the sensitive, physical and material because tantra promises its followers that it is going to libearate them from the material, by letting them step upon the material, which constitutes our everyday perceptions.

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Отчуждението в румънската философия – една слабо познавана култура на съседа

The article refers mainly to the philosophical work of Ion Dezideriu Sirbu as a part of the cultural inheritance of Romania. Which is little known not only in Bulgaria. Unlike other countrymen of his like Cioran, Ion Dezideriu Sirbu does not leave his country, therefore his recently translated diaries have never been published during his lifetime. Though bound in an unbreakable way with the political-historical context of his time, Sirbu’ s thought goes beyond these frames and transcends the human existential-political being. The questions about Death and Alienation leave the existential boundaries and reach the metaphysical inquiry. There are questions in his diaries that step over the contemporary being not less painfully. About the role of the philosophic endeavourer in society, about the role of philosophy for the mankind altogether.

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Законът за достатъчното основание – пред-откъм-при Шопенхауер

Abstract: The main goal of this article is to establish the significance of Schopenhauer’s interpretation of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. For this purpose it is necessary to explicate the genesis and the nature of the principle in some of the main interpretations through the history of philosophy. The article analyzes some inquires of the principle before Leibniz and also Leibniz’s interpretation. It is essential to outline the specifics of Schopenhauer’s idea of the principle as a prerequisite for the knowledge itself in the representational model of the world, i.e. the world as representation. The paper also presents Schopenhauer’s concept of the “fourfold”-ness of the root of principle of sufficient reason.

Key words: Schopenhauer, Sufficient Reason, Scottish Philosophy, Leibniz, Representation.

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Типика и елементи на понятието в Хегеловата логика

Abstract: The article discusses the theory of concept, which Hegel develops in Subjective logic of his fundamental work Science of Logic. Hegel define the concept as the least and the most basic unit among the logical forms in Traditional logic. So the concept is demonstrated as the basis, upon which the theories of judgment and syllogism must ground. Hegel deduces three basic component of the concept: universal, particular and singular concept. In this way Hegel develops in movement and deduction the relation between genus, species and individual, which relation is axiomatic for the Traditional logic. The triad structure pretends to be the essential logical structure of the concept and reveals his full potential as form of thought.

Keywords: Hegel’s logic, universal, particular and singular concept, genus and species, Traditional logic

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Франсис Брадли и неговото влияние върху Мур и Ръсел

Astract: The paper summarizes the main ideas of Bradley’s idealist philosophy which most influenced the thought of Moore and Russell. At some length are discussed Bradley’s doctrines of ‘internal relations’, the Absolute, the non-existence of individual facts as well as the doctrine that we do not do justice to reality when we deal with singular judgments. It is argued that both Moore and Russell grew as philosophers in an incessant struggle with Bradley’s main ideas.

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Изток – Запад – относителността на разграниченията

The main aim of the article is to present the idea of boundary in Western and especially in Eastern thought through the very relation East-West. East and West are used as symbols of particular kind of interpreting the world – in terms of unity and in terms of differentiation. Revelation of the relativity of content and meaning constructing the both sides of the relation, proves the validity of ideas, developed in Eastern thought, and guides to the conclusion that the two kinds of thought are equally important aspects of the human thought as a whole.

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За границите на себепознанието. Поетическото мечтание – форма на себеизразяване и трансцендиране

The aim of the paper is to realize a philosophical and anthropological reflection on the process of day-dreaming and to represent it as a creative self-expression and self-overcoming of the Man. The paper analyzes the role of day-dreaming to transcend the reality and to understand the inner world of the Man.

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Крахът на мултикултурализма или необходимостта от неговото преосмисляне в контекста на „Манифеста на Брайвик”

The contemporary concepts of toleration, plurality and justice differ on the interpretation of civil and private roles, and of the institutions conducive to human freedom and rights. Since moral evolves under public pressure, its weakness and defects have become gradually apparent: present cultural xenophobia and racism emanate from past territorial aggressions and fearful mythologies (against violent incursions). They are no longer appropriate in today’s global multicultural world, purposive to the 21st century’s ethos of harmonious living together.

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Ислямът в Европа

The article analyzes the phenomenon of Euro-Islam; the causes of its vitality are examined. Special attention is focused on the failure of multiculturalism and the inability to achieve social dialogue between representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, and religions.

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Преди и след Стената: към типологията на държавните граници

State borders are considered as constituting and constituted factor for the society. The article discusses three types of state borders – traditional, isolationist (totalitarian) and post-nationalstate borders. It concludes that the globalization leads to ambiguous consequences for the state borders: some of them drop, but new appear.
Key words: border, Berlin Wall, Schengen Agreement

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Граници и идентичности – от „селяни” и „християни” до „българи” и „сърби” (1877-1918 г.)

Тhe article explores the process of forging national identity in an transitional region where the ethnic boundaries were not that clearly outlined. The cases have been traced where on the base of preliminary attitude for Serbian or Bulgarian identity or in the absence of national consciousness, because of certain cultural settings and the long-term activities of state institutions, the Serbian and Bulgarian identities were built and created. These newly built identities strictly followed the political border between Serbia and Bulgaria established at Berlin congress 1878 that survived in the three decades formative period until the Balkan wars and the First world war.

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Предразсъдъкът като граница и изказ на дорефлексивното съдържание на съзнанието. Позитивността на предразсъдъците

... Where is the location of prejudices here?
Prejudices will play a positive role of prism that will help to find what lies behind or beyond the barrier as their meaning. Prejudice will appear as a rhetorical question, directing the mind to search for meaning behind the very meaning, expanding horizon and positive role in the interpretation to be possible not only one point to explain all the possible answers, and answers to appear only possible decision or interpretation of multiple questions.

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Съдбата на текста. Една вариация върху огъня

The cultural aspect of the text is its creative nature. Any sense that touches us, to one degree or another, moulds us; and with any response, whichobjectifies our inner experience, we create the text. Arguments in support of her thesis the authoress is searching in one of the most representative works of Bulgarian art culture – the dance drama "Nestinarka" by Marin Goleminov. In this work the fire is raised to heights of an unifying poetic image, whose essential characteristic is complexio oppositorum – the paradoxical unity of opposites. The analysis shows that if complexio oppositorum is a generating model in the creation of the work, logically it should be also a generating model in the process of its comprehension.

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Градивото на текста – статути на словото

The author draws attention to the basic theses about types, which occur in relation to the word, after materials from Bulgarian literature and some fundamental texts of our civilization.

What is the difference between the wording of the Bible, the Koran, the ancient sacred texts and a modern text on the problems of biblical and koran studies, of the ancient religions. The authentic religious texts sublimate impressions of eternity and infinity while the modern texts sound on a small-scale, describing a human horizon which is always finite. The word having a status of denoting one is the primordial Word coming from God.

In a status of depicting one is the word, which comes from the man. It is no longer that untouchable spirit of truth. It loses its horizon of eternity, but wins a whole pallet of new attitudes to time – to be not only fashionable, but classy, to be contemporary, but at the same time to be dependent on the conjuncture, to be archaic and in its archaism – super modern one.

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Регионалните проекти на левите режими в Латинска Америка и бъдещето на Организацията на американските държави

Abstract. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current situation in South America’s regional cooperation, taking into account contemporary foreign policy of the leading Latin America’s countries, particularly the way they perceive the regional cooperation process. At the beginning it assesses the neo-liberalist course during the 1990s taken by South America’s governments which explains why these countries have chosen to put economic emphasis on the style of regional relations. Since 2002 the shift to the left in the region, albeit with different nuances has set up new political agenda for regional cooperation that makes up the newly created UNASUR as well as Venezuelan President-led ALBA, to complete the horizons of the new pattern of the South American cooperation. This Latin America’s regional dynamics has left its mark on the OAS. Although it has been for a long time regarded as USA-led regional organization, the OAS activities has evolved in multidimensional framework for regional cooperation in defending democracy and human rights in the Western Hemisphere. The Inter-American Democratic Charter, while a significant milestone in the history of the OAS, is far form being excellent in promoting democratic governance. Nevertheless, the OAS continues to gain relevance in despite of numerous challenges presented by the newly established Latin-American organizations seeking for autonomous South America’s regional cooperation, excluding the USA and Canada.

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За природата на фантастичното и границите на въображаемото

Many of the classical readings of fantastic literature, such as Todorov’s, Cawelti’s or Caillois’s emphasize the subversive or irrational component of it. Although studies on its mimetic component exist as well, they have not pursued to the end the logical conclusions of the interaction between both fields. Through a typology of objects as they appear in fantastic fiction, and the study of their ontology, this article attempts to show how realistic view is not only a foundational base of fantastic discourse but it also proves what this discourse is claimed to question. The author examines the contrast between Todorov’s functional definitions of the fantastic and the ironic view and SF ideas of Stanislav Lem. The conclusion is reached that fantastic literature is oxymoronic by essence, and only subversive or dissident a posteriori, i.e. after obeying the conscious intentions of the writer.

Keywords
Fantastic Literature; Mimesis; Literary Realism; Subversion

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Религията като емоционален феномен: Фридрих Шлайермахер

The author has presented and analyzed some of Schleiermacher’s basic ideas on and approaches to religion. The analysis focuses on the abstract level, the ideal in Schleiermacher’s interpretation of religion, and then on the concrete historical, social-political being of religion. In the first aspect, Schleiermacher views religion not as a functional tool used by the individual or by society , but as an expression of the actual emotional relationship between the human being and God. Schleiermacher emphasizes the priority of religion and Church as his spiritual ideal over philosophy, morality, state, politics. He deduces this priority from the priority of the spiritual over the material, of the eternal and universal over everyday life and passions. Schleiermacher searches for the causes of the low social and cultural status of religion in contemporary society moving from the normative essence of religion and humanity to their empirical contemporary reality.

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Една цивилизация – много култури

The text concerns the need of civilizing in the irreversible process of globalization. The toleration as an expression of the civilization and as a need for culture survival. Civilization as uniting people and culture as giving them identity.

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Синергетика и толерантност

This article discusses the problems of tolerance and globalization in terms of synergetics. The main idea is that synergetics can be used both for explanation of the processes in contemporary society and as a method of their turning in appropriate direction. It is shown that the synergetics itself is an example of the principle of tolerance. It not only combines in a creative way achievements of science and arts but reveals points of coincides of Western and Eastern thinking. In terms of synergetics and non-duality, globalization can be a path for forming a new global consciousness of tolerance and creativity.

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Толерантността към чужденците в глобалния свят

This paper examines the necessity of a culture of tolerance in the contemporary world. As more multicultural environments of living are observed due to large-scale migrations the problem of tolerance of foreigners is raised. Z. Bauman‘s analyses shows that living with a „foreign neighbour“ is living in conditions of indefiniteness and insecurity. Tolerance is an effort for the human being in order to cope with the uncertainty and confusion which a foreign presence brings into the social space and to admit the foreign identity as valuable as his own. According to Tzvetan Todorov tolerance of foreigners is based on the principle of equality: on the belief in the universal human nature – a philosophical idea of the Enlightenment. Thus this paper searches tolerance into Kant‘s concept of enlarged mentality: the capacity of permeating into the point of view of everybody. This extended way of thinking takes into consideration the potential agreement with the others which is necessary in the social world. The task of tolerance as an active attitude is therefore the effort of communication when meeting the foreign and overcoming the formal tolerance through a reflection from a common standpoint.

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Осцилациите на хомосексуалния между световете на оскърблението и политическата коректност в посттоталитарното българско общество

The paper analyses the situation of homosexuals in Bulgaria after the political changes of 1989. In the first place it examines the transformations of the penal laws and the abolishment of the discriminatory paragraphs in them. On the second place the paper trace out the establishment of some gay-organisations, the opening of many gay-bars, pubs and clubs and other homosexual people’s attempts to come in sight in the public space. However the article also studies the other side of this process – some cases of aggressive assaults on homosexual people, as how as the injuries and the insinuations, which create “the world of the insult” described by Didier Eribon. The conclusion is that though there are only few aggressive and openly discriminatory acts against homosexual people most of them live a dual life; they could be homosexuals in their private life, but the demonstration of their sexuality is thoroughly unwelcome in the public sphere.

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Поетът – странник в света

The article aims to propose a philosophical-anthropological view over the poet’s figure. Some questions are unveiled, such as: How does the creator control the matter, how he opposes the pencil’s substance to the paper’s one? How does the matter sway the poet’s mind throughout the images of past events, deep waters, wild winds, transparent skies? How these images in the poetry art provoke and influence upon the reader? What is the role of the poet? What distinguishes him from other authors? What is the language’s role in the act of creation? These questions bring some new aspects to the task of metaphysical thinking of the human being as a personality, which reveals itself supported by poetry and dreams. The act of self-expression by means of poetry is related to the idea of breaking from every day life with a special way of communication, with the poetry’s language, which conceals the ordinary and makes an allusion to the secret, the unspeakable, the unconscious.

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Мобилният човек, или парафраза на тема «Скитникът евреин»

THE MOBILE MAN OR PARAPHRASE
ON THE THEME "THE WANDERING JEW"

Darina Vasileva

(Summary)

The constantly increasing man's mobility is an evident mark of the late modernity. While the rise of physical mobility does not arouse any doubt, the mental mobility remains a matter still open for discussion. The present text makes attempts in two aspects:
to analyze the matter of mental mobility from the viewpoint of the sensitivity and creativity specific for art which transforms the general picture of real life and the notion of man into an image of real life and man's attitude towards it;
to launch the thesis of pluralism when interpreting the work of art as an aspect of the matter of mental mobility.
The analysis of the above problems is based on a fragment of Simeon Yanev's novel "Biographies of Riff-Raff".

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Философски аспекти на човешката екстеросетивност

In the article is shown cognitive mechanism of human's sensuous, according to its structure and way of function. It is based of the formula "contact+difference= contradistinction=sensation", which means: if there aren't contact and difference between irritating factor and sense, there isn't a contradistinction too; if there isn't contradistinction, there isn't a sensation too. The sen­suous process is produced by quantitative-qualitative reactions in the reception cells. It is marked with the contradiction: if there is a perfect sensation, the process loses sensibility; if there is a perfect sensibility of the process, sensation disappears. This "defect", hidden of high frequency of the relation, is valid for all process of development. This formula is objective first stage of the knowledge.

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Властта посредством съблазняване в контекста на Е. Фром

Abstract: The paper offers an interpretation of Fromm’s arguments in the perspective of two global historical tendencies. The first one could be found in the dynamism of living standard being in stagnation until the beginning of the industrial age and rapidly increasing in developed economies in the second half of the 19th century. The second one reveals a change in power mechanisms governing economic relationships: from direct appropriation of a product or a personality of a dependent individual (pre-capitalist societies and early capitalism) to subjection and binding by means of a seduction strategy (advanced capitalism). In this perspective, Fromm’s concepts concerning healthy and unhealthy consumption, as well as his vision of retransformation of capitalist society, are considered. Fromm’s views of human necessities as objective and identifiable by means of scientific research are discussed critically. At the same time, Fromm’s analysis revealing the illusion of choice and freedom of consumers in contemporary societies, their manipulation through a fully-fledged and “scientifically based” seduction strategy, is highly valued.

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Парадокси и изпитания на модерния човек: идеите на Ерих Фром

The paper analyzes E. Fromm anthropological ideas and approaches to the human nature, the human essence; to the problems and paradoxes of the modern man existence; to the influence of the protestant ethics on the soul and mind of the contemporary man. The main concepts of his analysis are: human nature, freedom, personality, illusions, destructivity, psychoanalysis, capitalism, future, hope.

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Щрихи към (пред-)историята на парадокса на Ръсел

The present paper aims to delineate the conceptual background that made possible the formulation of Russell's paradox in its three different modifications: set-theoretical, predicative and relational. As is well known, Russell viewed his discovery as a by-product of his unsuccessful attempts to refute Cantor's fundamental theorem which shows that there is no greatest cardinal number. Thus we can get the set-theoretical rendering of the paradox, which appears about a year after the first known exposition of the paradox. Therefore, Russell's own reconstruction of the way which led him to the formulation of his famous contradiction is incorrect. The true sources of the paradox are not mathematical but philosophical: the critique of Bradley's metaphysics (which directed Russell's attention to self-applicative predicates) and Hegel's dialectic (which is responsible for his constant search for contradictions). This demonstrates the continuity of mathematical and philosophical logic which is blurred by today's reigning preconceptions.

Keywords: Russell's paradox, Cantor's set-theory, Bradley's theory of judgment, Hegel's dialectic.

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Ален Бадю: за културната революция днес

This article is study of some thoughts of Alain Badiou concerning the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-68). As I think Cultural Revolution confirmed the impossibility of state socialism to overcome inconsequence revolutionnaire and continuity as regards to pre-modern social forms, mainly The State: the mechanisms of continuity already run independently of individual wills of revolutionnaries, although the pattern soviet is denied.

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Български философски канон?

This essay explores the possibilities of speaking of Bulgarian philosophical canon, taking the Bulgarian literary canon as a model. It traces the evolution of the different debates on the subject, comparing the main historical periods in the 20th century.

Key Words: Bulgarian philosophical heritage, Philosophical canon, Totalitarian and post-totalitarian Bulgarian thought

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Ценностните „чужденци” в Западна Европа

The article traces the process of western European society heterogeneities as a result of mass immigration. Two contradictions generated in this process have been analyzed. First contradiction is expressed in the collision between the growing need of mass immigration and increasing public concern about immigration, which often takes the shape of neoracism and xenophobia. The other analyzed contradiction is between the core European values such as freedom of speech and Muslim immigrant values that are radicalizing at their residence in the European social milieu. On that basis, a conclusion is drawn on the establishment of new inter European value boundaries.

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За границите на мисленето и пространствата на другостта

The article discusses the interconnection of Eastern and Western kind of thinking questioning the statement that the Chinese thought is the other pole of human experience putting the limits of our thinking and representing an impossible for us kind of thinking. The main aim of the paper is to show that in spite of the fact that the Chinese way of thinking investigates unknown spaces and relations in the structure of the world, its premises are accessible and understandable for the human mind. The Chinese thought develops aspects of knowledge which are ignored by the Western thought and vice versa. Nevertheless, they both have their significance in the way we perceive our reality. Therefore, they should be considered rather in terms of complementation and not of contradiction.

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Ортега-и-Гасет: играта като самопреодоляване и освобождаване от себе си

In the first part of the article, "play - sport" identity is analysed in the Spanish philosopher's doctrine. It is concluded, that in this case, sport is metaphorically interpreted - it's not a notion for а part of the existing plays but for a certain type of human existence. For Ortega, the essential sport/play insignia is the stimulus of self-exemption: the play requires to be played as good as possible. In the second part of the article, the concept of sport/play relationship with the "good utopism" is analyzed. According to Ortega, the man who has no vital goals at the frontier between the actually attainable and the impossible is a person with degrading human existence. In this sense, authentic life turns out to have sportsmen orientation - a process of constant self-overcoming, permanent effort to achieve the unachievable. At the end of the article, by analyzing Ortega's vision of art and hunting, another meaning of play is provided. Ortega interprets it not only as self - exemption but also as a relief from reality. In the article, comparisons are made between Schiller, Huizinga and Ortega's game doctrines.
 
Keywords: sports, play, self-exemption, "good utopism", release from reality, hunting as a mankind holiday.

В първата част на статията се анализира тъждеството „игра - спорт” в доктрината на испанския философ. Прави се изводът, че в случая спортът се тълкува преносно - не е понятие за част от съществуващите игри, а за определен тип битие на човека. За Ортега същностен белег на спорта/играта е подтикът към самопреодоляване: ”играта изисква да се играе колкото се може по-добре”. Във втората част на статията се анализира връзката на понятието за спорта/играта с „добрия утопизъм”. Според Ортега човекът, който не разполага жизнените си цели на границата между реално постижимото и невъзможното, е човек с деградиращо битие. В този смисъл автентичният живот се оказва живот с ориентацията на „спортиста” – процес на непрестанно себенадмогване, на перманентни усилия за постигане на непосилното. В края на статията, като се анализира визията на Ортега за изкуството и за лова, се сочи още едно значение на играта. Ортега я интерпретира не само като самонадмогване, но и като освобождаване от реалността. В статията се правят сравнения между доктрината за играта на Шилер, Хьойзинха и Ортега.

Ключови думи: спорт, игра, самопреодоляване, „добрият утопизъм”, освобождаване от реалността, ловът като ваканция на човечеството.

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Символно обозначеното социокултурно пространство в трансцендентално-логически план

In a Kantian perspective, it will be argued that symbols as indirect representations give a chance to throw light on metaphors in our social expeirence at the level of the so-called „critical ontologies“. We could consider certain key metaphors in order with the aim to express social and cultural dimensions of life in a proper way. The literal and philosophical development of such metaphors could play the role of possibility condition for symbolic generalizations. From a transcendental-logical viewpoint, these generalizations are comprehensible as basic elements of our fore-predicative experience.

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Тялото, оковаване. Жените в романите на Милан Кундера

The body, shacklement. The women in the Kundera novels

Summary

It is well known that Milan Kundera is a discoverer in the novel genre. A part of his original novel poetics are the characters in his books, often called thesis-characters or function-characters. This is also valid for the female characters in Kundera's books. Even though secondary in respect to the male characters, it turns out they could also be a key to understanding the often complex work of the author. In their descriptions we find a painful juxtaposition or an oscillation between the female archetype and the sociopolitical environment that wouldn’t allow such an archetype to be. In the totalitarian world the female body becomes a locus of the humiliation of human individuals, a sort of metaphorical shackles for the woman's soul.

Резюме

Известно е, че Милан Кундера е откривател в областта на романовия жанр. Част от оригиналната му романова поетика са персонажите в книгите му, често наричани персонажи-тези, персонажи-функции. По подобен начин са конструирани и женските образи в романите на Кундера. Макар и второстепенни по отношение на мъжките персонажи, те, оказва се, могат да бъдат (още един) ключ към сложното творчество на писателя. В описанието им наблюдаваме мъчително противопоставяне или осцилация между архетипа на женското и опровергаващото, недопускащо този архетип социално и политическо. В тоталитарния свят женското тяло става топос на унизеността на човешкия индивид, превръща се в метафорични окови на женската душа.

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Тялото и означаващата интенция на етическия субект

The proposed text is an attempt to defend one dualistic conception about subjectivity (nominated as ethical dualism) investigating the relation between the subject and its own body. The authors which are in the core of the investigation – Milan Kundera and Pierre Abelard – put the topos of value (for both this value is the love) in the frame of one interiority which remains aside from the body and the action. The main pathos has for an object to illustrate that these two authors understand subjectivity as unalienated from the body and in the same time they hypostatize one latent intention, one ethical subject which is beyond and before the body.

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Феноменология на пърформънса (част 1)

In the present paper are analized different performance types by means of Heidegger's phenomenological ontology. Ascribing phenomenical character to a performance is possible when there is a lack of representativity of something else and approaching the point of self-suficiency and self-clarification of something “which shows itself in itself” (“das Sich-an-ihm-selbst-zeigen”). The contradiction between mimesis and poiesis is importand for the aimed analysis as well as the lack of representativity is replaced by sense producing.

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Земната Венера, или за красотата в ренесансовата естетика

Резюме
Женският образ, доколкото съществува като част от християнския религиозен канон, е строго конфигуриран, двуизмерен. Средновековната естетика акцентира предимно върху сцени от Библията и различни жития на светци. В тях фигурира единствено образът на Девата. В началото на 14-ти век живописта се превръща в едно от водещите изкуства на Ренесанса. Тогава се преоткриват античните разбирания за красотата и се обръща особен интерес върху митологията. Във Флоренция новите меценати на изкуството – семейство Медичи, настойчиво толерират развитието на ново културни процеси. В кръга около тях се събират имена като Марсилио Фичино, Анджело Полициано, Сандро Ботичели. Фичино прокарва чрез преводите на Платон идеята за съзерцателната красота, която трябва да се види „зад” формата на тялото. Именно тогава художници като Филипо Липи и Ботичели преинтерпретират досега съществуващия образ на Дева Мария, за да го заменят с митологичния образ на богинята Венера. Прототип за ренесансовите художници става градската жена, чиято красота се вплита в най-различни сюжети. По този начин Ренесансът преоткрива голото женско тяло за света.

Summary
Woman image, as far as it is a part of the Christian canon is strictly configurated, two-dimensional. Aesthetics of Middle Age makes accent mostly on scenes from the Bible and the different books from the saints. In them there is only the image of The Virgin. In the early 14-th century the art of painting become one of the most important art in Renaissance. Then become a revealing of the Ancient understandings for Beauty and the mythology takes an important place. In Florence the new Maecenas of the art – The Medici family are tolerating the progress of the new formed cultural processes. They are surrounded by names like Marsilio Ficino, Angelo Poliziano, Sandro Botticelli. From the translations of Plato Ficino promote the idea of the contemplating beauty, which have to be seen “behind” the form of the body. These painters like Filippo Lippi and Botticelli give a reinterpretation of the image of Virgin Merry and they replace it with the mythological image of the goddess Venus. A prototype of the Renaissance painters became the woman from the city and her beauty implicate in different subjects. This way the Renaissance reveals the naked body for the world.

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Византийските имигранти в Италия и ренесансовият спор за предимството на Платон или Аристотел

This essay presents the chronology and evolution of the famous Renaissance debate on Plato’s superiority over Aristotle and the historical figures who took part in it. It also aims to find arguments in support of the interpretative thesis sustained here, which is the following. The debate on Plato’s superiority over Aristotle was internal to the society of Greek exiled scholars in Italy and, as a consequence of this, its scope (in terms of duration, number of participants and influence on other philosophers) remained quite restricted.

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Жените в политиката: за и против квотния принцип

Резюме
В статията се разглежда квотният принцип като средство за преодоляване на джендърния дисбаланс в политическите институции. В първата част се обобщават основните аргументи в полза на този принцип. Втората част е фокусирана върху уязвимите места на разглежданата аргументация. Посочват се няколко аргумента срещу квотния принцип: (1) По-голямото количество жени в политическите ръководни органи не води непременно до по-адекватна защита на интересите на жените; (2) Квотите възраждат и укрепват един стереотип, който не е в полза на жената – стереотипът за жената като „слабия пол”, който се нуждае от покровителство; (3) Налагането на квотите предразполага към политическа пасивност у жените. В статията се защитава тезата, че джендърният паритет е цел, за която следва да бъдат полагани системни и продължителни усилия. Паритетът обаче трябва да бъде постиган, а не налаган. Посочват се два фактора, от чието преодоляване зависи степента на женското участие в политиката: (1) трудностите на жените при съвместяване на професионалния и семейния живот; (2) исторически наложилият се и широко поддържан от днешните медии стереотип, че политиката е мъжка работа.

Women in politics: the pros and cons of the quota
Principle

Summary
In the article the quota principal is viewed as means for overcoming the gender disbalance in the political institutions. The first part is a summary of the main arguments defending this principle. The second part is concentrated on the weak points of the argumentation. There are a few arguments against the quota principle: (1) The larger number of women in the leading political organs does not necessarily means that their interests are represented more adequately; (2) The quotas revive and support a stereotype which is not in favour of women – the stereotype for them as the „weak gender”, which needs patronage; (3) The applying of the quotas predisposes political passivity in women. The article defends the thesis that the gender parity is a goal for which systematic and continuous efforts need to be made. However, the parity has to be reached, not imposed. The degree of women participating in politics depends on the overcoming of two factors: (1) the difficulties women have dealing with both professional and family life; (2) the historically imposed and widely supported by nowadays media stereotype that the politics are for men.

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Женската политическа амбиция

Резюме
В статията се правят се разглеждат различни фактори, обуславящи степента и формите на женската политическа амбиция: социализационният процес, който налага определени роли на жената; политическите партии и държавните институции; интересите на различни социални прослойки от развитие или затормозяване на женската политическа амбиция.

Summary
In this paper are made some conclusions about the women ambition to be political informed, to participate actively in the political life, to make political career. Some factors are analyzed: the socialization process, the political parties’ and state institutions’ behavior, the interests of some influential social groups in the society.

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Протестантството в България и жените

The present article concerns the history of woman's emancipation in the context of Protestantism in Bulgaria from a sociological point of view. It contains a three conceptual levels of analysis of woman's emancipation:

1. Women's emancipation within Protestant churches and organizations themselves.
2. Women's emancipation concerning other Protestant institutions (schools for example), related to both Protestants and non-Protestants.
3. Women's emancipation regarding the influence of Protestantism on society.

Keywords: Protestantism, woman's emancipation, historical sociology, nationalism

Статията засяга историята на еманципацията в контекста на протестантството в България от социологическа гледна точка. Тя съдържа три концептуални равнища на анализ на еманципацията:

1. Еманципация в рамките на самите протестантски църкви и организации.
2. Еманципация, отнасяща се до други протестантски институции (например училища) и засягаща както протестанти, така и не-протестанти.
3. Еманципация, свързана с влиянието на протестантството върху обществото в по-общ план.

Ключови думи: протестантство, еманципация, историческа социология, национализъм

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Жената, религията, фундаментализмът от гледна точка на исляма

Резюме:
Когато се дискутира темата за фундаментализма, винаги се намесва и тази за пола, по-специално за ролята и мястото на жената в ислямската религия. Настоящата статия поставя въпроса за отношението между традиция и модерност, булото като тенденция на равенство или неравенство, емблема на радикална ислямистка политика или белег за фундаментализъм? Съпоставителният анализ проследява мястото на мюсюлманката на Запад и в мюсюлманския свят, както и ролята й днес от гледна точка на кораничния текст и западната интерпретация. Патриархалната интерпретация на Исляма предполага маргинализация на жените и обособяването им в отделна сфера, а всъщност техните права са гарантирани от Корана и са равни с тези на мъжете. Има ли място днес за признаване на различните форми на религиозност?
Ключови думи: ислям, жената, религия, фундаментализъм

Abstract:
When we discuss the theme about fundamentalism it is always involved also this one about sex, more particularly about the role and place of the woman in the Islamic religion. The present report puts the questions about the relation between tradition and modernity, the veil as a trend toward equality or inequality, as the emblem of a radical Islamist policy or a sign of fundamentalism. The comparative analysis will follow the place of the Muslim woman in the West and the Muslim world, her role today from the point of view of the Koranic text and the West interpretation. The patriarchal interpretation of Islam suggests the marginalization of women and their separation in a definite sphere but, in fact, their rights are guaranteed by Koran and they are identical with those of men. Is there a place for the acknowledgement of the different forms of religiousness today?
Key words: Islam, woman, religion, fundamentalism

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Женското начало в религиите

Статията предлага един по-необичаен подход към проблема за изследване на женското начало в религиите – подход, основан на етимологичното определение на понятието религия и трансперсоналното разбиране на несъзнаваното и връзката му с религиозността. Прокаран последователно, този подход води до извода, че съществуват религии, в които човекът се мисли като разделен от божествения първоизточник, каквито са юдео-християнските религии, които са и религии в собствения смисъл на думата, и религии или по-скоро вярвания, в които връзката не се преживява като прекъсната, а човекът се мисли в единство с божественото.

In this paper a slightly unusual approach to the problem of feminine principle in religion is proposed. This approach is based on the etimological definition of religion and understanding of unconscious and its connection with religion in terms of transpersonal psychology. When consistently followed, this approach leads to the conclusion that we may distinguish two types of religions: religions of separation and religion of unity.

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Поезия

Родена на 8 октомври 1952 г. в г. Кюстендил. Завършила е философия и българска филология в Софийския университет. Работи като старши научен сътрудник в Института за философски изследвания, БАН; д-р на философските науки. Професионалните й интереси са свързани с философските проблеми на религията и антропологията. От 2004 г. е главен редактор на списание “Философски алтернативи”. Публикувала е книгите: “Копнеж по абсолютното” /1994 г./, “Религия, право и политика на Балканите в края на 20-ти и началото на 21 век” /2005 г., двуезична/, “Жизнеността /философско-антропологичен анализ/” /2006/, “Религията и човешката същност. Класически идеи” /под печат/. Публикувала е стихосбирките: “Омагьосан кръг” /1997 г./ и “Празници” /2000 г./. Има публикации в научни издания в Англия, Германия, Италия, Полша, Словакия, САЩ, Сърбия, Швейцария и др. Публикувала е преводи на научни статии от френски и английски езици. Хоби – пътешествия, фотография

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Из: «Иисус от Назарет, от Кръщението в Иордан до Преображението»

Откъс от книгата на Йозеф Ратцингер – папа Бенедикт XVI, Иисус от Назарет, От Кръщението в Иордан до Преображението. Книгата е под печат в Издателска къща Критика и Хуманизъм – КХ, съвместно издание с Епископската конференция на Католическата църква в България. Превод – проф. д-р Георги Каприев

Книгата показва разбираемия и логичен облик на Иисус от Библията, на фона на което прозира очевидната атакуемост на съблазнителните и дръзки „реконструкции” на някакви „скрити” факти от биографията на Иисус, с каквито ни засипват редица писания през последните десетилетия.

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Образът на интелектуалката в българската междувоенна хуманитаристика

The Image of the Intellectual Bulgarian Woman in the Humanities of the Inter-War Period

The paper offers a discussion on the opinions – expressed in the period between the two World Wars – about the intellectual woman. A next level of analysis presents the Bulgarian woman as an intellectual. At last, a special accent is put on the participation of the Bulgarian woman in the philosophical life of the country.
Key words: intellectual woman, Bulgarian woman, inter-war period

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От пролетарската еманципация до киберфеминизма

Abstract
The study examines some inner contradictions in the evolution of contemporary feminism in the conditions of transition to open democratic sosiety. The aspiration for successful professional career of women in society with nonestablished values leads from the patrimonial socialist emancipation to the peculiar cloning of some preserving their loyalty to traditional family and sexual role and others oriented to “fast food” consumption of spiritual and material goods. The alienation from the existing rules of partnership provokes their egoistic selfisolation and gives rise to futuristic ideas of “technological” equality of sexes, inspirating newest trends of cyberfeminism.

Резюме
Показани са някои вътрешни противоречия в еволюцията на съвременния феминизъм в условията на прехода към отворено демократично общество. Стремежът към по-пълноценна професионална реализация на жената в общество с неустановени ценности доведе след наследената социалистическа еманципация до своеобразното й клониране в оставащите верни на традиционния семеен модел и сексуални роли и ориентиращите се към “бърза консумация” на духовни и физически блага. Отчуждението на жената от установените норми на партньорство става причина за егоистичната й самоизолация и футуристичните идеи за “технологично” равноправие на половете, залегнали в основата на новото направление на киберфеминизма.

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Диктатът на фантазмите – «идеалните» образи, моделирането на «женското» тяло и неосъщественият бунт

В текста се анализира посткомунистическата трансформация на женските образи, които редуцират българската жена до ролята й на тяло - обект на желание и предмет за консумация. Изследват се репрезентативните кодове на крайно сексуализираните рекламни и медийни образи и начина, по който те моделират телата на средностатическите български жени и момичета. Статията разглежда променената социална роля на пост-тоталитарната жена, като акцентира специално върху детерминираността на успеха на жената от нейната сексуална привлекателност.

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Защо не се чувствам «жертва» на «мъжкия поглед»?

The ambition of the text is to question one of the most widespread myths which many schools of feminism subscribe to – the myth of male dominance.

Key words: feminism, sex, gender, Eros and Agape, healthy and pathological hierarchy.



Oсновната амбиция на този текст е да оспори един от най-разпространените митове, споделян от различни школи на феминизма – митът за мъжкото господство.

Ключови думи: феминизъм, пол, джендър, Ерос и Агапе, здравословна и патологична йерархия.

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Щрихи към портрета на един невиждан слон: Хегеловата диалектика в десет дефиниции

Thе design of this article is to sketch an approach to the formalization of Hegel’s dialectical logic which is deliberately close to thе conceptual framework, developed by my late colleague and friend Ivan Punchev. The formalization is presented in a series of definitions which capture in mathematical form the essential properties of some of the key concepts of Hegelian dialectics.

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Интензионалност, индивидуализиращи функции и гранични условия на интерпретация

Grasping of an individual internal structure as a part of some conceptual system implicitly or explicitly is based on the presupposition which could be called “thesis of intesionality” - the claim that our statements about the world are put within definite contexts of opinion, belief, knowledge, etc. In relation with the thesis in question the determination of intensions (analysed by Carnap in “Meaning and Synonymy in Natural Languages”) could be relativized in a proper way toward individual conceptual systems which comprise “individuating functions” (Hintikka) and which are defined on certain limitation conditions of interpretation.

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Науката – аристократка или прислужница

To determine science as something uniform is one of the most complex problems in the philosophy of science. And different answers to the question of the essence of scientific knowledge determine different strategic accents of its function and development. All attempts, for example, to treat science as a servant and estimate it only because of its immediate applications and immediate profit are based on wrong ideas of its essence and of the lows of its genesis. These excessively pragmatic requirements set up a wrong strategy for its management. Thus the failure of all efforts to improve the quality of scientific research and the effectiveness of its applications is assured. That is inevitable when one kind of science social functions come into a conflict with another kind through a short sighted and primitive understanding of the priorities. And the science, its social image and the society itself suffer from this situation.

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Християнството и правата на жените

В статията се разглеждат някои от най-важните аспекти на актуалния въпрос за отношението на християнската религия към равноправието на жените в Църквата и обществото, като се защитава тезата, че поставянето на този въпрос не е свързано със същността на християнската доктрина, а е резултат на принудителното въвличане на християнското богословие и Църквата в неговото обсъждане от представителите на съвременния феминизъм. Показва се, че отношението на християнството и феминизма към равноправието на жените не е и не би могло да бъде еднозначно, но че те могат взаимно да се обогатяват и да предлагат теоретични и практически решения, водещи към по-пълно и адекватно разрешаване на проблемите на равноправието между мъжете и жените в църковния и в цялостния живот на обществото.

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Тяло и девиантност

В това изследване (с отворен край) човешкото тяло се разбира като отправна точка на всякакви не-телесности, чрез които образуваме социокултурното пространство, живеещо сякаш „свой собствен” живот през различни телесни практики. Това, което се има предвид е, че културата, най-общо разбрана, може да съществува единствено през телесности. Културата обаче е и нещо повече: въпреки че има началото си в локалните телесни практики на група индивиди, тя има претенцията да се издига до ранга на едно универсално смислово поле, изразяващо „човешкото”; до оптика, през която светът да бъде наблюдаван; и следователно до „нещо”, с което самите тела да се съобразяват. Затова културата и тялото общ-уват, маркирайки се взаимно, удържайки се в сравнително строги определености. Обаче основният патос на изследването си остава девиантното тяло, отдалечаващо се от нормативните очертания, въвеждайки множество проблеми около „идентичността”.

Ключови думи: Тяло, Девиантност, Култура, Морал, Идентичности

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Трансформация на времето в условията на късната модерност

Концепцията за „късната модерност” става популярна като реакция на постмодернизма преди всичко чрез работите на Антъни Гидънс и Улрих Бек. Те които разгръщат идеи, характеризиращи настоящата епоха с понятия като “късна”, “рефлексивна”, “развита”, “втора”, „рефлективна”, “висока” (“висша”) или “глобална” модерност, “рисково общество” и “рефлексивна модерност”. Опитват се да отговорят на много от въпросите за особеностите на сегашната епоха, които стоят и пред постмодернистите като нарастващата несигурност и случайност, отслабването на бинарните противопоставяния, фрагментизацията на социалния живот и дори акумулират редица постмодернистки аргументи, имплантирайки ги в своите теоретични модели. Това, което ги отличава е, че отхвърлят тезата, че се светът се намира в постмодерна ситуация и утвърждават, че става дума за определен период на модерността, свързан с глобализацията, реконструиране на традицията и явлението индивидуализация. Този период става възможен с развитието на електронните медии и комуникационните технологии, които от своя страна подпомагат мобилността на капитала, глобализацията и следващите от това промени в политиката, основните институции, човешкото поведение и в останалите сфери на живот.
Анализът на късната модерност може да засегне различни характеристики. В този текст искам да обърна внимание на характерната за нея трансформация на времето. Начинът, по който тече и се възприема времето в традиционното общество е различен от този на ранната модерност, особено от ХVІІІ век насам. Сега наблюдаваме радикални промени в неговото социално функциониране, свързани с особеностите на маркетизираната ситуация, резултат на третата нидустриална революция и глобализацията.

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Езикът на Егзюпери – Дзен философия и поезия. Малкият принц: търсещият Просветление

Дзен философията на живот се разгръща в практическата непосредственост на живеене, поетическият език е най-близък до нейното словесно възпроизвеждане. В тази връзка стилът на Егзюпери е изчистен до простотата на приказка. Поетиката на текста поставя ударение върху естетическото като екзистенция на живота, където Егзюпери кодира своята философия за постигане на Просветлението. Съзнателното освобождаване от Азовите илюзии в контекста на Сатори е път на пробуждане на най-дълбоката и най- чиста надазова Мъдрост. Съзерцателността и тихото смирение, въплътени в Малкия принц, носят изначален белег на благоразположеност в търсенето на Просветление.

Ключови думи: Егзюпери, Дзен, Малкият принц, Просветление, Сатори, Поетика, илюзии, его, Аз-ът, Вътрешна Мъдрост

The Zen philosophy of life represents the spontaneous way of living. When we talk about Zen the language of poetry is the closest to its verbal interpretation. In this relation the style of Exupery is purified to the simplicity of a fairy-tale. The poetics of the text puts an accent on the aesthetics as an existention of life, where Exupery is codifying his philosophy of reaching the Enlightment. Conscious emancipation from the Ego illusions in the context of Satory is a road to awakening of the deepest, purest, over Ego Wisdom. Contemplation and quiet humbleness embodied in Little Prince carry a significant sign of good will in seeking Enlightment.

Key words: Exupery, Zen, The Little Prince, Enlightment, Satory, Poetics, illusions, ego, the Self, Inner Wisdom

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След думите. Продължение и многопосочност на смисъла

Изящната и кратка поетическа хайку форма не търси смисъла си под експресивните наслоявания на езика, а проблясва като лъч и се разроява след думите. Така хайку открива пространството на недоизказаност. В него смисълът е безбрежен и с неподозирани очертания, защото читателското съзнание като фин инструмент приема лъченията на текста и отзвучава със свои тонове. Заложеният в човешката природа стремеж към образованост разкрива освен желанието за знание и необходимостта чрез него да бъде опознат светът, да бъде променен, но и споделен, защото е човешки свят. Със специфичните си художествени средства хайку не само улавя, но и споделя моментите на „тук и сега” на света. Нещо повече – позволява ни да бъдем част от него.

The brief and exquisite poetic haiku form does not contain its meaning in the expressive layers of the speech, it rather shines out like a ray of light after the words. In this way haiku reveals the incompleteness. Its meaning is infinite and has unexpected outlines because the reader’s mind, like a delicate instrument, perceives the message of the text and converts it into its own tunes.
Set in human nature, literacy striving reveals not only the need to understand and change the world but also share it with others as it is a human world. With its specific modes of expression haiku not only captures but also shares the moments of “here and now” of the world. What is more important – it allows us to be part of it.

Key words: message, sense, intuition, poetry, experience.

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Хайку и далекоизточното разбиране за Аз-а

В доклада се прави опит да се изследва източното разбиране за аза, намерило специфичен израз в хайку. Изследването се разгръща в три основни насоки: 1. Първата насока е определяща и касае въпроса за отношението субект-обект, които според източната мисъл трябва да бъдат видени преди всичко в тяхното единство. 2. Втората се занимава с нивата на разгръщане на аза и стремежа към разкриване на истинския, Висшия Аз. 3. Третата насока разглежда накратко начина, по който този Аз може да е творец. Прави се изводът, че за дзенската мисъл творецът трябва да съумее да достигне до голата реалност, отвъд видимостта на думите и капаните на логиката, а за това хайку е най-удачната форма.
Ключови думи: субект-обектно отношение, единство, не-Аз, не-думи

In the article an attempt to examine the Eastern conception of Self through the lens of haiku is made. The study follows three main streams: 1. The first one is determinant. It considers the subject-object relation and their unity according to Eastern thought. 2. The second one deals with the levels of unfolding of the Self and the path towards the Higher Self. 3. Third one discusses how this Self may be a creator. A conclusion is drawn that according to Zen the creator is the one who is able to reach the true reality beyond the words and logic and that the poetic form of haiku is an appropriate means for this.

Key words: subject-object relation, unity, non-Self, words without words

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Някои философски и естетически подходи в традиционното японско хайку

Докладът предлага анализ на някои естетически и философски концепции н традиционното японско хайку. Целта е да се покаже техния широк смисъл и фундаменталното им значение за създаването на една уникална поетична форма и нейното дълбоко разбиране. Специално внимание се обръща на влиянието на някои идеи на дзен будизма върху тази поезия на висше духовно просветление.

Ключове думи: японска поезия, хайку, дзен, естетически категории, уаби, саби, юген, ауаре, моно но ауаре, каруми, хосоми, фукьо, гинко

The article offers a thorough analysis of some aesthetic categories and philosophic concepts in traditional Japanese haiku. The aim is to demonstrate their broad meaning and fundamental importance for building a unique piece of poetry and profound perception of it. Special attention is paid to the influence of some ideas of Zen Buddhism upon this poetry of high spiritual enlightenment.
Key words: Japanese poetry, haiku, Zen, aesthetic categories, wabi, sabi, shiori, yugen, aware, mono no aware, karumi, hosomi, fukyo, shasei, ginko

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Между водопада и морето от сълзи

Много се е писало за поезията на Баня Нацуиши и нейната връзка със сюрреализма, за тази радикална промяна на гледната точка на хайку поета, който обръща поглед към вътрешната си реалност и я легитимира като не по-малко важна от тази, която го заобикаля. Важен фактор за тази промяна е отказът на Баня от сезонните думи като структуроопределящ фактор на хайку и замяната им с ключови думи. Баня смята, че много поети бъркат понятията „реалност” и „факт” и че всъщност реалността може да включва въображаемото и нереалното. Той говори за „цялостност на човешката реалност” /A Future Waterfall, p. 67/. И докато сюрреализмът в творбите на Баня наистина е видимата част на айсберга на дълбоката промяна, която той извършва с хайку поезията, смятам, че има по-важна, но и по-трудно забележима част и това е екзистенциализмът.

Ключови думи: хайку, Баня Нацуиши, поезия, екзистенциализъм, сюрреализъм


Much has been written about Ban’ya Natsuishi’s poetry and its connection with surrealism, as well as about the radical change in the point of view of the haiku poet who turns his gaze towards internal reality and legitimizes it as no less important than that which surrounds him. An important factor in this change is Ban’ya’s decision to not use seasonal words as a structurally defining factor in haiku and his replacement of them with keywords. Ban’ya believes that many poets confuse the concept of "reality" with "fact" and that, in fact, reality can include imaginary and the unreal. He speaks of "the totality of human reality" (A Future Waterfall, p. 67). And while the surrealism in Ban’ya’s works is merely the tip of the iceberg that is the deep change he is bringing about in haiku poetry, I believe that there is also a more important yet more difficult to notice aspect: existentialism.

Keywords: haiku, Ban’ya Natsuishi, poetry, existentialism, surrealism

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Ролан Барт: „кратката форма, която предпочитам най-много”

В статията се анализира концепцията на Роланд Барт за хайку поезията. Френският семиолог прави естетическа анатомия на този жанр, определян от него като „радикална форма на поезията”. В текста са разгледани следните аспекти:
- Зависимостта между вътрешната топография и външната типография на хайку;
- Спецификата на времето в хайку;
- А-дескриптивният и анти-интерпретиращ характер на хайку;
- Съ-присъствието като поетически инструмент, чрез който читателят на хайку е „накаран” да вижда, а не да узнава действителността;
- Границите на хайку (границата между източната и западната нагласа за хайку, ограниченията за рецепцията на хайку, границата на езиковия превод на хайку).

Ключови думи: хайку, типография на хайку, киго (kigo), съ-присъствие, хайку като завръщане към нещата сами по себе си, граници на хайку

The Roland Barthes's conception for the haiku poetry is analyzed in this article. The French semiologist makes an aesthetic anatomy of the genre, defined by him as "a radical form of poetry". The following aspects have been reviewed:
- The dependence between the internal topography and the external typography of haiku;
- The time in the haiku poetry;
- The a-descriptive and anti-interpretative nature of haiku;
- The co-presence as a poetry instrument, by which the haiku reader is "made" to contemplate, but not to find out the reality;
- The boundaries of haiku (the boundary between the east and west attitudes to haiku, the limitations for the perception of haiku, the barrier of the language translation of haiku).

Key words: haiku, haiku typography, kigo, co-presence, haiku as returning to the nature of things, the boundaries of haiku

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Екзистенциалната роля на играта при изграждане на социалните светове: Бурдийо

В хода на историята на философията редица мислители са се опитвали да осмислят социалното битие на индивида и неговото вписване в културния социум. Това обаче, което Бурдийо прави в своята книга “Практическият разум”, не е дефиниране на същността на човека и изследване на структурата на отношението човек – свят, визирайки активното изграждане на света от субекта и адекватното му наместване в него. Френският философ се занимава с вече изградения социален свят и това доколко отделният индивид успешно съумява да се причисли и идентифицира към налично-конструираните смисли в света. Бурдийо разглежда „ролята” в обществото като цяло и влизането в отделни групи - сферите на изкуството, военното дело, правосъдието и дори най-обикновени професии като инженери и лекари, т.е. - онези социални отношения, "които не могат нито да бъдат показани, нито докоснати с ръка, и които трябва да бъдат овладени, конструирани и валидизирани чрез научния труд."

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Европа в световния пазар на произведения на изобразителното изкуство

През последните години почти няма пазарен сектор в глобален мащаб, който да е така еуфорично-динамичен, както световният пазар на произведения на изобразителното изкуство. Това е един хетерогенен пазар с трудно-определими граници, тъй като включва освен произведения на изкуството и такива, които са движими паметници на културата, както и collectibles - разни вещи за колекциониране.

Никога досега не са печелени толкова много пари от изкуство, както през 2006 г. и оттогава до началото на сегашната световна финансова криза. Отделни творби достигнаха цената на авиолайнер „Боинг". Гладът за красота изглежда неуталожен от Шанхай до Ню Йорк, но доминиращият център на тази търговия си остава Европа.

Защо съществува очевидна, трайна и устойчива тенденция на „евроцентризъм" в контекста на световния арт-пазар на творби на изобразителните изкуства, чийто годишен обем през последните години е от около 20 милиарда евро?

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Европейският съюз и правата на човека

В статията се очертават най-важните исторически етапи в развитието на идеята за зачитането на човешките права и се разкрива тяхното значение за изработването на основните концепции и документи за правата на човека в Европейския съюз. Показва се как с разработването и приемането на Хартата за основните права в Съюза и подписването на Договора за реформи от Лисабон, не само се осъществява най-пълното обхващане на човешките права и свободи, но същевременно се гарантира тяхното интернационално юридическо упражняване и защита.

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Европейският съюз на глобалната сцена: великан или пигмей?

„Глобалната сцена" обикновено асоциираме с мощни играчи - отделни големи държави или група държави, които непрестанно мерят силите си и като оказват влияние върху по-малките играчи, във всеки момент конфигурират света на сфери на влияние. Глобалната сцена е място за гиганти; в нея място за джуджета няма, което не значи, че те нямат право да съществуват - просто влиянието им върху света и събитията в него е нищожно, гласът им е немощен и никой не го чува. Колкото и интересни да са обръщенията и предложенията, които правят - най-често към гигантите, - те по правило са обречени, ако не са съгласувани с интересите на големите.

С провокативната формулировка на заглавието по-горе обобщавам проблем, пред който днес и несъмнено в бъдеще Европейският съюз ще бъде изправен. В случая се интересувам от ролята на ЕС като глобален фактор, като глобален актьор на международната сцена. И, естествено, откривам - заедно с други критици, коментатори и наблюдатели - едно дълбоко, ако не противоречие, то поне разминаване, несъответствие, което създава на ЕС най-малкото неудобства и препятства развитието на външната му политика и дипломация. Очевидно става дума, от една страна, за икономическия ръст на ЕС - и в това отношение той действително е исполин, и, от друга страна, за неговия военен потенциал - в това отношение ЕС с право е наричан лилипут, пигмей, джудже.

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“Единни в многообразието”: културно-специфичното и универсалното в дискурса за европейските ценности

Важен момент при прочита на европейските ценности, на който следва да се обърне внимание, е свързан със статута им - те феномени на Общността ли са или има основания да се търсят корените им и в по-ранни епохи? Възприема се гледната точка, че общоевропейските ценности, подобно на конструиращата се европейска идентичност, такива, каквито ще бъдат изследвани в настоящата работа, стават факт едва в рамките на ЕС. В същото време философската им деконструкция показва, че появата им е била подготвяна в продължение на столетия.

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Езикът на компютърните модели

In his study, using computer simulation which lead to interesting and valuable results, prof. Jeffrey Elman is concluding, contrary to prof. N. Chomsky, that recursing which has considerable meaning in education is based upon biological evolution, as well as that limitation also connected with the education process are not in fact biological instructions. I think that Chomsky is right in his statement about the nativity of the recursion and the existence of the universal grammar, which is only assumption, because I am not familiar with his works. I just represent some facts which relate to my thoughts on the subject, following mostly my intuitive consent with the author. The limitations in the volume of the current work are giving me the possibilities to represent only a part of them, while I continue working on the subject.

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Да мериш със своя аршин, или как езикът интерпретира Другостта

The paper focuses on the linguistic interpretation of the attitudes of the self towards the Other determined by the characteristics of the lexicon. It is based on linguistic data on word, phrase and idiom level as well as on an analysis of relevant proverbs in English and Bulgarian. The goal of the research is to compare the images and metaphors underlying these expressions to the effect of establishing the zones of disparity and overlap in the interpretation of Otherness in the languages under discussion. Its starting point is the assumption that the necessity to accept the Self in order to accept the Other and communicate successfull, and the subsequent projection of Self-perception on the way we conceive of the Other are influenced by the lexical content of our personal narrative, which is in turn structured by the lexicon available in the mother tongue.

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Термини за означаване на дихотомията мъж-жена в „Битие 1-3”

The work treats some terms in Hebrew, with which are indicated the male and female basis at the creation of the world in the book Geneses” of Pentateuch of Moses. The approach used is linguistic one, based on the possibility of the Hebrew to produce different meanings from a single radical by means of different sounding. In the language sense of the bearers of Hebrew as a mother tongue, this gives a possibility to be formed different semantic chains, which comes from a single radical but have different meanings. That can be combined in different sense paradigms. In this way the radical appears as a potential of meanings, realized depending on the context, but besides that it consists of all the rest meanings, which present implicitly and influence on the consciousness.

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Послеслов за биографичното начало

Обичайно е послесловът на една научна книга да се пише или от автора й, или от фигура, притежаваща било академичен, било институционален престиж. В единият случай послесловът се мисли като дължимо обобщение на публикувания текст или като своеобразен ангажимент, като изрично извеждане на обещаващи перспективи от завършения текст. В другия случай, когато носи подписа на авторитетната личност, послеписът служи отчасти като рецензия, отчасти - и в много по-голяма степен - като своеобразно поръчителство и застъпничество.

Този послеслов е от друг характер. Написан от университетски колега и приятел на автора на книгата, неговата цел не е да анализира и преценява изказаните тези, да ги сравнява с позициите на други автори или да прибавя някакви уточняващи детайли. Намерението, мотивирало следващите редове, е друго: да посочи, да подчертае една идея, от която книгата „тръгва" - идеята, че биографичният подход може да има евристично значение при осмисляне и интерпретиране на съвременната философия. Че „Логико-философски трактат" ще бъде по-добре разбиран, ако трактатът, определян от самия Витгенщайн като книгата на живота му, се осмисля и био-графично, в траекторията на живота на неговия създател. Че в края на краищата биографичният подход, без да се смята за самодостатъчен, следва да бъде интегриран в херменевтичната стратегия при изследванията върху Лудвиг Витгенщайн.

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Етико-религиозните идеи в „Логико-философски трактат” на Витгенщайн

Бележка на редактора на Notabene


В чест на 120-годишнината от рождението на Лудвиг Витгенщайн /р. на 26 април 1889 г./ предстои да излезе от печат книгата на Камен Лозев Ранният Витгенщайн: живот и философия, С. 2009 г. С любезното съгласие на нейния автор по-долу публикуваме част от последната глава на книгата, в която се обсъждат етико-религиозните страници на :Логико-философски трактат. За онези, които не познават в подробности тази малка книга, оказала изключително въздействие върху развитието на философската мисъл на двадесети век, вероятно ще е интересно да научат, че самият Витгенщайн е виждал в Трактата не толкова логически, колкото етически труд. Основният патос на философията на ранния Витгенщайн е, че всъщност за най-важните неща в живота, каквито са етическите и религиозните проблеми например, не можем да говорим смислено. Защо и как стига до този странен на пръв поглед извод младият Витгенщайн, Камен Лозев показва именно в тази последна част на своята книга.

Л.К.

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Езиковите игри на Витгенщайн: трансцендентални контексти

Съгласно Витгенщайновите „Философски изследвания“, под „езикова игра“ следва да се разбира в разширен смисъл „цялото, състоящо се от езика и дейностите, с които той е преплетен“ (Витгенщайн 1988: 144). Това означава, че доколкото във всекидневния опит ние се натъкваме на ситуации, в които разбирането протича в нетематични и саморазбиращи се дейностни контексти, правилата за употребата на една дума не могат да бъдат откъснати от практическите правила на боравене със съответното нещо, което е референт на думата. Спецификата на имането-на-работа с предмети в един вече трансцендентален смисъл трябва да бъде разбрана и проследена посредством пред-предикатни структури. Но това съвсем не е безотносително към езиковите игри в специфичния за Витгенщайн смисъл, доколкото в структурно отношение дейностите, които обичайно извършваме, се явяват контекст или практическо условие за възможност за протичането на една определена езикова игра и в последна сметка условие за достигане до правилно (в този контекст) разбиране на думи и изречения.

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Фридрих Ницше: критика на християнството и сриването на свръхсетивния свят

Волята сама по себе си, непознаваемата и единствена воля за живот при Артур Шопенхауер отрича християнството, волята за власт (мощ, сила) на Фридрих Ницше също така го отрича. Ницше обявява не само, че бог е мъртъв, но и че светът има нужда от преоценка на всичко досегашно, което го е вълнувало или което го е пропивало и разяждало отвътре. Зовът на Заратустра не е зов към смърт, а към живот. В християнството Ницше съзира деградацията на човешкото, на това, което е живо, и което се стреми към живот; той говори за упадък на самата живееща същност на човека, на устрема му към съвършенство, към борба, към живот тук и сега. Философът подлага на критика основите на християнството, неговия стремеж към всичко, което е „над" и „отвъд". Тук - в света на Ницше - няма бог, няма живот след, няма чакане на отвъдното, няма рай и ад. Упадъкът се състои в изсъхването на живота и стремежа към нещо, което не е в живота, а извън и отвъд него, в разложението и покоряването на монотонността. Животът се превръща в чакане, той не е живот сам по себе си, а единствено преходна спирка. Бог е мъртъв, защото той просто трябва да умре, за да може погледът да се насочи не нагоре, а надолу към самия човек, към живота на човека като ценност, към волята му за живот, която е дишаща и жива, която не чака, а която е. Майкъл Тенър озаглавява послеслова си към книгата „Ницше" с остроумното „Ницше и застраховка „живот"" като в него споменава как цялата философия на Ницше е едно преосмисляне и оценяване на живота, на стойността му.

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Градът: архетип и топос

The present article is an experiment for treatment and interpretation of the symbolics of the town's space on other leve, different from the purely ethnographical. Taking in mind the thesises of famous ethnologists and anthropologists that the ethnology is more an original method of learning than a source of privat knowledge (Mauss) and that no science can consider the structures proceeding from its field as limited, as some arrangement of certain parts (Levi-Strauss) the symbolics of the town is treated both in its representation, psychologically (as archetype) and in its concreteness, physically and architecturally (as topos).

Proceed from the maxim that: 1.Culturologically the town is a „centre" - meeting of sacral and profane spase. 2. Historically and philosophically the town is a continuum of the world history. 3. Psychologically the town is an archetype of the power - conflict and reconciliation between the collective unconsciousness and the ego consciousness - the present attempt is only marking of a detailed investigation of the town's symbolics.

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Видимостта и виждането в разказа на Емилиян Станев „Лазар и Исус”

The universal symbolism of the Bible used in an aesthetic narrative structure acquires new individual meaning – human fear of the immensity of spiritual dimensions, which gives life to a world of seeming understanding as apposed to true knowledge.
The visual perspective in the story “Lazarus and Jesus” by Emiliyan Stanev points to the world of human logic as apposed to inner vision and Logos – the divine knowledge. Fear of Logos is a rush into death and human logic, which gives rise to a world of false understanding and loss of spiritual perspective. The visual as apposed to vision places the mind into the circle of appearances, where life to the body becomes death of the soul, while resurrection can be understood in spiritual terms only. The story dramatically opposes the impulse for spiritual resurrection and the urge into fear leading to death of body and spirit. Loss of vision turns the mind into a slave of appearances; loss of knowledge turns the mind into a prey of fear and distorted logic.
The dynamic between the visual and inner vision becomes symbolic of the dynamic between death and resurrection as well as between knowledge and distorted understanding. Those dynamic relations give depth to understanding basic psychological and epistemological problems from the viewpoint of a humanitarian pessimist.

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Метаезиците. Символи на цикличното време

“In the beginning was the word.” The word gives meaning of the idea, gives substance of the knowledge, it shapes the created reality. The present multimedia environment and the antagonistic social conditions set the word against the meaning, turned the language into the screen of reality. Becoming aware of the manipulation on the first level of communication – verbal expression – (phonetic language) man turns his attention to the next – intuitive (extrasensory) perception and expression through abstract symbols. While the intuitive communication presents direct transmission of information in the conditions of interpersonal brain resonance, the sophisticated archetype of the entire personality finds expression in the symbolic language. It is the sign of the universal identity of the vector symbolic of numbers, forms, sounds and emotions, as well as of the matrix symbolic of the unity of their counterparts.

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Time, Human Consciousness, and the Twin Paradox

Humans are time-beings. They are laid in time, their consciousness is one of things-in-time. In Kant’s transcendental philosophy time is a pure form of sensuous intuition. But if we think of time as a physical concept, then we may stick to two different views about its nature - dynamic and static one. The first regards the “flow” of time as a real process. The world exists only in the “present” moment. The other view regards all states from the history of an object to be equally real, i.e. the flow of time is mind-dependent. Only the static view of time can treat the twin (or the clocks) paradox in a non-contradictory way. But an unexpected peculiarity comes to the fore, concerning the conscious grasp of the moment of the encounter of the twins. It invites the option Kant’s transcendental conception to be revisited.

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Философия и източен език

Философията започва с изумлението. Изумлението от страна на философа спрямо природата и от страна на хората спрямо философа. Изумлението на хората, както сетивно, от наблюдението на заниманията на философа, от това какво прави, как го прави, но и от самото бездействие на философа. Освен сетивно, разбрано чрез очите, хората се изумяват понякога даже повече от това какво или как говори философът.

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Почит към Каталония

Най-лошото в това да си търсен от полицията в град като Барселона е, че всички кафенета отварят толкова късно. Когато си принуден да спиш без покрив над главата, обикновено се будиш по зазоряване, а никое от кафенетата в Барселона не отваря преди девет часа. Затова трябваше да чакам с часове, преди да мога да изпия чаша кафе или да се избръсна. Чувствах се странно, когато виждах анархистките лозунги по стените на бръснарниците, според които даването на бакшиш е забранено. "Революцията разкъса оковите ни", гласеше надписа на едно от окачените по стената парчета хартия. Искаше ми се да кажа на бръснаря, че скоро отново ще му надянат веригите, ако не внимава поне малко повече.

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Мястото на секса сред човешките ценности

Писателят, посветил се на сексуална тема, винаги е в опасност да бъде обвинен в прекомерна мания по своя предмет от онези, които смятат, че подобни теми не трябва да се споменават. Приема се, че той не би рискувал да си навлече порицанието на превзето скромните и похотливи личности освен в случая, когато интересът му към темата далеч превъзхожда значението й. Този възглед обаче споделят единствено онези, които защитават промени в конвенционалната етика.

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Политически език на управляващия елит в Русия

Употребата на думата “елит” в различните типове дискурс в днешна Русия е широка както в публицистиката, така и във всекидневието и се отнася до различни социални слоеве, носи и различна емоционална натовареност. Преди да характеризираме основните черти на политическия език на днешния властови елит на Русия, е необходимо е да кажем няколко думи за самия елит. Според унгареца М. Вайда елитът на обществото “това е група от хора, стоящи на горното стъпало на йерархията, способна да създаде образци на потребности и поведение”. За механизма на влиянието на елита пише и немският социолог П. Драйцел: елитът се състои от притежаващите висши позиции в група, организация или институция, в която подборът се осъществява според принципа на “продуктивността на знанието”. По този начин благодарение на неговите позиции и ролята, властта и влиянието, елитът има възможност да формира социалната структура на обществото. Още В. Парето разделя елита на непосредствено властови, управляващ и продуктивен, създаващ духовни ценности.

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Езикът на квантовата механика

Квантовата механика описва материята на атомно и субатомно ниво. На такова ниво микрочастиците имат коренно различно поведение от това на макротелата и затова възникват явления, които са непознати за класическата физика - корпускулярно-вълнов дуализъм, квантуване, неопределеност и суперпозиция на състоянията, вероятностен характер на събитията (преходите от едно състояние в друго), забранени състояния и съществената роля, която играе процесът на наблюдение (измерване) на квантовата система за определяне на конкретното й състояние. За описанието на тези нови явления е необходим нов математически апарат. Той е създаден сравнително бързо през втората половина на двадесетте и началото на тридесетте години на двадесети век, макар че продължава да се развива и досега.

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Ортега-и-Гасет: мълчанието – опакото на езика

Испанският философ Хосе Ортега-и-Гасет не е публикувал нито едно специализирано върху езика съчинение, но темата за езика присъства в много от текстовете му. Езикът е сред най-обширно мигриращите „предмети”, обсъждани в неговото творчество. Както посочва Педро Сересо Галан, един от проникновените изследователи на ортегианската философия, проблемът за езика в доктрината на Ортега е „скрита вена, която от време на време излиза на повърхността, но която не престава да пулсира” (7, 378). Езикът е една от привилегированите теми във философията на Ортега.

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Езикът като отражение на дискриминацията и основание за дискриминация

Последните два века от човешката история, особено годините след Втората световна война, се характеризират с нарастващо участие на жените в сферата на платения труд. Това обаче не води винаги до съответстващи на образователния и трудовия им капацитет професионални позиции и трудов статус. Еманципацията на жената се оказа дълъг, труден и много противоречив процес.

Част от задържащите процеса причини трябва да се търсят в някои обективни различия между мъжете и жените, криещи се в техните биологически особености и мисии в обществения живот. Например в единствената /поне засега/ възможност жената да ражда деца. Или в различията от гледна точка на тяхната физическа сила. И тези различия ще продължават да бъдат причина и повод за известни специфики в развитието на мъжа и жената, в техните трудови функции.

Друга част от причините обаче опира до властовите позиции в обществения живот. До нежеланието на повечето работодатели да се лишат от такъв ефективен начин да печелят повече. До нежеланието на повечето представители на така наречения „силен пол” да се лишат от редица властови ресурси, от доминиращата си позиция в сферата на платения труд, от привилегированата си позиция в сферата на семейния бит и отглеждането на децата.

Причина за дискриминацията е и известна инерция в общественото съзнание, която пречи за осъзнаването на редица обществени явления, техния смисъл и обществена роля.

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Езикът на протестантството в България – средство за социално включване и социално изключване

Протестантството в България и езикът са в същностна връзка. Разбира се, същото би могло да се каже и за всеки друг социален феномен, ако приемем хипотезата, че езикът е същностен за конструирането на социалното изобщо. В конкретния случай с протестантството в България обаче има две неща, които следва да бъдат отчленени:

1. Връзката на генезиса на самото протестантство с езика. Възникнало в зората на формирането на модерното национално съзнание, протестантството има за основен лайтмотив проповядването на разбираем, а именно - национален, език.

2. Специфичният контекст, в който е ситуирано протестантството в България и социално-историческата динамика на развитието му.

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Забраненият език – от дискурсивното обезличаване до фактическата асимилация на хомосексуалните в България в периода 1945 – 1989 г

Една от основните теми на незавършената от Мишел Фуко „История на сексуалността” е критиката на теориите за модерната репресия върху сексуалността, обединени от него чрез формулировката за „репресивната хипотеза”. Във „Волята за знание” Фуко твърди най-общо следното: смята се, че сексът през модерната епоха е обект на забрани, ограничения и мълчание, „репресията функционира като осъждане на изчезване, но и като предписание за мълчание, твърдение за несъществуване и следователно като констатация, че няма нищо за казване, нито за виждане, нито за научаване относно всичко това.”1. Всъщност, именно модерността е времето, в което: първо – се наблюдава най-голямо множене на дискурсите върху секса и второ – истината за нас, истината за същността на нещата се полага като функция от прекрачването на сексуалните бариери. Поради посоченото мултиплициране на дискурсите върху секса от една страна и поради утвърждаващата се връзка между секса и знанието, секса и истината от друга, според Фуко теориите за репресивния режим, който модерната власт упражнява над секса, са неспособни да обхванат значително по-сложната връзка между тях.

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Понятието "Академична дискурсивна общност" във века на глобализация – философски перспективи

It is generally assumed that the process of production, distribution and consumption of specialised discourse is realised within certain cultural contexts which presuppose and reveal shared values and beliefs embodying basic assumptions both as to the nature of the discipline and the subject matter and as to the ‘professional ethic’ and relationships between the members of the respective community or, as stated by Bizzell (1982:193), all academic discourse is „a form of language use that unites a particular community“.
Convincing as it may sound, this claim needs serious reconsideration in the modern age of globalisation of academic communication. How are we to define the community Bizzell refers to? And does present-day academic discourse really unite scientists of different social, economic, ethnic, cultural, etc. backgrounds, or does (or maybe should?) the very expansion of the community and the ever-increasing multiplication of voices within it result in diversification rather than unification? And if so, will this lead to communication breakdowns
Two basic philosophical positions have to be considered in this respect, namely the internalist/social constructionist and the externalist ones. The discussion shows that if one remains committed to the traditional understanding of ‘discourse community’, one should either recognize the existence of a very large number of very small communities, or accept that the academic discourse community has disappeared. A more realistic point of view would be to speak at present of fluctuating communities united by temporary common goals.

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Ретроактивно положената цел

Slavoj Zizek, easily interpreting the theses by Jacques Lacan, the fragments by Marx, some texts by Alain Badieu etc., develop the concept for the retro - actively fixed target (the exact definition is mine - D.G.) - this explicaton on the events historics, which the people fabricate postfactum, in order to show the latter as a result of deliberate pursue and realized object. This inversion by "telos" and "praxis" by himself teleologic, but she pursue not simply towards giving legitimation on the factition by way of the grounding antedate of the acts and achieved owing to accession to power: here the subject receive the opportunity choosing the own history of itself. This act is possible solely through and on the level of language, because the language give opportunity to change the own past, transforning him in the present. But does is do the true choose, the chance correcting the errors and the failures or someting totally different? The answers stretch beyond the bounds on the Zizek study... if it is possible so to speak for him. In the centre of attention is the fortune on the left in the future...

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Езикът на изменчивостта (тълкуване на Идзин)

In the article the so called “specific language” of I Ching as representative for typical Chinese philosophy of variability is discussed. Two aspects of this specific language are under main consideration: 1. Understanding of variability as expressed in the structure of isolated hexagrams (graphic symbols of relative state of piece amidst the stream of constant movement); 2. Understanding of variability as expressed in the overall order of the 64 hexagrams. Special attention is paid to the meaning of two important concept li and wen, revealing patterns of microstructure and macrostructure of reality as ordered movement.

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Философски концепции в съвременната лингвистична теория и методи на анализ

The paper deals with some philosophical ideas underlying the mentalist (nativist) theory of language within the framework of .Noam Chomsky's generative grammar. The problem of language as a biological phenomenon, based on the Cartesian ideas of Rene Descartes is in the focus of the discussion. Distinction is drawn between human language, animal language and machine languages, thus exemplifying the basic features of human language as inherited endowment which is stimulus free and creative and which leads to a new definition of language as a 'discrete infiniteness'. Light is also shed on the part of the philosophical concepts dealing with the so-called Plato's problem known in modern linguistics under the notion of 'poverty of stimulus' which is directly related to language acquisition and is part of the theory of epistemology. The logical relation between the principle of poverty of stimulus and the concept of the existence of universal grammar is further explored. Finally, the modern concept of a division of language into two different domains: I-language and E-language, is dealt with.

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Език и свят: проблемът за мистичното (опит върху ранния Витгенщайн)

The article focuses on the issue of the mystical as it is revealed in earlier Wittgenstein’s philosophy. Three facets of the mystical are discussed as identified in the Tractatus: one, the mystical as a boundary between meaningful and meaningless propositions; two, the mystical as in the form of conceiving the world as limited whole; and three, the mystical as the impossibility to speak on ethical matters like the meaning of life.

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Езикът на философията

The language of philosophy can be regarded as relatively distinct ways of implementing the philosophic action – philosophic speech, philosophic silence, philosophic gesture. This complex unity of discourse /ordered and controlled speaking /writing //, the silent discipline of senses and mind /askesis/ and the aristocratic detachment from the vanity of the day /ekstasis/ can be seen as a historical legacy of the philosophy of various religious and esoteric practices. Nevertheless, according to the author, it is more correct to speak about essentially new ‘frame’ of the social, which assigns a ‘non-everyday’ horizon to the presence and this way, inside the ‘world’, the distinction between ‘daily’ and „onthological”. „Philosophising is something that is before any kind of geschaft and represents the central event of presence, it is independent and completely foreign to the manner of behaviour that we normally have.” /Haideger/. „Philosophising does not enter as well from the divine side, because the other world is the ‘easy’ way for the philosophy, the hard way is the ecstatic overturn to this world. The philosophical gesture is the gesture of turning ‘the world’ upside down /Hegel/, there where one never enters from the side of the normal, useful, common.

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