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Journal NotaBene Issue 63 (2024) Editor: Gergana Popova

Topic of the issue: Pathways in the technological universe

Table of contents

Table of contents Issue 63 (2024)

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Reproductive cloning in the perspective of questions of freedom, personal identity and the meaning of human existence

The article concentrates on the problem of human reproductive cloning. The claims of reproductive medicine specialists Zavos and Antinori and of Clonaid - a biotech company close to Rael's sect - of successful human cloning at the turn of the century and the reactions these claims provoked are examined. The text goes on to focus both on the optimistic predictions of transhumanist researchers and other scientists for overcoming death or genetic enhancements through human cloning, and on the medical and ethical dangers associated with this possibility. Legal restrictions on cloning and other problematic areas of biotechnology research are studied. The article also analyses philosophical thematisations on the issue of cloning and human enhancement, emphasizing the theses of Jürgen Habermas, Michael Sandel, and Jean Baudrillard. The main question which is posed is whether the attempt to postpone and cancel death, often presented through the prism of continuity with Enlightenment humanism, will not in fact lead to the loss of human freedom and the end of the human.
Keywords: human reproductive cloning, instrumentalisation, personal autonomy, transhumanism

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Study on Dostoevsky: “Crime and Punishment”. Who is the main character?

“Study on Dostoevsky: “Crime and Punishment.” Who is the main character?” is a text provoked by Igor Evlampiev’s book “The Image of Jesus Christ in the Philosophical Worldview of Dostoevsky” [“Образ Иисуса Христа в философском мировоззрении Ф. М. Достоевского”], published at the end of 2021. Borrowing from this researcher the idea that Raskolnikov is the Son of God in a hidden form, I polemize with some of his other theses and arguments. My own idea is a continuation of that of Tsvetan Stoyanov that God the Father and God the Son are not one, but antagonists in the plane of ethics. I also dwell on Sonia Marmeladova in her role of Sofia - the Soul, receiving salvation with the appearance of the Spirit and their sacred marriage. Incidentally, I touch on the question of the Holy Spirit as it is revealed to us in the novel, the interaction between good and evil and the different interpretation of the image of the Savior in “The Idiot” - another novel where we discover the Second Person of the Holy Trinity under the mask of a poor and ridiculed nobleman. My main thesis: as a novelist, Dostoevsky is not an imperialist, nor a mouthpiece for Orthodoxy (let alone its dogmas!), but a humanist whose apology of Christ is closer to the spirit of Ernest Renan than to that of the holy fathers of previous centuries. At the same time, the codes that Dostoevsky used are ancient - these are the codes of Gnosticism.
Keywords: Dostoevsky, Gnosticism, Raskolnikov, Sonia Marmeladova

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The concept of the "posthuman" has increasingly become a debated theme in contemporary discussions about the future of humanity, particularly in the context of the developments in artificial intelligence. In this paper, we explore the concept of the "posthuman" and delve into the different visions of the future presented by Transhumanism and Posthumanism. We also address the question of whether the future is indeed posthuman. Transhumanism, grounded in Enlightenment ideals, offers a future where advanced technologies empower humans to transcend biological limitations. It advocates for radical human augmentations and envisions a world where death is redefined, biological bodies are transformed, and consciousness is potentially uploaded into machines. Philosophical Posthumanism, on the other hand, challenges conventional humanist traditions and advocates for a more critical understanding of the human condition and technology. The question of whether the future is posthuman remains open and invites continued debate. Transhumanism propels us towards a future where technology plays a central role in human evolution. Posthumanism, however, invites us to critically engage with technology, emphasizing the importance of diverse perspectives. Both viewpoints offer insights, leaving us to ponder the shape of our future in an era of rapid technological progress.
Keywords: posthuman, posthumanism, transhumanism, technology, human condition, future, artificial intelligence

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Quality of Life and the system of Lifelong Learning: national mapping

  • Author: Albena Nakova, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, BAS, Karamphil Manolov, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, BAS, Valentina Milenkova, SWU “Neofit Rilski
  • Section: Подиум
  • Issue: Pathways in the technological universe

This article is a study of educational and youth policies and their impact on the quality of life of young people in Bulgarian conditions. The analysis is focused on delineating the structural institutions and entities that shape skills and knowledge in young people. The main research questions are: How can lifelong learning and youth policies help young adults move from education to employment? To what extent are these policies effective in contributing to improving the quality of life of young people? The purpose of the article is to outline the picture of the formal education system in Bulgarian conditions and its involvement in the quality of life of young people. Lifelong Learning policies are a good basis for implementing effective programs that facilitate the integration of young people in dynamic labor markets. Such programs are important in a European and national context and overcome social exclusion and distances.
Keywords: quality of life, lifelong learning, policies, labor market

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The Bulgarian translations of the Bible. The history of an unpublished Bible version of the Holy Synod

The article presents the Bulgarian translations of the Bible, focusing more on the history of an unpublished Bible translation made by the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. The aim is to familiarize the audience with this lesser-known translation, to look at the historical facts surrounding its creation and the reasons why it was never published. Now for the first time we have photos published of the original text stored in the vault of the Holy Synod.
Keywords: Bible, Translation, Holy Synod

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Cardinality of a Set

The different role of the unambiguous and invertible correspondence at the finite and at the infinite sets has revealed. It is shown how the countably infinite cardinality aleph-zero of the countably infinite set of the natural numbers N is used as a unit of measurement to compare the cardinality of different countably infinite sets. Other important corollaries of this significant reorganization of the set theory are also considered.
Keywords: Set, Cardinality, Units of measurement for cardinality

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Semantic core of political attitudes in the context of election process

  • Author: Bilyana Boykova Yordanova, Iva Ivanova Dimitrova, Department of Psychology, SWU "Neofit Rilski",,
  • Section: Подиум
  • Issue: Pathways in the technological universe

Present study provides information about the semantic core of political attitudes and the electoral process, by establishing the statistical parameters of the variables clearness and appropriateness toward the conduct of elections and the attitude of voters towards political parties in the direction of their intention to vote. The coefficients of significance of the studied variables were tested and regularities in the studied constructs were statistically established.
Keywords: political attitudes, electoral process. appropriateness, clearness

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Minima moralia

Personal qualities and roles of the teacher for forming key competences in students

  • Author: Iva Yordanova Doynova, PhD student, Faculty of Philosophy, Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski",
  • Section: Minima moralia
  • Issue: Pathways in the technological universe

This article analyzes some of the personal qualities of the teacher, as well as the roles he plays, in terms of forming key competencies in secondary school students, in the context of the new educational policy and the characteristics of the current generations. In the era of globalism, the teacher must acquire new skills and competences through which to fulfill new roles, and this is a continuous and dynamic process.
Keywords: educational approach, competences, skills, new generations, roles, personal qualities

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Arab Women’s Participation in the Israeli Labor Market: Challenges and Achievements

The article examines the challenges Arab women face in the labor market. Some of their success stories are presented, despite the significant difficulties they encountered on their way to achieving their goals. The participation of Arab women in the labor market in Israel has been highly controversial and has caused widespread public concern over the past few decades. Most of these women suffer from various prejudices related to their education, religion, gender, participation in the economy, politics, domestic duties and many other factors. However, they tend to be confident and self-reliant to make their presence noticed and their opinion heard by taking various steps to realize their dreams and achieve their goals.
Keywords: Arab women, Israeli labor market, discrimination, participation, achievements

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Political unity and the absolute enemy in Carl Schmitt’s political philosophy

The study of Carl Schmitt's ideas has always been centered around the fundamental problems of the political world. However, this leaves some sub-issues unexplained, such as the concept of political unity. Carl Schmitt's definition of political unity coincides perfectly with his definition of the political as a distinction between friends and enemies. Because of the specificity of the natural state of the political, which Schmitt defines as pluriversum, the political subject is identical with its political unity. History, however, hardly allows for the realization of ideal theoretical constructions, which is why conflicts sometimes occur within the political subjects, whereby they lose their political unity. This article asks about the consequences of intra-subjective division and how this fits into Carl Schmitt's theory. The most serious implication for the political is the transformation of the concept of the enemy, because the exceptional situation of internal political division implies a different logic. Schmitt's construction must therefore allow for the presence of the absolutization of the enemy for the sake of the survival of the political subject.
Keywords: Carl Schmitt, political unity, political division, political subject

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Photos by Elitsa Tihomirova

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