NotaBene .

Journal NotaBene Issue 55 (2022) Editor: Gergana Popova

Topic of the issue: The Human-machine

Quanta, Rationality and Archaic Images

The analysis in this article is focused on the paradoxes of quantum mechanics. Atoms and subatomic particles display properties unlike those of bodies and forces in the macro-world; these new properties include particle-wave dualism, absence of continuity in space and time, the impossibility of tracing the transformations occurring across the states of the particles. The only laws that prove equally valid both for the macro and the micro worlds are those of conservation of energy, momentum and charge. The categories valid in the macro-world (causality, discontinuity and continuity, processuality, space and time) lose their validity in the world of micro-particles. This is the framework in which we examine the crisis of classical rationality and the language that would be adequate to describe quantum phenomena. We argue that the mathematical language which successfully deals with the paradoxes of quantum physics is not, and cannot be, sufficient in itself, and that it inevitably engages in dialogue with other languages that are more concrete and closer to common human experience. Moreover, due precisely to the paradoxical nature of quantum mechanics, even its creators found it convenient to resort to images typical of magical-mythical mentality and poetry. The discontinuity of quantum phenomena is similar to the magical transformations of characters in mythology and fairy tales. Thus, science, which in its pursuit of absolute objectivity has progressively freed itself of anthropomorphic representations, has found within the depths of matter (as well as in the singularities of cosmic evolution) certain images analogous to the images and metamorphoses proper to archaic mentality.
Keywords: quantum physics, microparticles, causality, rationality, mythologies, poetry, metamorphoses

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A story about the birth, development and future of the man-machine. Part 1

The article theorizes on the figure of the cyborg, or man-machine, established not only in science fiction but also in the humanities literature of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The hypothesis presented here is that modern technologies and especially the NBIC complex turn the cyborg from a metaphor into a feasible opportunity, which in its final realization calls into question the original conditions of human existence. In its first part, the text analyzes some of the most popular views on human empowerment, focusing on the transhumanitarian movement and its human optimization program through two major transitions that have so far marked a demarcation line - from therapy to improvement and from chance to choice. Emphasis is also placed on the implicit presence of this program in other futuristic visions of man, in the present bioeconomies, as well as in the long-established techniques of cosmetic surgery.In its second part, the article returns to the origins of the concept of "man-machine", tracing its genealogy to the works of modern philosophers. Certain pathologies in the development of the modern project are analyzed, which directly or indirectly determine the epiphenomena of the present. The third part of the text reflects on the risks to the human future, which are rooted in the unlimited development and use of modern technologies in the era of neoliberal capitalism. In its thematization of the realized metaphor of "man-machine" the article stays away from the core of the debate on modern biopower, trying to derive and classify the basic - ethically and utilitarian - theoretical intuitions on the end of human. In this context, she mainly uses the works of Sandel, Fukuyama and Habermas, as well as articles and lectures by authors in the field of natural and information sciences.
Keywords: man-machine, cyborg, biopower, transhumanitarian movement, biotechnologies

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Human Enhancement Searching the Perfect Human Being

The concept of human enhancement has turned into an extensive topic of debate, especially in recent years. The developments in science and technology indicate that human beings will soon be capable of reshaping and manipulating human biology, not necessarily for medical purposes. This article will briefly discuss human enhancement, its meaning and its scope. The main focus will be on the controversial biomedical interventions that aim to improve human form and functioning. The paper will point out the urgency to think about the notion and definition of a human being in the wake of the current biotechnological developments that promise a radical transformation of the human condition. The text will discuss the divide between pro-enhancement and anti-enhancement groupings, the intellectual and cultural movement of Transhumanism on the one hand and its critics on the other. The paper will touch upon the concepts of the human condition and human vulnerability while discussing Transhumanist beliefs about radically transforming ourselves through a wide range of enhancement methods.
Keywords: human enhancement, technology, human condition, transhumanism, posthumanism, pro-enhancement, anti-enhancement

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Philosophical approaches to the relationship of artificial intelligence, cybernetics and consciousness

The article examines philosophical approaches to the interaction of artificial intelligence, cybernetics and consciousness. It analyzes the appearance of reflectors and robots, the invention of the digital computer by C. Babbage and the strategic tasks set by technologically developed countries. The development and application of robotics, a research paradigm focused on exploring the capabilities of artificial intelligence, for which a wide range of software for human mental activity is used, is explored. Physicochemical properties and design features of robot components, in general, cybernetics, mathematics and software have developed faster. Here, in addition to new numerical methods such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, evolutionary computing, etc., and in particular, computational intelligence, which involves sharing, acts as the main methodology. In addition, in the context of the development of artificial intelligence in the global technological environment, the object of research is the problem of protecting the freedom of human spiritual consciousness.
Key words: artificial intelligence, cybernetics, robot, robotics, consciousness, digital computing machine.

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Podium

Plato, Space and Magritte

Space, as it is currently conceived, offers some clues which help the elucidation of connections and distinctions between knowledge and perception. Platos philosophy and Magrittes painting are used in developing a contrasted parallel. The oppositions visible - conceivable, spatial - non-spatial are analyzed and through them the differences between ancient and modern interpretation of images are presented.
Key words: art, Plato, space, Magritte

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Civic education: teaching skills for a productive conversation

In the curriculum for Civic Education as a part of the lifelong learning process is included the development of soft skills. Conversational skills as a part of the soft skillset are taught in relation to problem-solving and conflict-resolution skills. One of the arguments that are defended in this article is that teaching conversational skills with the intent to avoid a conflict or solve a problem would obstruct open communication because it creates a bias toward the goal of the conversation. Instead, a more productive way to enter a conversation would be an open-minded approach with respect toward different opinions and with the possibility to learn something new. The second argument is that everyday language creativity as a property of all language use can be applied to Grices notion for conversational implicature as a way of expressing a positive message, that ensures better understanding while respecting the listener and the social etiquette.
Keywords: implicatures, civic education, communication skills, constructive dialogue.

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A THEORY OF JUSTICE OF JOHN RAWLS

In his work "A Theory of Justice", John Rawls specifies in a brilliant way our ideas (notions) of social justice by combining the paradigms of liberty/ freedom (of the individual) and equality (of individuals) in society for the purposes of his conception. A key position in this scenario is occupied by the two principles of justice (in the context of the unconditionality of personal liberty and the conditionality of socio-economic inequality): mental products of the participants in a hypothetically grounded original position with non-standard tools - (in sum) the so-called veil of ignorance. All this - as a just, ergo fair process guarantees a priori (sensu Rawls) the constitution of the foundations (background institutions) of a modern (market-oriented, democratic etc.) and just society. In the following short statement is emphasized exactly on the more important elements of the philosophy of J.Rawls and his book for justice of our common existence.
Keywords: a theory of justice, justice, justice as fairness, social justice, original position, veil of ignorance, procedural justice, maximin rule, egalitarian liberalism, principles of justice

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DIVERSITY OF NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN BULGARIA: THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION

The major problem of this paper is how the basic concepts of diversity and standardization can be applied to the issues of new religious movements. This social phenomenon usually appears on the micro level of society but in its concrete appearances it can affect the way major problems like tolerance, globalization, nationalism, and human rights can influence other spheres of social life.
I argue that new religious movements (NRMs) bring diversity and are often perceived as a challenge to standardization. Hence one of the problems which the greater society often faces with NRMs is the lack of predictability, which Elchardus (2010-a, 11) associates with standardization.
Key words: diversity, standardization, religious movements,

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Babylon

Apology of a Madman

On the occasion of the 165th anniversary of the death of one of the most original Russian religious philosophers, Pyotr Chaadaev (1794-1856), Paradox Publishing House published his two most famous works - "Philosophical Letters" and "Apology of a Madman". To mark the anniversary, Notabene offers its readers "Apology of the Madman" translated by Kamen Lozev.

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Announcement

Differentiated Europe Macron's Initiative for Europe

This paper analyses the differentiated integration of Europe through the Initiative for Europe by French President Emmanuel Macron. Furthermore, it examines supranationality and intergovernmentalism, in the approach of the same Initiative for Europe. Finally, it compares the White paper for Europe with the French concept. In summary, conclusions are made depending on the previous analysis findings. Deductive and inductive research methods are used in this paper. The final assumption is that the future of Europe is one of differentiated integration, with fulfilled basic preconditions which will prevent disintegration.
Keywords: Differentiated integration, Europe, EU, France

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On the conceptual frameworks problem

The article is devoted to the problem of the conceptual framework. It covers twenty years of historical and philosophical genesis the second half of the twentieth century. During this period, the problem was discussed and properly researched. The positions of three leading figures in logical positivisms field are presented Rudolf Carnap, Willard van Orman Quine, and Karl Popper. It is argued that the conceptual framework is a tool for the seeker to create concepts. The theoretical position in the views and understandings of the author on the issues discussed in the text is expressed. The whole process of constructing the conceptual framework is presented from the spatially-temporally ordered system of observable objects and events; through the concept of reality, through the number system. Attention is paid to the philosophical questions nature on the existence or reality of numbers, the problem of the existence of classes, and ontological relativity, the definition of terms. Own language and habitual terms are considered sequentially. Attention is paid to the myth of the conceptual framework. The study reaches the state of transcend.
Keywords: conceptual framework; the myth of the conceptual framework; ontological relativity; logical positivism.

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"FOR A UNITED DEMOCRATIC YOUTH UNION": THE ISSUE OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE YOUTH IN THE EARLIEST YEARS OF THE SOCIALISM IN BULGARIA

This article presents in chronological terms the development of the idea of putting all Bulgarian youth in one organization which aims at mass control over the youth by placing it under the power of the government and in particular the Communist party. The text is about the period 1944-1949 and tries to present the main stages that led to the foundation of the union, paying special attention to the factors that hinder its smooth establishment and operating.
Keywords: youth, socialism, propaganda, organizations, unions, communism

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Leadership and leadership skills

This article focuses on the study of leadership and leadership skills as an important aspect of modern life. Leaders appear in different areas of the organization and many things depend on them related to the activities, results, achievements in both individual and community and organizational contexts. The analysis focuses on leadership as a phenomenon and its dimensions. The logic of development of theories of leadership according to individual perspectives and aspects of the phenomenon is traced, clarifying the main defining elements of leadership, which create a certain consensus in the scientific literature and provide a unifying perspective of ideas. The inseparable connection between leadership and management, their complementarity, and at the same time diversity are considered. The main conclusion of the article is that leadership is the result of the relationship between the leader and his followers; personal qualities, behavior and skills of the potential leader are crucial, they are manifested under certain conditions, such as the ability of the leader to be adequate to people's expectations, to propose actions that meet their desires and needs. At the same time, the leader in the organization must achieve the more general goals and mission that the organization pursues.
Keywords: leadership, management, leader, followers

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Poiesis

RUST. Photoes and Photo Collage by Nikolai Pandarski

On October 28, 2018, teams of Electricity System Operator EAD performed work on 110 kV overhead power lines near the 110/20 kV substation Cast iron foundry Ihtiman. The KAMAZ APT-35 aerial platform was used during the implementation of the activities. There are two electricians in the basket of the car lift. When the articulated boom is retracted, the welding of a fixed support between the boom arms breaks, as a result of which the boom and the basket fly towards the chassis of the aerial platform. One of the electricians dies.
In order to ensure safety when using the KAMAZ APT-35 aerial platforms, the company stopped using them and proceeded to an inspection procedure by non-destructive inspection (defectoscopy) of the welding parts of each of the five aerial platforms in operation.
After disassembly of the car lifts, separation of the welding parts and their cleaning from rust and paint, the following were used: capillary method with penetrating liquids and magnetic-powder method for defectoscopy. As a result, it was found that in most of the welds there is non-fusion of the material, as well as cracks.
The additional element to each of the photographs turns them into paintings from the abstract world of images created by rust. The series includes: "Sixth Sense", "Time Apart", "Diogenes", "Shepherd", "SONY-the best", "Geisha", "Snake's Eye", "They are here", "Scat", "Doomsday" "Centurion", "Tenderness", "Shipwreck at Sunset", "Night Storm", "July Morning", "Crocodile".

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