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THE FUNCTIONING OF THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION AND TURKEY'S ROLE IN THE CONFLICT ENVIRONMENT

Birsena Numanovic Duljevic, PhD

Independent University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina,

CESNA B - Belgrade, Serbia

Janko Todorov, PhD

College of Vocational Studies in Criminalistic and Security of Nis, Serbia

 

INTRODUCTION

Multilateral communication in the modern business environment and competition on the world economic market imply a strong incentive for cooperation on a regional basis. Efforts to create free trade zones and customs unions in Asia, North and South America flourished in the nineties of the 20th century, and regional cooperation intensified at the beginning of the 21st century. These types of regionalism, which differ from integration such as the European Union, focus on economic issues and rely on a very limited degree of institutionalization. Within these regional integrations, free trade is encouraged through the progressive reduction of tariffs without the establishment of a large central bureaucracy. Serbia's main foreign policy goal is membership in the European Union. The slowing down of the European integration process, the consequences of the world economic crisis, the energy needs of Serbia and the traditionally good relations with Russia, influenced the institutionalization of economic cooperation with the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) by harmonizing the text of the Free Trade Agreement between the two parties. Serbia signed the Agreement on October 25, 2019.

The EAEU is a regional international organization and has international legal personality, established by the Agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union. The EAEU is a single market that ensures the free flow of goods, services, capital and labor, conducts a coordinated, harmonized and unified policy in the sectors covered by the Agreement and fulfills the Union's international obligations. The Union was created for the comprehensive improvement, competitiveness and cooperation between national economies and to promote the stable development of the living standards of residents in the member countries.

 

1.      Attempts to join the European Union

 

The first step towards European integration was taken by six countries: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, which established a common market for coal and steel in 1950. Denmark, Ireland and Great Britain first expanded and joined these founding countries in 1973. The next accession was made by Greece in 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986. Austria, Finland and Sweden joined together in 1995, and the largest number of accessions to the EU was made in 2004, when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Latvia joined. Our neighbors Bulgaria and Romania became EU members in 2007, and Croatia in 2013.

The countries that are trying to become members of the EU are: Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Turkey. The Republic of Turkey is an Eurasian country located in Southeast Europe and Southwest Asia. As much as 97% of the territory of the Republic of Turkey is located in the Asian part, and only the remaining 3% is located in Europe. Turkey is bordered to the east by Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran, to the south by Iraq and Syria, and to the west by Greece and Bulgaria. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are in the south, the Aegean Sea and islands in the west, and the Black Sea in the north. Due to the location of the country on two continents, Turkish culture is a unique blend of Eastern and Western customs and traditions. The position of the country between Europe in the west, Central Asia in the east, Russia in the north and the Middle East in the south, gave Turkey great strategic importance.

Turkey is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic whose political structure was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War. Since then, the country's policy began to turn towards the West, so that today Turkey is a member of many Western organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD and OSCE. In 2005, Turkey again started negotiations for membership in the European Union. At the same time, the state maintains and strengthens its political relations with eastern countries. It is in close cooperation with the USA, which hinders its entry into the European Union. Turkey is among the developed countries. It has the 15th largest GDP in the world. The key sectors of the Turkish economy are: banking, tourism, agriculture, construction, electronic industry and textiles. Cereals, vegetables and industrial plants are grown in Turkey. When it comes to the state organization of Turkey, it is a parliamentary republic, in which power is divided into:

  • legislative,
  • executive,
  • judicial

The Constitution is the supreme law of the state. The president of Turkey is Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The President is the head of state and is elected by at least a two-thirds majority of the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Executive power is in the hands of the President and the Council of Ministers, which is chaired by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President by selection from among the members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.

Turkey is a country whose path to the European Union is specific and unique in many respects. The question of membership in the European Union is undoubtedly one of the most important foreign policy problems of Turkey. This situation should not be taken for granted, because it is, after all, extremely unusual. Dozens of countries of the last century joined many international organizations without this issue becoming a focus of their identity. In fact, it could be said that the issue of Turkey's EU membership is proportionally the most important issue.

Turkey's accession to the European Community is actually its identification with Western Europe, in:

  • economic,
  • military,
  • from a political point of view (Carkoglu, Rubin 2003: 6)

Turkey was one of the founders of the Council of Europe in 1949. But formal negotiations for Turkey's accession to the European Union followed in 1959. This was followed by negotiations with the European Commission, a year later, in 1960, in October.

Turkey faced numerous crises in both the economic and political spheres, and this led to the postponement and interruption of negotiations on several occasions, so that this agreement was formally signed only on September 12, 1963, and it entered into force in 1964.

In November 1970 - the Additional Protocol, signed and attached to the Association Agreement between the EEC and Turkey, determined in detail how the Customs Union between the two parties would be established. In 1982, the European Community decided to officially suspend the Ankara Agreement and therefore freeze its political relations with Turkey as a result of the September 1980 military coup. As early as 1987, Turkey was trying to get full membership in the EEC. The ministers of foreign affairs of the EC member states decide to submit a request for an opinion to the Commission in accordance with the routine procedure. Two years later, in 1989, the European Commission gave an opinion on Turkey's request for membership and emphasized that enlargement for Turkey and other potential candidates could be considered only after the entry into force of the single market in 1992 (Carkoglu, Rubin 2003: 7).

The European Council, in order to speed up the process of creating a customs union, in 1993 established a Committee for monitoring the process of creating a customs union. This Committee resulted positively and the customs union was created and the Agreement was established in 1996.

The European Commission and Turkey entered into a formal agreement on the customs union in 1995. This was the first customs union that functioned with a third country. The agreement was primarily related to encouraging the development of the economy in Turkey and establishing a customs union with the European Commission. What Turkey lacked then was an improvement in working standards and conditions, as well as a better economy. Turkey must also resolve the issue with Cyprus and Greece as both countries are members of the European Union.

What also hindered Turkey's entry into the European Union was its close relationship with the USA, as well as the fact that by entering the European Union it would be the second most populous member state in the EU, after Germany, and many member states did not want such a large number of Muslims to enter the European Union. Finally, in 1999, despite everything, Turkey officially received the status of a candidate for a member of the Union. And in 2001, the Pre-Accession Partnership was created. In 2005, the Council officially made a decision to start negotiations for membership.

The status of a candidate comprises the following phases:

The first phase is the "preparatory phase" and it lasts for a period of 5 to 10 years, which depends on the level of development of the Turkish economy. At this stage, the European Commission is providing financial and trade assistance to Turkey to help it strengthen its economy and customs union. Also, the European Investment Bank allocates part of the funds and the member states finance investment projects related to the economy of Turkey.

The next phase, the transitional period, which can last a maximum of 12 years, should harmonize the economic policy and abolish the customs barriers between Turkey and Europe. The goal of this phase is to harmonize the customs tariffs of the European Union with the customs tariffs of Turkey. What needs to be addressed in this second phase are financial problems and monetary policy, as well as stable prices and the balance of payments.

And finally, the final stage is the final establishment of the customs union, which leads to entry into the European Union.

 

2. CONCEPT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION COOPERATION

 

 

Nowadays, economic, military and material resources determine the status of a given state. Establishing and connecting the member countries of the Eurasian Economic Union increases the economic potential of each country individually and the Union as a community. There is interest in the Eurasian integration project from the governments of foreign countries and regional international associations. Evidence of this is the memoranda concluded by the Eurasian Economic Commission in recent years.

The first free trade zone agreement was concluded in 2015 with Vietnam and covers all areas of trade and economic cooperation [1]. Vietnam has great potential in light industry, fishing, agricultural sector. Heavy and high-tech industry is well developed in EurAzES countries. Vietnam became the first country in Asia with which the states of the alliance concluded a similar agreement, and high-quality Vietnamese goods can be widely represented on the Russian market and on the markets of Russian partners from EurAzES, which is another 40 million people.

One of the innovations contained in the EAEU-Vietnam agreement is precisely in a favorable position regarding the possibility of applying special protective, compensatory and anti-dumping measures. In carrying out anti-dumping and countervailing investigations by a country that has concluded an agreement with the EAEU, it is obliged to consider the countries of the Union individually and not to apply measures unnecessarily to the entire Union. In certain unfavorable situations, this will help to avoid a complete interruption of foreign trade goods exchange between the signatory country, on the one hand, and the member states of the Union, on the other hand.

In the progress and development of Serbian society, the thesis of the country's cooperation with the EAEU is actively promoted, bearing in mind the close contact that the union has with China.

At the summit in Astana in 2016, negotiations on the unification of the trade and economic regime began, the result of which was the signing of the Agreement on a free trade zone between Serbia and the EAEU in October 2019. After ratification by all parties, the free trade regime entered into force on July 10, 2021. Before the aforementioned agreement entered into force, Serbia had concluded bilateral agreements: Agreements on the free trade zone with the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Kazakhstan. A similar preferential regime between Serbia, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan had not been established before. This agreement provides Serbia with access to a market of 183 million people. In the agreement, the signatories take responsibility for liberalizing mutual trade; the EAEU member states take responsibility for provideing Serbian goods with equal access to their markets.

The Republic of Serbia has a strategic economic interest in developing direct cooperation, not only with individual countries of the Eurasian integration, but also with Community as regional integration. Undoubtedly, the Agreement with the countries of Eurasian integration can bring a number of benefits to the economy of the Republic of Serbia and its foreign trade relations. The Republic of Serbia has similar signed agreements with the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Kazakhstan. However, some experts point out that there is little chance that Serbia will use the potential of this free trade agreement: the Republic of Serbia has signed numerous agreements on preferential trade cooperation, but does not have the capacity to use them. On the other hand, there is an evident increase in the foreign trade activity of the Republic of Serbia and EAEU members, especially in the agricultural sector. The sector of agro-industrial products occupies a significant position in exports to the demanding EAEU market and is the only branch of the economy that achieves a surplus in foreign trade. The achieved increase in exports is a consequence of the improvement of cooperation with the Russian Federation as well as the use of the position of mutual sanctions of the Russian Federation and the EU.

Between the member states and the Union, the signing of the agreement results in the formation of a "friend-enemy" vector, which is characterized by the highest degree of relationship tension, which opposes "fraternal relations" which are considered the highest degree of friendship. When forming this type of relationship, it is impossible to ignore the role of historical memory and negative events from the past, which may have an impact on the politics of certain countries for a long time. The basis of "friend-enemy" is characterized by existing or temporarily interrupted contradictions between the actors of international relations. As an example of this vector, we can cite the relationship between Russia and the United States, which has developed since the Cold War period. All this time, the countries are constantly in rivalry mode. Even after the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the USSR, the USA has been openly declaring as its global foreign policy goal the creation of a "new world order" (Bogaturov 2010: 592).

Also, the vector "dependence-independence" is formed, which represents the supremacy of one subject of international relations over another. The EAEU Treaty since 2015 ensures the implementation of a coordinated, agreed or common policy of the member state. However, after the Treaty entered into force, the EAEU several times introduced a ban on the import of meat and dairy products into the territory of the Russian Federation from the Republic of Belarus. However, this ban is contrary to Article 58 of the EAEU Treaty, which contains the single veterinary and sanitary rules for all EAEU member states (Agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union 2014). At the meeting of the Eurasian Economic Commission on June 9, 2018, this issue was discussed and it was noted that the time limits introduced are not in accordance with the EAEU treaty. If the Russian Federation continues to introduce unilateral measures, which do not correspond to a single law for all member states of the Union, the development of economic integration will be seriously questioned. [2]

A third vector that can emerge is the "trust-distrust" vector. If contracts, agreements, conventions are not respected, a negative climate and mistrust will be created. It can be said that Serbia has a relationship of trust with Belarus, for the reason that there is no superiority of one entity over another. The countries are bound by equal bilateral economic and political relations that maximally satisfy the needs and interests of both countries and have no obvious pressure on the political course of the other country.

According to data from the website of the Republic Institute of Statistics of the Republic of Serbia in 2021, foreign trade in goods between the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Serbia amounted to 165.5 million dollars. Exports amounted to 50.9 million dollars, imports to 114.6 million dollars. Foreign trade in goods between the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Serbia is unstable: 2009 - 53.3 million dollars, 2010 - 116.4 million dollars, 2011 - 145.4 million dollars, 2012 - 149.2 million dollars, 2013 - 192.2 $ million, 2014 - $244.9 million, 2015 - $259.7 million, 2016 - $113.9 million, 2017 - $239.6 million, 2018 - $148.1 million, 2019 - $148.6 million. [3]

The more favorable the political and psychological climate is, the fewer problems there will be during EAEU activities in the interest of its member states and partner states. The most favorable climate can be added in the context of the third vector, in creating the greatest possible climate of trust.

The example of Serbia shows the problem of choosing between economic cooperation with the Eurasian Economic Union, on the one hand, and the European Union, on the other. According to the results of a public opinion survey conducted in 2015, 61% of the country's population thinks that Serbia belongs neither to the West nor to the East (Survey of Serbian Public Opinion 2015).

In the current environment of the Republic of Serbia, the influence of Euro-Atlantism is great on the social, political and economic elite. This is not only a consequence of the influence of the West and its modern ideas, but the result of strategic actions implemented on the ground: strategically oriented money invested in enterprises and companies, creation of association networks, influence on media, cultural and educational structures. Serbia has the status of a candidate for membership in the European Union, and in chapter 30 of the negotiation file on Serbia's accession to the European Union, for possible entry into the EU, Serbia must give up all existing agreements on the free trade zone (Duljević, Ramović 2019: 72).

On the other hand, the EAEU and partner countries represent a huge market for the Serbian economy, which can become both the main supplier and the main sales market. In some areas of trade and economic cooperation for goods from Serbia, the European Union market is still inaccessible due to existing non-tariff barriers, competitiveness and the price of goods. Based on this, the perspectives of opening new and additional markets for the Serbian economy in the territories of EAEU member states and partner states are visible.

Of all the Eurasian countries, Serbia has the most cooperation with Russia, and most of it relates to the energy sector and investment in the Serbian economy. Serbia depends on Russian gas and oil. Based on the international agreement signed in 2009 between Russia and Serbia, the Russian company Gazpromneft bought 51% of the shares of the Serbian Oil Industry. This sale of shares to a foreign partner was realized in accordance with the process of privatization of state-owned companies in Serbia. (Petrović, Jokić 2015: 240).

The data of the Republic Institute of Statistics of Serbia show that in the last six years, Russia has remained in the top five foreign trade partners of Serbia. The consequences of the coronavirus also affected regional and interregional supply chains, which is why the foreign trade exchange between Russia and Serbia in 2020 was reduced.

In accordance with the Law on Foreign Trade Operations of the Republic of Serbia, Foreign Trade is "trade in goods and services and the implementation of economic activities of a foreign legal entity in the Republic of Serbia and a national entity in another country or customs territory" (On foreign trade operations 2012). Serbia is interested in trade and economic cooperation with the countries of the EAEU in the field of goods such as cotton, cheese, tobacco, sugar, chicken, wine and Fiat cars. The signing of the agreement between Serbia and the EAEU on the creation of a free trade zone provides opportunities for the expansion of business contacts and the perspective of the single market of the Eurasian Economic Union for Serbian business representatives. It is obvious that the European Union is no longer the only supranational project that is beneficial for the Serbian economy.

The free trade agreement between the Republic of Serbia, on the one hand, and the Eurasian Economic Union and its member countries, on the other hand, which was signed on October 25, 2019, and whose implementation began on July 10, 2021, prescribes a preferential trade regime. between Serbia and the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union: the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Armenia.

The structure of the agreement consists of the following:

General provisions governing the objectives of the Agreement, relationship to other international agreements, free trade regimes, most favored nation treatment, taxes and duties, prohibitions, quantitative restrictions and measures of equivalent effect, national treatment, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, origin of goods , transit of goods, etc.;

A product originates from a member state of the Eurasian Economic Union if it is entirely obtained in that state, or is sufficiently worked or processed in that state.

 

For the purposes of approving the preferential tariff regime, there are rules on the origin of goods, and the terms used in these rules are:

a.       "applicant" - a person who applied to the authorized body of the exporting country in order to obtain a certificate of origin of the goods, who confirms and bears responsibility for the reliability of the data on the goods specified in the certificate of origin of the goods. A manufacturer, exporter or sender, as well as their authorized representatives, can appear as an applicant;

b.      "authorized body" - body (organization) authorized by the state to issue (confirm) certificates of origin of goods;

c.       "certificate on the origin of the goods" - a document issued by an authorized body, which states the country of origin of the goods;

d.      "consignor" - the person specified in the transport (carriage) documents who, in accordance with the obligations he assumed, delivered or intends to deliver the goods to the carrier;

e.       "recipient" - the person specified in the transport (carriage) documents who, in accordance with the obligations assumed, has received or intends to receive the goods from the carrier;

f.       "customs value" - value determined in accordance with the provisions established in the Agreement on the Implementation of Article VII GATT 1994;

g.       "declaration on the origin of the goods" - a commercial or other document related to the goods and containing a statement on the country of origin of the goods given by the manufacturer, exporter or sender;

 

Goods shall be deemed to originate from the Eurasian Economic Union, if they are:

  • wholly obtained and produced in that country
  • produced on the territory of the Eurasian Economic Union with the use of non-originating materials, if the value of the non-originating materials used in that process does not exceed 50 percent of the value of the exported goods.
  • produced in one or more countries of the Eurasian Economic Union exclusively from materials originating from those countries

 

Article 15 of the Agreement stipulates that the Parties exchange the following information through the Eurasian Economic Commission:

1.      samples of the certificate of origin (Form ST-2) and supplementary sheets of the certificate of origin (Form ST-2) (indicating data on protection characteristics);

2.      samples of seals of authorized authorities (the samples must be original and clear, in order to enable unambiguous identification of their authenticity);

3.      information on the names and addresses of authorized bodies, i

4.      information on the names and addresses of the verification authorities.

 

In addition, the customs authorities of the Parties carry out a subsequent check of certificates of origin (Form ST-2) and declarations of origin of goods selected either by the method of random sampling or when there is a well-founded doubt of the customs authority of the importing Party regarding the authenticity of those documents or the accuracy of the data contained in them.

Within the jurisdiction of the Customs Administration is the Customs Origin Department - the Goods Origin Department, whose primary task is to control the origin of goods and preferences The Department for the Origin of Goods controls the implementation and application of the Agreement on Free Trade between the Republic of Serbia, on the one hand, and the Eurasian Economic Union and its member countries, on the other (Nešković 2022: 34).

 

The department for the origin of goods performs the following tasks:

  • monitors and analyzes legal regulations regarding the application of rules on the origin of goods and preferences (domestic and foreign);
  • participates in drafting regulations related to preferences, origin of goods and issuing and certifying certificates of origin of goods;
  • preparation of explanations and instructions for the purpose of uniform application of regulations;
  • performs tasks related to the verification of certificates of origin of goods;
  • processes requests for issuing binding notifications on the origin of goods;
  • controls customs offices and companies regarding the correct implementation of regulations on the origin of goods;
  • cooperates with international organizations (World Customs Organization, World Trade Organization, European Union, etc.);
  • cooperates with foreign customs organizations.

 

Control of exported goods The Department for the origin of goods carries out two groups of controls when it comes to exported goods:

1.      Previous controls, i.e. controls that are performed before issuing the certificate of origin of the goods. They include, among others, the following cases:

  • control in the process of processing the request for issuing a binding notification on the origin of the goods;
  • documentary control upon export customs clearance;
  • controls based on risk analysis;
  • controls initiated by the requests of international organizations or their bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other organizational units of the Customs Administration of Serbia;
  • controls initiated by information from other state bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other interested parties.

 

2.      Subsequent controls, i.e. controls that are carried out after issuing the certificate of origin of the goods. They include, among others, the following cases:

  • controls according to the random sample system;
  • controls based on risk analysis;
  • controls at the request of foreign customs administrations;
  • controls at the request of international organizations or their bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other organizational units of the Customs Administration of Serbia;
  • controls initiated by information from other state bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other interested parties.

During the implementation of control, in accordance with the need in a specific case, the following types of control are used:

  • Administrative check, i.e. control that determines whether the certificate of origin is formally correct (insurance against misuse and forgery);
  • Documentary control, i.e. control of documentation proving the origin of the goods and other conditions for issuing a certificate of origin of the goods (it also includes an administrative check);
  • Full control, i.e. control that includes documentary control and administrative control, as well as all types of checks of actual conditions related to the production process and the movement of goods.

 

Control of imported goods The Department for the origin of goods carries out two groups of controls when it comes to imported goods:

 

1.      Previous controls, i.e. controls that are carried out before placing the goods in free circulation. They include, among others, the following cases:

  • controls arising as a result of the determined state in the procedure of putting goods into free circulation;
  • controls based on risk analysis;
  • controls initiated by the requests of international organizations or their bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other organizational units of the Customs Administration of Serbia;
  • controls initiated by information from other state bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other interested parties.

 

2.      Subsequent controls, i.e. controls that are carried out after the goods are put into free circulation. They include, among others, the following cases:

  • controls according to the random sample system;
  • controls based on risk analysis;
  • controls at the request of the customs offices that put the goods into free circulation;
  • controls at the request of international organizations or their bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other organizational units of the Customs Administration of Serbia;
  • controls initiated by information from other state bodies;
  • controls initiated by information from other interested parties.

 

When conducting control, in accordance with the need in a specific case, two types of control are used:

  • Administrative check, i.e. control that determines whether the certificate of origin is formally correct (insurance against misuse and forgery);
  • Full control, which includes an administrative check, as well as checking whether all the conditions for acquiring the origin have been met.

 

 

3.      THE ROLE OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY IN THE RELATIONS OF ARMENIA AND AZERBAIJAN

 

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mostly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia and a small part on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe.

Armenia is a continental mountainous country in the Transcaucasia region. It is located at the crossroads of the roads from Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe between Turkey in the west, Georgia in the north, Iran in the south, and Azerbaijan and the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh in the east (Nešković 2019: 23).

Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Transcaucasia region. It is located at the crossroads between Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe and as such is considered a Eurasian country. It borders Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. In the east, Azerbaijan borders the shores of the Caspian Lake. Azerbaijan also has the Nakhichevan exclave, which borders Armenia in the north and east, Iran in the south and west, and a short border with Turkey in the northwest.

Armenia's dispute with Turkey is historical and relates to the non-recognition of genocide by Tustka in the First World War. The violence against the Armenians began during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the predecessor of modern Turkey, which also included the area of ​​present-day Armenia, a landlocked country surrounded today by Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Iran.

Another important dispute between Turkey and Armenia is over Nagorno-Karabakh, an area in Azerbaijan with a majority Armenian Christian population, it is recognized as part of Azerbaijan but controlled by ethnic Armenians. Tens of thousands of people lost their lives, millions left their homes, which officially ended in 1994, but the conflict was never completely stopped.

Although Turkey recognized Armenia as an independent state in 1991, Turkey, as a close ally of Azerbaijan, closed its borders with Armenia. 1993 in solidarity with Baku, which was in conflict with Armenia over the occupied territory of Nagorno-Karabakh. In the conflict related to the Nagorno-Karabakh region. In 2020, Turkey supported and helped Azerbaijan.

At the end of 2021, Armenia and Azerbaijan reached an agreement on a ceasefire, with the mediation of Russia, which ended the conflicts that broke out along the borders of the two countries. The war ended with the peace agreement of November 2020, in which Russia mediated, but the situation is still tense. About 2000 Russian peacekeepers were ordered to patrol the area in and around Nagorno-Karabakh.

In Moscow, Turkey and Armenia started talks on the development of a plan for reconciliation and creating a climate suitable for establishing diplomatic, social and economic ties, as well as opening the borders between the two countries.

Turkey and Armenia have had no diplomatic or trade relations for three decades, and these talks represent the first attempt to establish ties since a peace agreement reached in 2009, which was never ratified. Ankara and Yerevan reached an agreement in 2009 with the mediation of Switzerland to establish formal relations and open a common border, but it was never ratified due to opposition from Azerbaijan. Tensions especially flared up during the Nagorno-Karabakh war in 2020. Turkey then accused ethnic Armenian forces of occupying land belonging to Azerbaijan and supported Azerbaijan by supplying Turkish-made drones, which played an important role in Azerbaijan's victory.

In an attempt to support the normalization of relations, Turkey and Armenia have launched mutual confidence-building measures, including the resumption of flights between the two countries in early February and the lifting of the embargo on Turkish goods by Armenia. It is believed that the new talks will open the possibility for the two countries to set the stage for open border trade. Armenia is ready to establish diplomatic relations and open the border with Turkey, according to the words of Armenian Foreign Minister Ararat Mirzoyan. The meeting between Çavuşoğlu and Mirzoyan is the first meeting between the foreign ministers of the two countries since 2009.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

 

The global economic and financial crisis influenced the stronger regional integration of countries. The contemporary framework of the traditional friendship between Serbia and Russia, which is part of the single market of the Eurasian Economic Union with Kazakhstan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia, is made up of economic relations. Their uniqueness is contained in the Agreement on duty-free trade with Russia, where goods of Serbian origin are subject to a payment regime of 1% customs rate when entering the Russian market, then in cooperation in the field of energy, especially since 2008, when the Russian oil company Gazprom Neft bought 51% of the shares of the Oil Industry of Serbia (NIS), as well as in the Free Trade Agreement with the Eurasian Economic Union, which ensures duty-free imports to the market of the countries of this organization (unlimited quantities and quota system). With this, products from Serbia gained a starting advantage.

At the same time, through the economy, the influence of Eurasian countries on Serbia's foreign policy and its place in Europe increased. Serbia signed the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU, which allows it to have duty-free access to certain or all markets within the EU (industrial goods, agricultural products), financial and technical assistance, while the signatory state is obliged to implement political, economic, trade and reforms in areas of human rights. Serbia took advantage of the opportunities to institutionalize cooperation with regional economic alliances of the Eurasian space (exchange of goods), but also with security (exchange of military-technical and military-economic cooperation with the CSTO, especially through professional development and personnel training, as it does through the NATO program -a "Partnership for Peace"). Conflicts in Armenia should be resolved peacefully, through negotiations, with mutual respect, and this is the only way we can solve problems.

 

Notes

[1] Consult the text of the EAEU-Vietnam Agreement on the site of the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC): https://eec.eaeunion.org/upload/medialibrary/272/EAEU_VN_FTA.pdf.

[2] EEC calls for lifting restrictions from Belarusian milk export to Russia, https://eng.belta.by/economics/view/eec-calls-for-lifting-restrictions-from-belarusian-milk-export-to-russia-116506-2018/.

[3] For an overview of imports and exports between the Republic of Serbia and Belarus for 2021, see https://data.stat.gov.rs/.

 

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